53 Works

Data from: Foraging efficiency and size matching in a plant – pollinator community: the importance of sugar content and tongue length

Saskia G.T. Klumpers, Martina Stang & Peter G.L. Klinkhamer
A longstanding question in ecology is how species interactions are structured within communities. Although evolutionary theory predicts close size matching between floral nectar tube depth and pollinator proboscis length of interacting species, such size matching has seldom been shown and explained in multispecies assemblages. Here, we investigated the degree of size matching among Asteraceae and their pollinators and its relationship with foraging efficiency. The majority of pollinators, especially Hymenoptera, choose plant species on which they...

Data from: Quantifying water requirements of African ungulates through a combination of functional traits

Michiel Veldhuis, Emilian Kihwele, Victor Mchomvu, Norman Owen-Smith, Robyn Hetem, Matthew Hutchinson, Arjun Potter & Han Olff
Climate and land use change modify surface water availability in African savannas. Surface water is a key resource for both wildlife and livestock and its spatial and temporal distribution is important for understanding the composition of large herbivore assemblages in savannas. Yet, the extent to which ungulate species differ in their water requirements remains poorly quantified. Here, we infer the water requirements of 48 African ungulates by combining six different functional traits related to physiological...

Antibiotic production in Streptomyces is organized by a division of labour through terminal genomic differentiation

Zheren Zhang, Chao Du, Frédérique De Barsy, Michael Liem, Apostolos Liakopoulos, Gilles P. Van Wezel, Young H. Choi, Dennis Claessen & Daniel E. Rozen
One of the hallmark behaviors of social groups is division of labour, where different group members become specialized to carry out complementary tasks. By dividing labour, cooperative groups of individuals increase their efficiency, thereby raising group fitness even if these specialized behaviors reduce the fitness of individual group members. Here we provide evidence that antibiotic production in colonies of the multicellular bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor is coordinated by a division of labour. We show that S....

Data from: Aircraft sound exposure leads to song frequency decline and elevated aggression in wild chiffchaffs

Andrew D. Wolfenden, Hans Slabbekoorn, Karolina Kluk & Selvino De Kort
1. The ubiquitous anthropogenic low-frequency noise impedes communication by masking animal signals. To overcome this communication barrier, animals may increase the frequency, amplitude and delivery rate of their acoustic signals, making them more easily heard. However, a direct impact of intermittent, high-level aircraft noise on birds’ behaviour living close to a runway has not been studies in detail. 2. We recorded common chiffchaffs Phylloscopus collybita songs near two airports and nearby control areas, and we...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Fast adaptive responses in the oral jaw of Lake Victoria cichlids

Jacco C. Van Rijssel, Ellen S. Hoogwater, Mary A. Kishe-Machumu, Elize Van Reenen, Kevin V. Spits, Ronald C. Van Der Stelt, Jan H. Wanink, Frans Witte & Elize Van Reenen
Rapid morphological changes in response to fluctuating natural environments are a common phenomenon in species that undergo adaptive radiation. The dramatic ecological changes in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to study environmental effects on cichlid morphology. This study shows how four haplochromine cichlids adapted their premaxilla to a changed diet over the past 30 years. Directly after the diet change toward larger and faster prey in the late 1980s, the premaxilla (upper jaw) changed...

Data from: Are habitat fragmentation, local adaptation and isolation by distance driving population divergence in wild rice Oryza rufipogon?

Yao Zhao, Klaas Vrieling, Hui Liao, Manqiu Xiao, Yongqing Zhu, Jun Rong, Wenju Zhang, Yuguo Wang, Ji Yang, Jiakuan Chen & Zhiping Song
Habitat fragmentation weakens the connection between populations and is accompanied with isolation by distance (IBD) and local adaptation (isolation by adaptation, IBA), both leading to genetic divergence between populations. To understand the evolutionary potential of a population and to formulate proper conservation strategies, information on the roles of IBD and IBA in driving population divergence is critical. The putative ancestor of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) is endangered in China due to habitat loss and...

Data from: Living on the edge: multiscale habitat selection by cheetahs in a human-wildlife landscape

Britt Klaassen & Femke Broekhuis
Animals select habitats that will ultimately optimise their fitness through access to favourable resources, such as food, mates, and breeding sites. However, access to these resources may be limited by bottom-up effects, such as availability, and top-down effects such as risk avoidance and competition, including that with humans. Competition between wildlife and people over resources, specifically over space, has played a significant role in the worldwide decrease of large carnivores. The goal of this study...

Data from: Insular woody daisies (Argyranthemum , Asteraceae) are more resistant to drought-induced hydraulic failure than their herbaceous relatives

Larissa C. Doria, Diego S. Podadera, Marcelino Del Arco, Thibaud Chauvin, Erik Smets, Sylvain Delzon & Frederic Lens
1. Insular woodiness refers to the evolutionary transition from herbaceousness towards derived woodiness on (sub)tropical islands, and leads to island floras that have a higher proportion of woody species compared to floras of nearby continents. 2. Several hypotheses have tried to explain insular woodiness since Darwin’s original observations, but experimental evidence why plants became woody on islands is scarce at best. 3. Here, we combine experimental measurements of hydraulic failure in stems (as a proxy...

Data from: Evolution of woody life form on tropical mountains in the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae)

Suman Neupane, Paul O. Lewis, Steven Dessein, Hunter Lee Shanks, Sushil Paudyal, Frederic Lens & Hunter Shanks
Spermacoceae are mainly an herbaceous group in the Rubiaceae. However, a few lineages are woody, and are found in a diverse range of habitat types. Three of the largest woody lineages (Arcytophyllum, Hedyotis, and Kadua) are characterized by their distribution in the moist tropical mountains, and have disjunct distribution patterns with respect to their closest relatives. In this study, we explore the cases of derived woodiness in these three lineages and their diversification dynamics in...

Data from: Effects of plant diversity on the concentration of secondary plant metabolites and the density of arthropods on focal plants in the field

Olga Kostenko, Patrick P. J. Mulder, Matthijs Courbois & T. Martijn Bezemer
1. The diversity of the surrounding plant community can directly affect the abundance of insects on a focal plant as well as the size and quality of that focal plant. However, to what extent the effects of plant diversity on the arthropod community on a focal plant are mediated by host plant quality or by the diversity of the surrounding plants remains unresolved. 2. In the field, we sampled arthropod communities on focal Jacobaea vulgaris...

Data from: The effect of atomoxetine on random and directed exploration in humans

Christopher M. Warren, Robert C. Wilson, Nic J. Van Der Wee, Eric J. Giltay, Martijn S. Van Noorden, Jonathan D. Cohen & Sander Nieuwenhuis
The adaptive regulation of the trade-off between pursuing a known reward (exploitation) and sampling lesser-known options in search of something better (exploration) is critical for optimal performance. Theory and recent empirical work suggest that humans use at least two strategies for solving this dilemma: a directed strategy in which choices are explicitly biased toward information seeking, and a random strategy in which decision noise leads to exploration by chance. Here we examined the hypothesis that...

Data from: The pupillary orienting response predicts adaptive behavioral adjustment after errors

Peter R. Murphy, Marianne Van Moort, Sander Nieuwenhuis & Marianne L. Van Moort
Reaction time (RT) is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES) has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before...

Data from: Pupil diameter tracks lapses of attention

Ruud L. Van Den Brink, Peter R. Murphy & Sander Nieuwenhuis
Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur...

Data from: Large-scale fungal diversity assessment in the Andean Yungas forests reveals strong community turnover among forest types along an altitudinal gradient

József Geml, Nicolás Pastor, Lisandro Fernandez, Silvia Pacheco, Tatiana Semenova, Alejandra G. Becerra, Christian Y. Wicaksono, Eduardo R. Nouhra & Tatiana A. Semenova
The Yungas, a system of tropical and subtropical montane forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes, are extremely diverse and severely threatened by anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Previous mycological works focused on macrofungi (e.g., agarics, polypores) and mycorrhizae in Alnus acuminata forests, while fungal diversity in other parts of the Yungas has remained mostly unexplored. We carried out Ion Torrent sequencing of ITS2 rDNA from soil samples taken at 24 sites along the...

Data from: Compositional and functional shifts in arctic fungal communities in response to experimentally increased snow depth

Tatiana A. Semenova, Luis N. Morgado, Jeffrey M. Welker, Marilyn D. Walker, Erik Smets & József Geml
Climate warming leads to more intensive evaporation from the Arctic sea resulting in increased precipitation in the low Arctic, e.g., higher snowfall during winter. Deeper snow keeps the arctic soils warmer and alters soil attributes and vegetation, e.g., increase in nitrogen availability, expansion of shrubs and decline in shade-intolerant lichens and bryophytes. Changes in soil properties and vegetation are expected to influence on saprotrophic and plant-symbiotic fungi, but how increased snow depth affects their community...

Data from: Long-term experimental warming alters community composition of ascomycetes in Alaskan moist and dry arctic tundra

Tatiana A. Semenova, Luis N. Morgado, Jeffrey M. Welker, Marilyn D. Walker, Erik Smets & József Geml
Arctic tundra regions have been responding to global warming with visible changes in plant community composition, including expansion of shrubs and declines in lichens and bryophytes. Even though it is well-known that the majority of arctic plants are associated with their symbiotic fungi, how fungal community composition will be different with climate warming remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the effects of long-term (18 years) experimental warming on the community composition and taxonomic...

Data from: Home-field advantages of litter decomposition increase with increasing N deposition rates: a litter and soil perspective

Ying-Bin Li, Qi Li, Jun-Jie Yang, Xiao-Tao Lv, Wen-Ju Liang, Xing-Guo Han, T. Martijn Bezemer & T. Martijn Bezemer
1. Differences in litter quality and in soil microbial community composition can influence the litter decomposition and “home-field advantage” (HFA). However, our knowledge about the relative role of litter and soil characteristics on litter decomposition and HFA effects is still limited, especially under long-term N deposition. 2. We collected soil and two types of litter (monospecific and mixed species litter) from five replicate plots from a long-term N-deposition field experiment with seven N-addition treatments (0,...

Data from: Learning to cope: vocal adjustment to urban noise is correlated with prior experience in black-capped chickadees

Stefanie E. LaZerte, Hans Slabbekoorn & Ken A. Otter
Urban noise can interfere with avian communication through masking, but birds can reduce this interference by altering their vocalizations. Although several experimental studies indicate that birds can rapidly change their vocalizations in response to sudden increases in ambient noise, none have investigated whether this is a learned response that depends on previous exposure. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) change the frequency of their songs in response to both fluctuating traffic noise and experimental noise. We investigated...

Data from: Seasonal changes in starch content in trophopods of Matteuccia struthiopteris

Peter H. Hovenkamp, Shi-Kai Yan, Young Hae Choi, Yan Shi-Kai & Peter Hovenkamp
Trophopods are modified stipe bases that function as starch-storage organs in a wide variety of mainly temperate ferns. Ever since they were first observed, the presence of trophopods has been explained by reference to seasonality and they have been assumed to provide nutrition for the rapidly expanding fern leaves in spring. We present the results of an analysis of the annual variation in starch content in Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro, cultivated in the Leiden botanical...

Data from: Scaling up flammability from individual leaves to fuel beds

Saskia Grootemaat, Ian Wright, Peter Van Bodegom, Johannes Cornelissen, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Ian J. Wright & Johannes H. C. Cornelissen
Wildfires play an important role in vegetation composition and structure, nutrient fluxes, human health and wealth, and are interlinked with climate change. Plants have an influence on wildfire behaviour and predicting this feedback is a high research priority. For upscaling from leaf traits to wildfire behaviour we need to know if the same leaf traits are important for the flammability of (i) individual leaves, and (ii) multiple leaves packed in fuel beds. Based on a...

Data from: The EGA+GNM framework: an integrative approach to modelling behavioural syndromes

Jordan S. Martin, Jorg J. M. Massen, Vedrana Šlipogor, Thomas Bugnyar, Adrian V. Jaeggi & Sonja E. Koski
1. Behavioural syndromes refer to correlated suites of behavioural traits exhibiting consistent among-individual variation, i.e. personality. Factor analysis (FA) is currently the dominant method for modelling behavioural syndromes in humans and animals. Although FA is useful for inferring the latent causes underlying trait correlations, it does not account for pairwise behavioural interactions that also contribute to syndrome structure. Given that latent factors and pairwise interactions are likely ubiquitous causes of trait covariation, both should be...

Data from: Temporal carry-over effects in sequential plant–soil feedbacks

Jasper R. Wubs, T. Martijn Bezemer & E. R. Jasper Wubs
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) strongly influence plant performance. However, to what extent these PSF effects are persistent in the soil and how they are altered by species that subsequently condition the soil is unclear. Here we test how conspecific and heterospecific soil-conditioning effects interact across different soil-conditioning phases. We conducted a fully factorial glasshouse experiment where six plant species conditioned soils in two consecutive phases and measured the performance of Jacobaea vulgaris. The species that conditioned...

Data from: Mycorrhizal diversity, seed germination and long-term changes in population size across nine populations of the terrestrial orchid Neottia ovata

Hans Jacquemyn, Michael Waud, Vincent S. F. T. Merckx, Bart Lievens & Rein Brys
In plant species that rely on mycorrhizal symbioses for germination and seedling establishment, seedling recruitment and temporal changes in abundance can be expected to depend on fungal community composition and local environmental conditions. However, disentangling the precise factors that determine recruitment success in species that critically rely on mycorrhizal fungi represents a major challenge. In this study, we used seed germination experiments, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing and assessment of soil conditions to investigate the factors driving...

Data from: Species-specific plant–soil feedbacks alter herbivore-induced gene expression and defense chemistry in Plantago lanceolata

Feng Zhu, Robin Heinen, Martijn Van Der Sluijs, Ciska Raaijmakers, Arjen Biere & T. Martijn Bezemer
Plants actively interact with antagonists and beneficial organisms occurring in the above- and belowground domains of terrestrial ecosystems. In the past decade, studies have focused on the role of plant–soil feedbacks (PSF) in a broad range of ecological processes. However, PSF and its legacy effects on plant defense traits, such as induction of defense-related genes and production of defensive secondary metabolites, have not received much attention. Here, we study soil legacy effects created by twelve...

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