156 Works

The Role of Information Theory in Gap-Filler Dependencies

Gregory Kobele, Linyang He & Ming Xiang

Mamlūk Studies Review Volume 22 (full volume)

The Middle East Documentation Center at the University of Chicago

Thomas T. Allsen (1940–2019)

Bruce D. Craig

Pectoral fin kinematics and motor patterns are shaped by fin ray mechanosensation during steady swimming in Scarus quoyi

Brett R. Aiello, Aaron M. Olsen, Chris E. Mathis, Mark W. Westneat & Melina E. Hale
For many species of fish, rhythmic movement of the pectoral fins, or forelimbs, drives locomotion. In terrestrial vertebrates, normal limb- based rhythmic gaits require ongoing modulation with limb mechanosensors. Given the complexity of the fluid environment and dexterity of fish swimming through it, we hypothesize that mechanosensory modulation is also critical to normal fin-based swimming. Here, we examined the role of sensory feedback from the pectoral fin rays and membrane on the neuromuscular control and...

Life history predicts flight muscle phenotype and function in birds

Shane DuBay, Yongjie Wu, Graham Scott, Yanhua Qu, Qiao Liu, Joel Smith, Chao Xin, Andrew Hart Reeve, Chen Juncheng, Dylan Meyer, Jing Wang, Jacob Johnson, Zachary Cheviron, Fumin Lei & John Bates
1. Functional traits are the essential phenotypes that underlie an organism’s life history and ecology. Although biologists have long recognized that intraspecific variation is consequential to an animals’ ecology, studies of functional variation are often restricted to species-level comparisons, ignoring critical variation within species. In birds, interspecific comparisons have been foundational in connecting flight muscle phenotypes to species-level ecology, but intraspecific variation has remained largely unexplored. 2. We asked how age- and sex-dependent demands on...

Induction of Minimalist Grammars over Morphemes

Marina Ermolaeva

Preface: SCiL 2020 Editor's Note

Allyson Ettinger, Gaja Jarosz & Max Nelson

Ecological limits as the driver of bird species richness patterns along the east Himalayan elevational gradient

Trevor Price, Matthew Schumm, Alex White & K Supriya
Variation in species richness across environmental gradients results from a combination of historical non-equilibrium processes (time, speciation, extinction) and present-day differences in environmental carrying capacities (i.e., ecological limits, affected by species interactions and the abundance and diversity of resources). In a study of bird richness along the sub-tropical east Himalayan elevational gradient, we test the prediction that species richness patterns are consistent with ecological limits using data on morphology, phylogeny, elevational distribution, and arthropod resources....

Data from: SK2 channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells contribute to excitability modulation in motor learning-specific memory traces

Giorgio Grasselli, Henk-Jan Boele, Heather K. Titley, Nora Bradford, Lisa Van Beers, Lindsey Jay, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Martijn Schonewille, Christian Hansel, Gerco Beekhof & Silas Busch
Neurons store information by changing synaptic input weights. In addition, they can adjust their membrane excitability to alter spike output. Here, we demonstrate a role of such ‘intrinsic plasticity’ in behavioral learning in a mouse model that allows us to detect consequences of absent excitability modulation, without alterations in synaptic plasticity. SK2-type, calcium-dependent K+ conductances are involved in excitability control as they contribute to the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following spike bursts. SK2 channels are downregulated in...

Data from: Fin ray patterns at the fin to limb transition

Thomas Stewart, Justin Lemberhg, Natalia Taft, Ihna Yoo, Edward Daeschler & Neil Shubin
The fin-to-limb transition was marked by the origin of digits and the loss of dermal fin rays. Paleontological research into this transformation has focused on the evolution of the endoskeleton with little attention paid to fin ray structure and function. To address this knowledge gap, we study the dermal rays of the pectoral fins of three key tetrapodomorph taxa—Sauripterus taylori (Rhizodontida), Eusthenopteron foordi (Tristichopteridae), and Tiktaalik roseae (Elpistostegalia)—using computed tomography. These data show several trends...

Rapid and predictable evolution of admixed populations between two Drosophila species pairs

Daniel Matute, Aaron Comeault, Eric Earley, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, David Peede, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Wen Huang, Corbin Jones, Trudy Mackay & Jerry Coyne
The consequences of hybridization are varied, ranging from the origin of new lineages, introgression of some genes between species, to the extinction of one of the hybridizing species. We generated replicate admixed populations between two pairs of sister species of Drosophila: D. simulans and D. mauritiana; and D. yakuba and D. santomea. Each pair consisted of a continental species and an island endemic. The admixed populations were maintained by random mating in discrete generations for...

Hinge and ecomorphology of Legumen Conrad, 1858 (Bivalvia, Veneridae), and the contraction of venerid morphospace following the end-Cretaceous extinction

Katie S. Collins, Stewart M. Edie & David Jablonski
The Veneridae are the most speciose modern family of bivalves, and one of the most morphologically conservative and homoplastic, making subfamilial and sometimes even genus-level classification difficult. The widespread Cretaceous genus Legumen Conrad, 1858 is currently placed in the subfamily Tapetinae of the Veneridae although it more closely resembles the Solenoida (razor clams, Pharidae and Solenidae) in general shell form. Here we provide high-resolution images of the Legumen hinge for the first time. We confirm...

Clinical and Molecular Analysis in Two Families with Novel Compound Heterozygous SBP2 (SECISBP2) Mutations

Alexandra Dumitrescu
Context: Selenocysteine insertion sequence binding protein 2 (SECISBP2, SBP2) is an essential factor for selenoprotein synthesis. Individuals with SBP2 defects have characteristic thyroid function tests (TFT) abnormalities due to deficiencies in the selenoenzymes deiodinases. Eight families with recessive SBP2 gene mutations have been reported to date. We report two families with inherited defect in thyroid hormone metabolism caused by four novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SBP2 gene. Case Descriptions: Proband 1 and 2 presented...

Code and data from: Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict

Maria R Servedio, John M Powers, Russell Lande & Trevor D Price
This C code conducts deterministic iterations of the exact recursion equations presented in the Model section of "Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict" by Servedio, Powers, Lande and Price. The code produces a two-dimensional grid with any parameters of choice on the x and y axis. Examples can be found in Figures 2c, 3c and 4 of the main text as well as many similar figures in the Supplementary Material. A sample parameter file...

Digest: Does sexual conflict complicate a trade‐off between fecundity and survival?

Zachary Miller
Why do some species exhibit apparently suboptimal combinations of life history traits? In a comparative study of lizard species, Reedy et al. (2019) test the idea that variation in the trade‐off between fecundity and survival can be explained by sexual conflict. Their results show that degree of sexual conflict alone cannot explain this variation, and they found a positive correlation between trade‐off optimality and the size of males relative to females. These findings suggest a...

Comparative skeletal anatomy of neonatal ursids and the extreme altriciality of the giant panda

Peishu Li & Kathleen Smith
Vertebrate neonates are born with a wide range of maturity at birth. Altricial newborns are born with limited sensory agency and require significant parental care, while precocial neonates are relatively mature physically and often capable of independent function. In extant mammals, placental newborns span this range, while marsupials and monotremes are all extremely altricial at birth. Bears (family Ursidae) have one of the lowest neonatal-maternal mass ratios in placental mammals and are considered to have...

Supplemental figures from: Role of the thyroid gland in expression of the thyroid phenotype of SBP2 deficient mice

Alexandra Dumitrescu
Selenocysteine insertion sequence binding protein 2, SBP2 (SECISBP2), is required for selenoprotein synthesis. Partial SBP2 deficiency syndrome manifests characteristic thyroid function tests. The Sbp2 deficiency mouse model, Sbp2 iCKO, replicates this thyroid phenotype and was used for pathophysiologic investigations. As selenoproteins have antioxidative role in thyroid gland function, their deficiencies have potential to affect thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis. Sbp2 iCKO mice had larger thyroids relative to body weight and increased thyroidal T4 and T3 content...

Data from: Comparative transcriptomics provides insights into reticulate and adaptive evolution of a butterfly radiation

Wei Zhang, Brian X. Leon-Ricardo, Bas Van Schooten, Steven Van Belleghem, Brian Counterman, W. Owen McMillan, Marcus R. Kronforst & Riccardo Papa
Butterfly eyes are complex organs that are composed of a diversity of proteins and they play a central role in visual signaling and ultimately, speciation and adaptation. Here, we utilized the whole eye transcriptome to obtain a more holistic view of the evolution of the butterfly eye while accounting for speciation events that co-occur with ancient hybridization. We sequenced and assembled transcriptomes from adult female eyes of eight species representing all major clades of the...

Data from: Sperm competitive advantage of a rare mitochondrial haplogroup linked to differential expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes

Jeanne Zeh, Maya Zawlodzki, Melvin Bonilla, Eleanor Su-Keene, Michael Padua & David Zeh
Maternal inheritance of mitochondria creates a sex-specific selective sieve through which mitochondrial mutations harmful to males but not females accumulate and contribute to sexual differences in longevity and disease susceptibility. Because eggs and sperm are under disruptive selection, sperm are predicted to be particularly vulnerable to the genetic load generated by maternal inheritance, yet evidence for mitochondrial involvement in male fertility is limited and controversial. Here, we exploit the coexistence of two divergent mitochondrial haplogroups...

Data from: Defensive traits exhibit an evolutionary trade-off and drive diversification in ants

Benjamin D. Blanchard & Corrie S. Moreau
Evolutionary biologists have long predicted that evolutionary trade-offs among traits should constrain morphological divergence and species diversification. However, this prediction has yet to be tested in a broad evolutionary context in many diverse clades, including ants. Here, we reconstruct an expanded ant phylogeny representing 82% of ant genera, compile a new family-wide trait database, and conduct various trait-based analyses to show that defensive traits in ants do exhibit an evolutionary trade-off. In particular, the use...

Data from: Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow

Roger K. Butlin, Maria Saura, Grégory Charrier, Benjamin Jackson, Carl André, Armando Caballero, Jerry A. Coyne, Juan Galindo, John W. Grahame, Johann Hollander, Petri Kemppainen, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marina Panova, Humberto Quesada, Kerstin Johannesson, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Johan Hollander
Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to...

Data from: Nineteenth-century collapse of a benthic marine ecosystem on the open continental shelf

Adam Tomašových & Susan M. Kidwell
The soft-sediment seafloor of the open continental shelf is among the least-known biomes on Earth, despite its high diversity and importance to fisheries and biogeochemical cycling. Abundant dead shells of epifaunal suspension-feeding terebratulid brachiopods (Laqueus) and scallops on the now-muddy mainland continental shelf of southern California reveal the recent, previously unsuspected extirpation of an extensive offshore shell-gravel ecosystem, evidently driven by anthropogenic siltation. Living populations of attached epifauna, which formerly existed in a middle- and...

Data from: Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies

Heather M. Hines, Brian A. Counterman, Riccardo Papa, Priscila Albuquerque De Moura, Marcio Z. Cardoso, Mauricio Linares, James Mallet, Robert D. Reed, Chris D. Jiggins, Marcus R. Kronforst, W. Owen McMillan, R. D. Reed, J. Mallet, W. O. McMillan, M. R. Kronforst, H. M. Hines, B. A. Counterman, M. Linares, M. Z. Cardoso & C. D. Jiggins
The mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene have undergone parallel radiations to form a near-identical patchwork of over 20 different wing pattern races across the Neotropics. Previous molecular phylogenetic work on these radiations has suggested that similar but geographically disjunct color patterns arose multiple times independently in each species. The neutral markers used in these studies, however, can move freely across color pattern boundaries and therefore might not represent the history of the adaptive...

Data from: Exceptional avian herbivores: multiple transitions toward herbivory in the bird order Anseriformes and its correlation with body mass

Aaron M. Olsen
Herbivory is rare among birds and is usually thought to have evolved predominately among large, flightless birds due to energetic constraints or an association with increased body mass. Nearly all members of the bird order Anseriformes, which includes ducks, geese, and swans, are flighted and many are predominately herbivorous. However, it is unknown whether herbivory represents a derived state for the order and how many times a predominately herbivorous diet may have evolved. Compiling data...

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