156 Works

Interaction of SO2 with the Platinum (001), (011) and (111) Surfaces: A DFT Study - data

Marietjie J Ungerer, David Santos-Carballal, Abdelaziz Cadi-Essadek, Cornelia G C E Van Sittert & Nora H De Leeuw
>Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were uasd with long-range dispersion corrections to study the interaction of SO2 with Pt (001), (011), and (111) surfaces. Platinum is a noble metal that is widely used for the electro-catalytic production of H2, which surface reactivity towards SO2 is not yet fully understood. The work involved studying the surface energies of the mayor Pt surfaces with 4 layers, adsorption energy for SO2 on these surfaces, the thermodynamic effect of...

Data from: Diversity change during the rise of tetrapods and the impact of the ‘Carboniferous rainforest collapse’

Emma M. Dunne, Roger A. Close, David J. Button, Neil Brocklehurst, Daniel D. Cashmore, Graeme T. Lloyd & Richard J. Butler
The Carboniferous and early Permian were critical intervals in the diversification of early four-limbed vertebrates (tetrapods), yet the major patterns of diversity and biogeography during this time remain unresolved. Previous estimates suggest that global tetrapod diversity rose continuously across this interval and that habitat fragmentation following the ‘Carboniferous rainforest collapse’ (CRC) drove increased endemism among communities. However, previous work failed to adequately account for spatial and temporal biases in sampling. Here, we reassess early tetrapod...

Data from: The mosasaur fossil record through the lens of fossil completeness

Daniel A. Driscoll, Alexander M. Dunhill, Thomas L. Stubbs & Michael J. Benton
The quality of the fossil record affects our understanding of macroevolutionary patterns. Palaeodiversity is filtered through geological and human processes; efforts to correct for these biases are part of a debate concerning the role of sampling proxies and standardization in biodiversity models. We analyse the fossil record of mosasaurs in terms of fossil completeness as a measure of fossil quality, using three novel, correlating metrics of fossil completeness and 4083 specimens. A new qualitative measure...

Data from: Debugging diversity – a pan‐continental exploration of the potential of terrestrial blood‐feeding leeches as a vertebrate monitoring tool

Ida Bærholm Schnell, Kristine Bohmann, Sebastian E. Schultze, Stine R. Richter, Dáithí C. Murray, Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding, David Bass, John E. Cadle, Mason J. Campbell, Rainer Dulch, David P. Edwards, Thomas N. E. Gray, Teis Hansen, Anh N. Q. Hoa, Christina L. Noer, Sigrid Heise-Pavlov, Adam F. S. Pedersen, Juliot C. Ramamonjisoa, Mark E. Siddall, Andrew Tilker, Carl Traeholt, Nicholas Wilkinson, Paul Woodcock, Douglas W. Yu, Mads F. Bertelsen … & Mads Frost Bertelsen
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) has become an applicable non-invasive tool with which to obtain information about biodiversity. A sub-discipline of eDNA is iDNA (invertebrate-derived DNA), where genetic material ingested by invertebrates is used to characterise the biodiversity of the species that served as hosts. While promising, these techniques are still in their infancy, as they have only been explored on limited numbers of samples from only a single or a few different locations....

Data from: Journeys through discrete-character morphospace: synthesising phylogeny, tempo, and disparity

Graeme T. Lloyd
Palaeontologists have long employed discrete categorical data to capture morphological variation in fossil species, using the resulting character-taxon matrices to measure evolutionary tempo, infer phylogenies, and capture morphological disparity. However, to date these have been seen as separate approaches despite a common goal of understanding morphological evolution over deep time. Here I argue that there are clear advantages to considering these three lines of enquiry in a single space: the phylomorphospace. Conceptually these high-dimensional spaces...

Data from: Flexible memory controls sperm competition responses to male Drosophila melanogaster

James Rouse, Katherine Watkinson, Amanda Bretman, A. Bretman, J. Rouse & K. Watkinson
Males of many species use social cues to predict sperm competition and tailor their reproductive strategies, such as ejaculate or behavioural investment, accordingly. Whilst these plastic strategies are widespread, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Plastic behaviour requires individuals to learn and memorise cues associated with environmental change before using this experience to modify behaviour. Drosophila melanogaster respond to an increase in sperm competition threat by extending mating duration after exposure to a rival male....

Data from: Selective logging intensity in an East African rain forest predicts reductions in ant diversity

Samuel R. P-J. Ross, Francisco Hita Garcia, Georg Fischer, Marcell K. Peters, Francisco Hita Garcia & Samuel R. P.-J. Ross
As natural forest ecosystems increasingly face pressure from deforestation, it is ever more important to understand the impacts of habitat fragmentation and degradation on biodiversity. Most studies of anthropogenic change in the tropics come from Southeast Asia and South America, and impacts of habitat modification are often taxon-specific. Here we empirically assessed the impact of habitat fragmentation and recent (within 25 years) and historic (>25 years ago) selective logging on the diversity of ants in...

Pollinator survey, floral resource survey and recorder feedback data from the National Pollinator and Pollination Monitoring Framework pilot study from 14 sites across the UK

R.S. O'Connor, C.M. Jones, C. Carvell, J.M. Peyton, A.J. Vanbergen, C. Andrews & W.E. Kunin
This dataset contains data on pollinating insects, floral resources, and environmental conditions from a pollinator monitoring pilot conducted from 2015. Data were collected from a total of 14 sites across the UK, over four sampling rounds from April to August 2015. Half of the sites visited were dominated by agricultural habitats (e.g. crop fields and pasture) and half were dominated by semi-natural habitats. These data were collected to compare methods for sampling pollinators; compare the...

Data from: Impact of the Late Triassic mass extinction on functional diversity and composition of marine ecosystems

Alexander M. Dunhill, William J. Foster, James Sciberras & Richard J. Twitchett
Mass extinctions have profoundly influenced the history of life, not only through the death of species but also through changes in ecosystem function and structure. Importantly, these events allow us the opportunity to study ecological dynamics under levels of environmental stress for which there are no recent analogues. Here, we examine the impact and selectivity of the Late Triassic mass extinction event on the functional diversity and functional composition of the global marine ecosystem, and...

Data from: Effects of age and reproductive status on individual foraging site fidelity in a long-lived marine predator

Stephen C. Votier, Annette L. Fayet, Stuart Bearhop, Thomas W. Bodey, Bethany L. Clark, James Grecian, Tim Guilford, Keith C. Hamer, Jana W.E. Jeglinski, Greg Morgan, Ewan Wakefield, Samantha C. Patrick & Jana W. E. Jeglinski
Individual foraging specializations, where individuals use a small component of the population niche width, are widespread in nature with important ecological and evolutionary implications. In long-lived animals, foraging ability develops with age, but we know little about the ontogeny of individuality in foraging. Here we use precision global positioning system (GPS) loggers to examine how individual foraging site fidelity (IFSF), a common component of foraging specialization, varies between breeders, failed breeders and immatures in a...

Data from: Mixing of porpoise ecotypes in southwestern UK waters revealed by genetic profiling

Michael C. Fontaine, Oliver Thatcher, Nicolas Ray, Sylvain Piry, Andrew Brownlow, Nicholas J. Davison, Paul Jepson, Rob Deaville & Simon J. Goodman
Contact zones between ecotypes are windows for understanding how species may react to climate changes. Here, we analysed the fine-scale genetic and morphological variation in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) around the UK by genotyping 591 stranded animals at nine microsatellite loci. The data were integrated with a prior study to map at high resolution the contact zone between two previously identified ecotypes meeting in the northern Bay of Biscay. Clustering and spatial analyses revealed that...

Data from: Modelling durophagous predation and mortality rates from the fossil record of gastropods

Graham E. Budd & Richard P. Mann
Gastropods often show signs of unsuccessful attacks by durophagous predators in the form of healed scars in their shells. As such, fossil gastropods can be taken as providing a record of predation through geological time. However, interpreting the number of such scars has proved to be problematic - would a low number of scars mean a low rate of attack, or a high rate of success, for example? Here we develop a model of population...

Data from: Variable preservation potential and richness in the fossil record of vertebrates

Fiona Walker, Alexander M. Dunhill & Michael Benton
Variation in preservation and sampling probability clouds our estimates of past biodiversity. The most extreme examples are Lagerstätten faunas and floras, or Biotas as they are referred to in China. Although such deposits provide a wealth of information for palaeontologists and are closer to representing true richness than other deposits of a similar scale, they add a disproportionate number of taxa to wider richness counts because of their exceptional preservation, creating diversity peaks that might...

Data from: The heritability of mating behaviour in a fly and its plasticity in response to the threat of sperm competition

Amanda J. Bretman, Anne Lizé, Craig A. Walling, Tom A. R. Price & Amanda Bretman
Phenotypic plasticity is a key mechanism by which animals can cope with rapidly changeable environments, but the evolutionary lability of such plasticity remains unclear. The socio-sexual environment can fluctuate very rapidly, affecting both the frequency of mating opportunities and the level of competition males may face. Males of many species show plastic behavioural responses to changes in social environment, in particular the presence of rival males. For example, Drosophila pseudoobscura males respond to rivals by...

Data from: Telomere length reveals cumulative individual and transgenerational inbreeding effects in a passerine bird

Kat Bebbington, Lewis G. Spurgin, Eleanor A. Fairfield, Hannah L. Dugdale, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke & David S. Richardson
Inbreeding results in more homozygous offspring that should suffer reduced fitness, but it can be difficult to quantify these costs for several reasons. First, inbreeding depression may vary with ecological or physiological stress and only be detectable over long time periods. Second, parental homozygosity may indirectly affect offspring fitness, thus confounding analyses that consider offspring homozygosity alone. Finally, measurement of inbreeding coefficients, survival and reproductive success may often be too crude to detect inbreeding costs...

Data from: Functional C-terminally encoded peptide (CEP) plant hormone domains evolved de novo in the plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis

Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Catherine J. Lilley, Hazijah B. Yusup, John T. Jones & Peter E. Urwin
Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) induce and maintain an intimate relationship with their host, stimulating cells adjacent to root vascular tissue to re-differentiate into unique and metabolically active ‘feeding sites’. The interaction between PPNs and their host is mediated by nematode effectors. We describe the discovery of a large and diverse family of effector genes, encoding C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone mimics (RrCEPs), in the syncytia-forming plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis. The particular attributes of RrCEPs...

Data from: Evolutionary diversity in tropical tree communities peaks at intermediate precipitation

Danilo M. Neves, Kyle G. Dexter, Timothy R. Baker, Fernanda Coelho De Souza, Ary T. Oliveira-Filho, Luciano P. Queiroz, Haroldo C. Lima, Marcelo F. Simon, Gwilym P. Lewis, Ricardo A. Segovia, Luzmila Arroyo, Carlos Reynel, José L. Marcelo-Peña, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Daniel Villarroel, G. Alexander Parada, Aniceto Daza, Reynaldo Linares-Palomino, Leandro V. Ferreira, Rafael P. Salomão, Geovane S. Siqueira, Marcelo T. Nascimento, Claudio N. Fraga & R. Toby Pennington
Global patterns of species and evolutionary diversity in plants are primarily determined by a temperature gradient, but precipitation gradients may be more important within the tropics, where plant species richness is positively associated with the amount of rainfall. The impact of precipitation on the distribution of evolutionary diversity, however, is largely unexplored. Here we detail how evolutionary diversity varies along precipitation gradients by bringing together a comprehensive database on the composition of angiosperm tree communities...

Data from: Social effects on age-related and sex-specific immune cell profiles in a wild mammal

Sil Van Lieshout, Elisa Perez Badás, Michael Mason, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, David Macdonald & Hannah Dugdale
Evidence for age-related changes in innate and adaptive immune responses is increasing in wild populations. Such changes have been linked to fitness, and knowledge of the factors driving immune response variation is important for understanding the evolution of immunity. Age-related changes in immune profiles may be due to factors such as immune system development, sex-specific behaviour and responses to environmental conditions. Social environments may also contribute to variation in immunological responses, for example, through transmission...

Data from: Limited biomass recovery from gold mining in Amazonian forests

Michelle Kalamandeen, Emanuel Gloor, Isaac Johnson, Shenelle Agard, Martin Katow, Ashmore Vanbrooke, David Ashley, Sarah A. Batterman, Guy Ziv, Kaslyn Collins-Holder, Oliver L. Phillips, Eduardo S. Brondizio, Ima Vieira & David Galbraith
Gold mining has rapidly increased across the Amazon Basin in recent years, especially in the Guiana shield, where it is responsible for >90% of total deforestation. However, the ability of forests to recover from gold mining activities remains largely unquantified. Forest inventory plots were installed on recently abandoned mines in two major mining regions in Guyana, and re-censused 18 months later, to provide the first ground-based quantification of gold mining impacts on Amazon forest biomass...

Altering the conductivity of CuO through the formation of intrinsic defects - data

Aleksandar Živković & Nora H De Leeuw
To explore the possibility of improving the photovoltaic properties of CuO, its intrinsic defect properties need to be studied. Datasets arising from density functional theory based calculations are provided in the .xlsx format (can be viewed either by MS Office or Libre Office) comprising 3 data sheets which correspond to the structural, defect formation energies, and electronic properties of CuO with native impurities introduced within. Each sheet has a text header with descriptive data and...

Data from: Comparative finite-element analysis: a single computational modeling method can reliably estimate the mechanical properties of porcine and human vertebrae

Kate A. Robson Brown, Sami Tarsuslugil, V. Nagitha Wijayathunga & Ruth K. Wilcox
Significant advances in the functional analysis of musculoskeletal systems require the development of modelling techniques with improved focus, accuracy and validity. This need is particularly visible in the fields, such as palaeontology, where unobservable parameters may lie at the heart of the most interesting research questions, and where models and simulations may provide some of the most innovative solutions. Here, we report on the development of a computational modelling method to generate estimates of the...

Data from: Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine mollusks over the past three million years

Erin E. Saupe, Jonathan R. Hendricks, Roger W. Portell, Harry J. Dowsett, Alan Haywood, Stephen J. Hunter, Bruce S. Lieberman, B. S. Lieberman, E. E. Saupe, A. Haywood, S. J. Hunter, H. J. Dowsett & R. W. Portell
In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal...

Data from: Do the same genes underlie parallel phenotypic divergence in different Littorina saxatilis populations?

Anja M. Westram, Juan Galindo, Magnus Alm Rosenblad, John W. Grahame, Marina Panova, Roger K. Butlin, J. W. Grahame, A. M. Westram, R. K. Butlin, M. Alm Rosenblad, M. Panova & J. Galindo
Parallel patterns of adaptive divergence and speciation are cited as powerful evidence for the role of selection driving these processes. However, it is often not clear whether parallel phenotypic divergence is underlain by parallel genetic changes. Here, we asked about the genetic basis of parallel divergence in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, which has repeatedly evolved coexisting ecotypes adapted to either crab predation or wave action. We sequenced the transcriptome of snails of both ecotypes...

Data from: The ontogeny of visual motor memory and its importance in handwriting and reading: a developing construct

Amanda H. Waterman, Jelena Havelka, Peter R. Culmer, Liam J. B. Hill, Mark Mon-Williams, P. R. Culmer, J. Havelka, L. J. B. Hill, M. Mon-Williams & A. H. Waterman
Humans have evolved a remarkable ability to remember visual shapes and use these representations to generate motor activity (from Palaeolithic cave drawings through Jiahu symbols to cursive handwriting). The term visual–motor memory (VMM) describes this psychological ability, which must have conveyed an evolutionary advantage and remains critically important to humans (e.g. when learning to write). Surprisingly, little empirical investigation of this unique human ability exists—almost certainly because of the technological difficulties involved in measuring VMM....

Data from: Predicting ground temperatures across European landscapes

Richard M. Gunton, Chiara Polce & William E. Kunin
1. Ambient temperatures in natural environments can vary widely over short distances, especially on rugged ground where exposure to solar radiation depends on slope and aspect. Temperatures can also fluctuate rapidly, reaching values not revealed by climate data. Such fine-scale variation raises challenges for modelling species distributions under changing climates. 2. To avoid misunderstanding current species distributions and future changes, temperatures must be modelled at high resolutions. Most existing methods either require extensive parameterisation or...

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