106 Works

Impacts of experimental drought and plant trait diversity on floral resources and pollinator visitation

B.B. Phillips, R.F. Shaw, M. Holland, E.L. Fry, R.D. Bardgett, J.M. Bullock & J.L. Osborne
The floral resources provided to pollinators by different sown plant experimental plant communities were assessed under ambient and experimental drought conditions. The dataset includes the abundance and diversity of floral resources in all plant communities and more detailed information on the nectar quality and quantity provided by three focal plant species. Pollinator visit surveys were carried out on selected plots. These data can be linked to the related 'Ecosystem functions and vegetation data for Winklebury...

Atmospheric gas and vegetation survey data from Winklebury Hill, UK, in 2014

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock & S. Oakley
This dataset contains greenhouse gas flux data and vegetation survey data from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. The greenhouse gas flux data comprises net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide data measured using gas chromatography; and nitrate and...

Ecosystem functions and vegetation data for Winklebury Hill, Salisbury Plain, UK in 2015

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock & S. Oakley
This dataset contains vegetation survey data, and nitrate and ammonium concentrations, nitrification and mineralisation rates, microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen stock data from soils taken from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data were measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and...

Ecosystem functions and vegetation data for Winklebury Hill, Salisbury Plain, UK 2016

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock, S. Oakley, R. Griffiths, R. McDonald, T. Caruso & M. Ilardi
This dataset contains vegetation survey data, and nitrate and ammonium concentrations, nitrification and mineralisation rates, microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen stock data from soils taken from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data were measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and...

Data from: Preserved collagen reveals species identity in archaeological marine turtle bones from Caribbean and Florida sites

Michael Buckley, Virginia L. Harvey, Michelle J. LeFebvre, Susan D. DeFrance, Casper Toftgaard & Andrew C. Kitchener
Advancements in molecular science are continually improving our understanding of marine turtle biology and evolution. However, there are still considerable gaps in our understanding, such as past marine turtle distributions, which can benefit from advanced zooarchaeological analyses. Here we apply collagen fingerprinting to 130 archaeological marine turtle bone samples up to 2500 years old from the Caribbean and Florida’s Gulf Coast for faunal identification, finding the vast majority of samples (88%) to contain preserved collagen...

Winter is coming: harsh environments limit independent reproduction of cooperative-breeding queens in a socially polymorphic ant

Ornela De Gasperin, Pierre Blacher, Guglielmo Grasso & Michel Chapuisat
Animals that live in cooperative breeding groups frequently inhabit harsh environments. It is widely accepted that harsh environments hinder independent reproduction, and this constraint favours individuals staying in family groups. Yet the assumption that harsh ecological conditions reduce the success of members of cooperative breeding groups when breeding independently has not been experimentally tested. We addressed this shortcoming using the socially polymorphic Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi. This species has single-queen (independent breeders), and multiple-queen...

Data from: Bite marks and predation of fossil jawless fish during the rise of jawed vertebrates

Emma Randle & Robert S. Sansom
Although modern vertebrate diversity is dominated by jawed vertebrates, early vertebrate assemblages were predominantly comprised of jawless fishes. Hypotheses for this faunal shift and the Devonian decline of jawless vertebrates include predation and competitive replacement. The nature and prevalence of ecological interactions between jawed and jawless vertebrates are highly relevant to both hypotheses, but direct evidence is limited. Here we use the occurrence and distribution of bite mark type traces in fossil jawless armoured heterostracans...

Data from: No evidence for a trade-off between sperm length and male premating weaponry

Stefan Lüpold, Leigh W. Simmons, Joseph L. Tomkins & John L. Fitzpatrick
Male ornaments and armaments that mediate success in mate acquisition and ejaculate traits influencing competitive fertilization success are under intense sexual selection. However, relative investment in these pre- and postcopulatory traits depends on the relative importance of either selection episode and on the energetic costs and fitness gains of investing in these traits. Theoretical and empirical work has improved our understanding of how precopulatory sexual traits and investments in sperm production covary in this context....

Data from: Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees

Ross C. P. Mounce, Robert Sansom & Matthew A. Wills
Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that...

Data from: Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus

Laurence M. Cook, Bruce S. Grant, Ilik J. Saccheri, James Mallet, J. Mallet, L. M. Cook & I. J. Saccheri
Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of...

Data from: Genotype-dependent responses to levels of sibling competition over maternal resources in mice

Reinmar Hager, James M. Cheverud, Jason B. Wolf, J B Wolf, R Hager & J M Cheverud
Research on phenotypic plasticity has often focused on how a given genotype responds to changing physical environments. However, for many species the social environment plays an equally important role due to competition for resources. During early development, the level of competition for limited resources will often depend critically on the number of siblings. Therefore, competition among siblings should drive the evolution of genes that allow flexible responses to realized levels of competition and maternal resource...

Data from: Citizen science reveals unexpected continental-scale evolutionary change in a model organism

Jonathan Silvertown, Laurence Cook, Robert Cameron, Mike Dodd, Kevin McConway, Jenny Worthington, Peter Skelton, Christian Anton, Oliver Bossdorf, Bruno Baur, Menno Schilthuizen, Benoît Fontaine, Helmut Sattmann, Giorgio Bertorelle, Maria Correia, Cristina Oliveira, Beata Pokryszko, Małgorzata Ożgo, Arturs Stalažs, Eoin Gill, Üllar Rammul, Péter Sólymos, Zoltan Féher & Xavier Juan
Organisms provide some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change and evolutionary responses are becoming apparent in species with short generation times. Large datasets on genetic polymorphism that can provide an historical benchmark against which to test for recent evolutionary responses are very rare, but an exception is found in the brown-lipped banded snail (Cepaea nemoralis). This species is sensitive to its thermal environment and exhibits several polymorphisms of shell colour and banding pattern...

Data from: Spatially coordinated dynamic gene transcription in living pituitary tissue

Karen Featherstone, Kirsty Hey, Hiroshi Momiji, Anne V. McNamara, Amanda L. Patist, Joanna Woodburn, David G. Spiller, Helen C. Christian, Alan S. McNeilly, John J. Mullins, Barbel F. Finkenstadt, David A. Rand, Michael R. H. White & Julian R. E. Davis
Transcription at individual genes in single cells is often pulsatile and stochastic. A key question emerges regarding how this behaviour contributes to tissue phenotype, but it has been a challenge to quantitatively analyse this in living cells over time, as opposed to studying snap-shots of gene expression state. We have used imaging of reporter gene expression to track transcription in living pituitary tissue. We integrated live-cell imaging data with statistical modelling for quantitative real-time estimation...

Data from: A multi-breed genome-wide association analysis for canine hypothyroidism identifies a shared major risk locus on CFA12

Matteo Bianchi, Stina Dahlgren, Jonathan Massey, Elisabeth Dietschi, Marcin Kierczak, Martine Lund-Ziener, Katarina Sundberg, Stein Istre Thoresen, Olle Kämpe, Göran Andersson, William E. R. Ollier, Åke Hedhammar, Tosso Leeb, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Lorna J. Kennedy, Frode Lingaas, Gerli Rosengren Pielberg & Stein Istre Thoresen
Bianchi, Dahlgren et al., Canine Hypothyroidism data

Data from: ModelOMatic: fast and automated comparison between RY, nucleotide, amino acid, and codon substitution models

Simon Whelan, James E. Allen, Benjamin P. Blackburne & David Talavera
Molecular phylogenetics is a powerful tool for inferring both the process and pattern of evolution from genomic sequence data. Statistical approaches, such as maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, are now established as the preferred methods of inference. The choice of models that a researcher uses for inference is of critical importance, and there are established methods for model selection conditioned on a particular type of data, such as nucleotides, amino acids, or codons. A major...

Data from: Repeated land mass reformation limits diversification in the widespread littoral zone mosquito Anopheles sundaicus sensu lato in the Indo-Oriental Region

Magdalena Zarowiecki, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Rory J. Post, Michael J. Bangs, Pe Than Htun, Thaung Hlaing, Chang Moh Seng, Visut Baimai, Trung Ho Ding, Tho Sochantha & Catherine Walton
Southeast Asia harbours abundant biodiversity, hypothesized to have been generated by Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic and environmental change. Vicariance between the island of Borneo, the remaining Indonesian archipelago and mainland Southeast Asia caused by elevated sea levels during interglacial periods has been proposed to lead to diversification in the littoral zone mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Rodenwaldt) sensu lato. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we inferred the population history and assessed gene flow of A. sundaicus...

Data from: The ancient Britons: groundwater fauna survived extreme climate changes over tens of millions of years across NW Europe

Caitríona E. McInerney, Louise Maurice, Anne L. Robertson, Lee R. F. D. Knight, Jörg Arnscheidt, Chris Venditti, James S. G. Dooley, Thomas Mathers, Severine Matthijs, Karin Eriksson, Graham S. Proudlove & Bernd Hänfling
Global climate changes during the Cenozoic (65.5 - 0 Ma) caused major biological range shifts and extinctions. In Northern Europe, for example, a pattern of few endemics and the dominance of wide-ranging species is thought to have been determined by the Pleistocene (2.59 – 0.01 Ma) glaciations. This study, in contrast, reveals an ancient subsurface fauna endemic to Britain and Ireland. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach we found that two species of stygobitic invertebrates (genus...

Data from: An inversion supergene in Drosophila underpins latitudinal clines in survival traits

Esra Durmaz, Clare Benson, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt & Thomas Flatt
Chromosomal inversions often contribute to local adaptation across latitudinal clines, but the underlying selective mechanisms remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that a clinal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster, In(3R)Payne, underpins body size clines along the North American and Australian east coasts. Here we ask whether this polymorphism also contributes to clinal variation in other fitness-related traits, namely survival traits (lifespan, survival upon starvation, and survival upon cold shock). We generated homokaryon...

Data from: Parsimony, not Bayesian analysis, recovers more stratigraphically congruent phylogenetic trees

Robert S. Sansom, Peter G. Choate, Joseph N. Keating & Emma Randle
Reconstructing evolutionary histories requires accurate phylogenetic trees. Recent simulation studies suggest that probabilistic phylogenetic analyses of morphological data are more accurate than traditional parsimony techniques. Here we use empirical data to compare Bayesian and parsimony phylogenies in terms of their congruence with the distribution of age ranges of the component taxa. Analysis of 167 independent morphological data matrices of fossil tetrapods finds that Bayesian trees exhibit significantly lower stratigraphic congruence than the equivalent parsimony trees....

Data from: Quadrupedal locomotor simulation: producing more realistic gaits using dual-objective optimisation

William I. Sellers, Eishi Hirasaki & William Irvin Sellers
In evolutionary biomechanics it is often considered that gaits should evolve to minimise the energetic cost of travelling a given distance. In gait simulation this goal often leads to convincing gait generation. However, as the musculoskeletal models used get increasingly sophisticated, it becomes apparent that such a single goal can lead to extremely unrealistic gait patterns. In this paper we explore the effects of requiring adequate lateral stability and show how this both increases energetic...

Data from: The peripheral olfactory code in Drosophila larvae contains temporal information and is robust over multiple timescales

Micheline Grillet, Dario Campagner, Rasmus Petersen, Catherine McCrohan & Matthew Cobb
We studied the electrophysiological activity of two classes of Drosophila melanogaster larval olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), Or24a and Or74a, in response to 1 s stimulation with butanol, octanol, 2-heptanone, and propyl acetate. Each odour/OSN combination produced unique responses in terms of spike count and temporal profile. We used a classifier algorithm to explore the information content of OSN activity, and showed that as well as spike count, the activity of these OSNs included temporal information...

Data from: Fossilization of melanosomes via sulfurization

Maria E. McNamara, Bart E. Van Dongen, Nick P. Lockyer, Ian D. Bull & Patrick J. Orr
Fossil melanin granules (melanosomes) are an important resource for inferring the evolutionary history of colour and its functions in animals. The taphonomy of melanin and melanosomes, however, is incompletely understood. In particular, the chemical processes responsible for melanosome preservation have not been investigated. As a result, the origins of sulfur-bearing compounds in fossil melanosomes are difficult to resolve. This has implications for interpretations of original colour in fossils based on potential sulfur-rich phaeomelanosomes. Here we...

Data from: Individual variation in whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is associated with cardiac hypoxia tolerance in a marine teleost

Holly Alice Shiels, William Joyce, Karlina Ozolina, Florian Mauduit, Hélène Ollivier, Guy Claireaux & Holly A. Shiels
Hypoxia is a pervasive problem in coastal environments and is predicted to have enduring impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Intraspecific variation in hypoxia tolerance is well documented in fish; however, the factors underlying this variation remain unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the heart in individual hypoxia tolerance of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). We found individual whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is a stable trait in sea bass for more than 18 months (duration of...

Data from: Temporal and phylogenetic evolution of the sauropod dinosaur body plan

Karl T. Bates, Philip D. Mannion, Peter L. Falkingham, Stephen L. Brusatte, John R. Hutchinson, Alexandros Otero, William I. Sellers, Corwin Sullivan, Kent A. Stevens & Vivian Allen
The colossal size and body plan of sauropod dinosaurs are unparalleled in terrestrial vertebrates. However, to date, there have been only limited attempts to examine temporal and phylogenetic patterns in the sauropod bauplan. Here, we combine three-dimensional computational models with phylogenetic reconstructions to quantify the evolution of whole-body shape and body segment properties across the sauropod radiation. Limitations associated with the absence of soft tissue preservation in fossils result in large error bars about mean...

Data from: A three-dimensionally preserved lobopodian from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK

Derek J. Siveter, Derek E.G. Briggs, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton, David Legg & Derek E. G. Briggs
The Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte (c. 430 MYr BP) has yielded, amongst many exceptionally preserved invertebrates, a wide range of new genera belonging to crown-group Panarthropoda. Here we increase this panarthropod diversity with the lobopodian Thanahita distos, a new total-group panarthropod genus and species. This new lobopodian preserves at least nine paired, long, slender appendages, the anterior two in the head region and the posterior seven representing trunk lobopods. The body ends in a short post-appendicular...

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