186 Works

The unique spatial ecology of human hunters

Atle Mysterud, Inger Maren Rivrud, Hildegunn Viljugrein, Vegard Gundersen & Christer Rolandsen
Human hunters are described as ‘superpredators’ with a unique ecology. Chronic Wasting Disease among cervids and African swine fever among wild boar are emerging wildlife diseases in Europe with huge economic and cultural repercussions. Understanding hunter movements at broad scales has implications for how to control their spread. Here we show, based on the analysis of the settlement patterns and movements of reindeer (n = 9,685), red deer (n = 47,845), moose (n = 60,365),...

Stable species boundaries despite ten million years of hybridization in tropical eels

Julia Barth, Chrysoula Gubili, Michael Matschiner, Ole Tørresen, Shun Watanabe, Bernd Egger, Yu-San Han, Eric Feunteun, Ruben Sommaruga, Robert Jehle & Robert Schabetsberger
Genomic evidence is increasingly underpinning that hybridization between taxa is commonplace, challenging our views on the mechanisms that maintain their boundaries. Here, we focus on seven catadromous eel species (genus Anguilla), and use genome-wide sequence data from more than 450 individuals sampled across the tropical Indo-Pacific, morphological information, and three newly assembled draft genomes to compare contemporary patterns of hybridization with signatures of past gene flow across a time-calibrated phylogeny. We show that the seven...

Global data for soil water, groundwater and riverine freshwater dissolved organic radiocarbon

J.L. Adams, E. Tipping, P. Keenan, R.C. Helliwell, N. Pedentchouk, S. Buckingham, E. Gjessing, P. Ascough, C.L. Bryant & M.H. Garnett
This dataset includes dissolved organic radiocarbon content and dissolved organic carbon concentration data for river waters around the globe. The riverine dataset contains already published (n=1163) and new (n=101) data between the years 1962 – 2015. Soil solution data (n=139) from North American and European natural and semi-natural ecosystems are also included, which cover the period 1988 – 2008. Groundwater data containing 49 data points from boreholes in Europe and North America are also provided....

Interrelated ecological impacts of climate change on an apex predator

Kristin L. Laidre, Stephen Atkinson, Eric V. Regehr, Harry L. Stern, Erik W. Born, Øystein Wiig, Nicholas J. Lunn & Markus Dyck
Climate change has broad ecological implications for species that rely on sensitive habitats. For some top predators, loss of habitat is expected to lead to cascading behavioral, nutritional, and reproductive changes that ultimately accelerate population declines. In the case of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), declining Arctic sea ice reduces access to prey and lengthens seasonal fasting periods. We used a novel combination of physical-capture, biopsy darting, and visual aerial observation data to project reproductive...

Multiple genetic trajectories to extreme abiotic stress adaptation in Arctic Brassicaceae

Siri Birkeland, A. Lovisa S. Gustafsson, Anne Krag Brysting, Christian Brochmann & Michael Nowak
Extreme environments offer powerful opportunities to study how different organisms have adapted to similar selection pressures at the molecular level. The Arctic is one of the most hostile environments on Earth, and the few plant species inhabiting this region typically possess suites of similar morphological and physiological adaptations to extremes in light and temperature. Here we compare patterns of molecular evolution in three Brassicaceae species that have independently colonized the Arctic, and present some of...

A genome-skimmed phylogeny of a widespread bryozoan family, Adeonidae

Russell Orr, Russell John Scott Orr, Marianne N. Haugen, Björn Berning, Philip Bock, Robyn Cumming, Wayne Florence, Masato Hirose, Emanuela Di Martino, Mali H. Ramsfjell, Maja M. Sannum, Abigail M. Smith, Leandro M. Vieira, Andrea Waeschenbach & Lee Hsiang Liow
Background Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among species is one of the main goals of systematic biology. Simultaneously, credible phylogenetic hypotheses are often the first requirement for unveiling the evolutionary history of traits and for modelling macroevolutionary processes. However, many non-model taxa have not yet been sequenced to an extent such that statistically well-supported molecular phylogenies can be constructed for these purposes. Here, we use a genome-skimming approach to extract sequence information for 15 mitochondrial and...

A genome-wide linkage map for the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) provides insights into the evolutionary history of the avian genome

Ingerid Hagen, Sigbjørn Lien, Anna Billing, Tore O. Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Alina K. Niskanen, Maja Tarka, Jon Slate, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Henrik Jensen
The house sparrow is an important model species for studying physiological, ecological and evolutionary processes in wild populations. Here, we present a medium density, genome wide linkage map for house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has aided the assembly of the house sparrow reference genome, and that will provide an important resource for ongoing mapping of genes controlling important traits in the ecology and evolution of this species. Using a custom house sparrow 10K iSelect Illumina...

Does the response of D. melanogaster males to intrasexual competitors influence sexual isolation?

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Annui M. Sanz, Nathan W. Bailey & Michael G. Ritchie
The evolutionary consequences of phenotypic plasticity are debated. For example, reproductive barriers between incipient species can depend on the social environment, but most evidence for this comes from studies focussing on the effects of experiencing heterospecific individuals of the opposite sex. In Drosophila melanogaster, males are well known to invest strategically in ejaculate components and show different courtship behaviour when reared in the presence of male competitors. It is unknown whether such plasticity in response...

Revisiting a landmark study-system: no evidence for a punctuated mode of evolution in Metrarabdotos

Kjetil Voje, Emanuela Di Martino & Arthur Porto
Is speciation generally a ‘special time’ in morphological evolution or are lineage splitting events just ‘more of the same’ where the end product happens to be two separate lineages? Data on evolutionary dynamics during anagenetic and cladogenetic events among closely related lineages within a clade are rare, but the fossil record of the bryozoan genus Metrarabdotos is considered a textbook example of a clade where speciation causes rapid evolutionary change against a backdrop of morphological...

Data from: Games academics play and their consequences: how authorship, h-index, and journal impact factors are shaping the future of academia

Jan Gogarten, Colin Chapman, Julio Bicca-Marques, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Pengfei Fan, Peter Fashing, Songtao Guo, Claire Hemingway, Fabian Leendertz, Baoguo Li, Ikki Matsuda, Rong Hou, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Research is a highly competitive profession where evaluation plays a central role; journals are ranked and individuals are evaluated based on their publication number, the number of times they are cited, and their h-index. Yet, such evaluations are often done in inappropriate ways that are damaging to individual careers, particularly for young scholars, and to the profession. Furthermore, as with all indices, people can play games to better their scores. This has resulted in the...

Data from: Assessing restoration success by predicting time to recovery – but by which metric?

Knut Rydgren, Inger Auestad, Rune Halvorsen, Liv Hamre, Eelke Jongejans, Joachim Töpper & Jan Sulavik
1. Restoration of degraded ecosystems may take decades or even centuries. Accordingly, information about the current direction and speed of recovery provided by methods for predicting time to recovery may give important feedback to restoration schemes. While predictions of time to recovery have so far been based mostly upon change in species richness and other univariate predictors, the novel ordination-regression based approach (ORBA) affords a multivariate approach based upon species compositional change. 2. We used...

Data from: Measuring the magnitude of morphological integration: the effect of differences in morphometric representations and the inclusion of size

Fabio A Machado, Alex Hubbe, Diogo Melo, Arthur Porto & Gabriel Marroig
The magnitude of morphological integration is a major aspect of multivariate evolution, providing a simple measure of the intensity of association between morphological traits. Studies concerned with morphological integration usually translate phenotypes into morphometric representations to quantify how different morphological elements covary. Geometric and classic morphometric representations translate biological form in different ways, raising the question if magnitudes of morphological integration estimates obtained from different morphometric representations are compatible. Here we sought to answer this...

Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism

Brock Bastian, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Steve Loughnan, Paul Bain, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Maja Becker, Michal Bilewicz, Emma Collier-Baker, Carla Crespo, Paul W. Eastwick, Ronald Fischer, Malte Friese, Ángel Gómez, Valeschka M. Guerra, Jose Luis Castellanos Guevara, Katja Hanke, Nic Hooper, Li-Li Huang, Shi Junqi, Minoru Karasawa, Peter Kuppens, Siri Leknes, Müjde Peker, Cesar Pelay, Afoditi Pina … & William B. Swann
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...

Data from: Extra-pair mating in a passerine bird with highly duplicated MHC class II: Preference for the golden mean

Silje Rekdal, Jarl Andreas Anmarkrud, Jan Lifjeld & Arild Johnsen
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are essential in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and they are highly diverse and duplicated in many lineages. While it is widely established that pathogen-mediated selection maintains MHC diversity through balancing selection, the role of mate choice in shaping MHC diversity is debated. Here, we investigate female mating preferences for MHC class II (MHCII) in the bluethroat (Luscinia svecica), a passerine bird with high levels of extra-pair paternity and extremely...

Data from: Genotype reconstruction of paternity in European lobsters (Homarus gammarus)

Charlie D. Ellis, David J. Hodgson, Carl André, Tonje K. Sørdalen, Halvor Knutsen & Amber G. F. Griffiths
Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in...

Data from: Interspecific interactions through 2 million years: are competitive outcomes predictable?

Lee Hsiang Liow, Emanuela Di Martino, Kjetil Lysne Voje, Seabourne Rust & Paul D. Taylor
Ecological interactions affect the survival and reproduction of individuals. However, ecological interactions are notoriously difficult to measure in extinct populations, hindering our understanding of how the outcomes of interactions such as competition vary in time and influence long-term evolutionary changes. Here, the outcomes of spatial competition in a temporally continuous community over evolutionary timescales are presented for the first time. Our research domain is encrusting cheilostome bryozoans from the Wanganui Basin of New Zealand over...

Data from: Short-term genetic changes: evaluating effective population size estimates in a comprehensively described brown trout (Salmo trutta) population

Dimitar Serbezov, Per Erik Jorde, Louis Bernatchez, Esben Moland Olsen & L. Asbjørn Vøllestad
The effective population size (Ne) is notoriously difficult to accurately estimate in wild populations as it is influenced by a number of parameters that are difficult to delineate in natural systems. The different methods that are used to estimate Ne are impacted variously by different processes at the population level, such as the life-history characteristics of the organism, gene flow, population substructure, as well as by the frequency patterns of genetic markers used and the...

Data from: The million-year wait for macroevolutionary bursts

Josef C Uyeda, Thomas F Hansen, Stevan J Arnold, Jason Pienaar, S. J. Arnold, J. Pienaar & T. F. Hansen
We lack a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary pattern and process because short-term and long-term data have rarely been combined into a single analytical framework. Here we test alternative models of phenotypic evolution using a dataset of unprecedented size and temporal span (nearly 8,000 data points). The data are body-size measurements taken from historical studies, the fossil record, and among-species comparative data representing mammals, squamates, and birds. By analyzing this unusually large dataset, we identify stochastic...

Data from: Regulatory RNA at the root of animals: dynamic expression of developmental lincRNAs in the calcisponge Sycon ciliatum

Jon Bråte, Marcin Adamski, Ralf Neumann, Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi, Maja Adamska & Ralf S. Neumann
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important regulatory roles during animal development, and it has been hypothesized that an RNA-based gene regulation has been important for the evolution of developmental complexity in animals. However, most studies of lncRNA gene regulation have been performed using model animal species, and very little is known about this type of gene regulation in non-bilaterians. We have therefore analyzed RNA-Seq data derived from a comprehensive set of embryogenesis stages in the...

Data from: Temperature-associated habitat selection in a cold-water marine fish

Carla Freitas, Esben Moland Olsen, Halvor Knutsen, Jon Albretsen, Even Moland & Esben M. Olsen
Habitat selection is a complex process, which involves behavioural decisions guided by the multiple needs and constraints faced by individuals. Climate-induced changes in environmental conditions may alter those trade-offs and resulting habitat use patterns. In this study we investigated the effect of sea temperature on habitat selection and habitat use of acoustically tagged Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) at the Norwegian Skagerrak coast. Significant relationships between ocean temperature and habitat selection and use were found. Under...

Data from: How many routes lead to migration? Comparison of methods to assess and characterise migratory movements

Francesca Cagnacci, Stefano Focardi, Anne Ghisla, Bram Van Moorter, Eliezer Gurarie, Marco Heurich, Atle Mysterud, John Linnell, Manuela Panzacchi, Evelyn Merrill, Roel May, Torgeir Nygård, Christer Rolandsen, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn H. Merrill
1. Decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. 2. The main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterising migration at the individual and population level on the basis of animal location...

Data from: Comparative analyses of plastid and AFLP data suggest different colonization history and asymmetric hybridisation between Betula pubescens and B. nana

Pernille Bronken Eidesen, Inger Greve Alsos & Christian Brochmann
Birches (Betula spp.) hybridize readily, confounding genetic signatures of refugial isolation and postglacial migration. We aimed to distinguish hybridization from range-shift processes in the two widespread and cold-adapted species B. nana and B. pubescens, previously shown to share a similarly east–west-structured variation in plastid DNA (pDNA). We sampled the two species throughout their ranges and included reference samples of five other Betula species and putative hybrids. We analysed 901 individual plants using mainly nuclear high-resolution...

Data from: Gut microbiota dynamics during dietary shift in Eastern African cichlid fishes

Laura Baldo, Joan Lluís Riera, Ave Tooming-Klunderud, M. Mar Albà & Walter Salzburger
The gut microbiota structure reflects both a host phylogenetic history and a signature of adaptation to the host ecological, mainly trophic niches. African cichlid fishes, with their array of closely related species that underwent a rapid dietary niche radiation, offer a particularly interesting system to explore the relative contribution of these two factors in nature. Here we surveyed the host intra- and interspecific natural variation of the gut microbiota of five cichlid species from the...

Data from: Behavioural responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes

Carla Freitas, Esben Moland Olsen, Even Moland, Lorenzo Ciannelli & Halvor Knutsen
Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30–80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a...

Data from: Seasonal diversity and dynamics of haptophytes in the Skagerrak, Norway, explored by high-throughput sequencing

Elianne Sirnæs Egge, Torill Vik Johannessen, Tom Andersen, Wenche Eikrem, Lucie Bittner, Aud Larsen, Ruth-Anne Sandaa, Bente Edvardsen & Elianne Sirnaes Egge
Microalgae in the division Haptophyta play key roles in the marine ecosystem and in global biogeochemical processes. Despite their ecological importance, knowledge on seasonal dynamics, community composition and abundance at the species level is limited due to their small cell size and few morphological features visible under the light microscope. Here, we present unique data on haptophyte seasonal diversity and dynamics from two annual cycles, with the taxonomic resolution and sampling depth obtained with high-throughput...

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