101 Works

Data from: Testing the CREA ‘rule’ in Galliformes

Marta Linde-Medina & M. Linde-Medina
Recent comparative studies have indicated the existence of a common cranial evolutionary allometric (CREA) pattern in mammals and birds, in which smaller species have relatively smaller faces and bigger braincases than larger species. In these studies, cranial allometry was tested using a multivariate regression between shape (described using landmarks coordinates) and size (i.e. centroid size), after accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Alternatively, cranial allometry can be determined by comparing the sizes of two anatomical parts using...

Data from: Soil organic carbon dynamics matching ecological equilibrium theory

Tancredi Caruso, Franciska T De Vries, Richard D Bardgett, Johannes Lehmann, Franciska T. De Vries & Richard D. Bardgett
The persistence of soil organic carbon (SOC) has traditionally been explained as a combination of recalcitrance properties and stabilization processes, which lead to the formation of complex organic compounds. However, recent conceptual advances and experimental evidence challenge this view. Here, we test these conceptual advances using a dynamic equilibrium theory of SOC founded on classic ecological theory. We postulate that the persistence of SOC is an equilibrium point where SOC losses resulting from continuous decomposition...

Data from: Noninvasive physiological markers demonstrate link between habitat quality, adult sex ratio and poor population growth rate in a vulnerable species, the Cape mountain zebra

Jessica M. D. Lea, Susan L. Walker, Graham I. H. Kerley, John Jackson, Shelby C. Matevich & Susanne Shultz
Effective conservation and species management requires an understanding of the causes of poor population growth. Conservation physiology uses biomarkers to identify factors that contribute to low individual fitness and population declines. Building on this, macrophysiology can use the same markers to assess how individual physiology varies with different ecological or demographic factors over large temporal and spatial scales. Here, we use a macrophysiological approach to identify the ecological and demographic correlates of poor population growth...

Data from: The contrasting roles of host species diversity and parasite population genetic diversity in the infection dynamics of a keystone parasitic plant

Jennifer K Rowntree, Hayley Craig & Jennifer K. Rowntree
1) Diversity among species and genetic diversity within species are both important components of ecological communities that can determine the outcome of species interactions, especially between hosts and parasites. We sought to understand the impact of species diversity on host community resistance to infection by a keystone parasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor L.) and genetic diversity of the parasite on its successful establishment in a grassland community. 2) We used an experimental approach where large pots...

Data from: Evolution of mir-92a underlies natural morphological variation in Drosophila melanogaster

Saad Arif, Sophie Murat, Isabel Almudi, Maria D. S. Nunes, Diane Bortolamiol-Becet, Naomi S. McGregor, James M. S. Currie, Harri Hughes, Matthew Ronshaugen, Élio Sucena, Eric C. Lai, Christian Schlötterer & Alistair P. McGregor
eworoRL514BC_QTLPhenotype and genotype data for QTL mapping between strains e, wo, ro and RAL514.eworoRL514BC.xlsstsse_ORER_QTL_mapMap information for QTL mapping between strains st, ss, e and oregon R.ssste_ORER_QTL_crossCross information for QTL mapping between strains st, ss, e and oregon R.

Data from: Plant, soil and microbial controls on grassland diversity restoration: a long-term, multi-site mesocosm experiment

Ellen L. Fry, Emma S. Pilgrim, Jerry R.B. Tallowin, Roger S. Smith, Simon R. Mortimer, Deborah A. Beaumont, Janet Simkin, Stephanie J. Harris, Robert S. Shiel, Helen Quirk, Kate A. Harrison, Clare S. Lawson, Phil A. Hobbs & Richard D. Bardgett
The success of grassland biodiversity restoration schemes is determined by many factors; as such their outcomes can be unpredictable. There is a need for improved understanding of the relative importance of belowground factors to restoration success, such as contrasting soil type and management intensities, as well as plant community composition and order of assembly. We carried out an eight-year mesocosm experiment across three locations in the UK to explore the relative and interactive roles of...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, A. Vachani, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: the effect of apple cultivar on epiphyte diversity

C. Robin Stevenson, Chantel Davies & Jennifer K. Rowntree
In natural systems, extended phenotypes of trees can be important in determining the species composition and diversity of associated communities. Orchards are productive systems where trees dominate, and can be highly biodiverse, but few studies have considered the importance of tree genetic background in promoting associated biodiversity. We tested the effect of apple cultivar (plant genetic background) on the diversity and composition of the associated epiphytic bryophyte community across a total of seven cultivars in...

Data from: Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species

Josep Alós, Miquel Palmer, Marta Linde-Medina & Robert Arlinghaus
Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally...

Data from: Biotic and abiotic plant-soil feedback depends on nitrogen-acquisition strategy and shifts during long-term ecosystem development

G. Kenny Png, Hans Lambers, Paul Kardol, Benjamin L. Turner, David A. Wardle, Etienne Laliberté & Guochen Kenny Png
1. Feedback between plants and soil is an important driver of plant community structure, but it remains unclear whether plant-soil feedback (PSF): (i) reflects changes in biotic or abiotic properties, (ii) depends on environmental context in terms of soil nutrient availability, and (iii) varies among plant functional groups. Because soil nutrient availability strongly affects plant distribution and performance, soil chemical properties and plant nutrient-acquisition strategies might serve as important drivers of PSF. 2. We used...

Data from: Coordinated responses of soil communities to elevation in three subarctic vegetation types

G. F. Ciska Veen, Jonathan R. De Long, Paul Kardol, Maja K. Sundqvist, L. Basten Snoek & David A. Wardle
Global warming has begun to have a major impact on the species composition and functioning of plant and soil communities. However, long-term community and ecosystem responses to increased temperature are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a well-established elevational gradient in northern Sweden to elucidate how plant, microbial and nematode communities shift with elevation and associated changes in temperature in three highly contrasting vegetation types (i.e. heath, meadow and Salix vegetation). We found...

Data from: Plasticity in plant functional traits is shaped by variability in neighbourhood species composition

Maria Abakumova, Kristjan Zobel, Anu Lepik & Marina Semchenko
Plant functional traits can vary widely as a result of phenotypic plasticity to abiotic conditions. Trait variation may also reflect responses to the identity of neighbours, although not all species are equally responsive to their biotic surroundings. We hypothesized that responses to neighbours are shaped by spatial community patterns and resulting variability in neighbour composition. More precisely, we tested the theoretical prediction that plasticity is most likely to evolve if alternative environments (in this case,...

Data from: Disentangling plant and soil microbial controls on carbon and nitrogen loss in grassland mesocosms

Franciska T. De Vries, Helene Bracht Jorgensen, Katarina Hedlund & Richard D. Bardgett
1. It is well known that plant–soil interactions play an important role in determining the impact of global change phenomena on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Little is known, however, about the individual and relative importance for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling of non-random changes in plant and soil communities that result from global change phenomena, such as fertilization and agricultural intensification. 2. We set up a field-based mesocosm experiment in which we re-inoculated soil...

Data from: Pigmented anatomy in Carboniferous cyclostomes and the evolution of the vertebrate eye

Sarah E. Gabbott, Philip C.J. Donoghue, Robert S. Sansom, Jakob Vinther, Andrei Dolocan, Mark A. Purnell & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The success of vertebrates is linked to the evolution of a camera-style eye and sophisticated visual system. In the absence of useful data from fossils, scenarios for evolutionary assembly of the vertebrate eye have been based necessarily on evidence from development, molecular genetics and comparative anatomy in living vertebrates. Unfortunately, steps in the transition from a light-sensitive ‘eye spot’ in invertebrate chordates to an image-forming camera-style eye in jawed vertebrates are constrained only by hagfish...

Data from: Limited effects of the maternal rearing environment on the behaviour and fitness of an insect herbivore and its natural enemy

Alison J. Karley, Lucy Gilbert, Jennifer M. Slater & David Johnson
The maternal rearing environment can affect offspring fitness or phenotype indirectly via ‘maternal effects’ and can also influence a mother’s behaviour and fecundity directly. However, it remains uncertain how the effects of the maternal rearing environment cascade through multiple trophic levels, such as in plant-insect herbivore-natural enemy interactions. Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) show differential fitness on host legume species, while generalist aphid parasitoids can show variable fitness on different host aphid species, suggesting that maternal...

Data from: Self-cannulation for haemodialysis: patient attributes, clinical correlates and self-cannulation predilection models

Anuradha Jayanti, Philip Foden, Alison Wearden, Julie Morris, Paul Brenchley & Sandip Mitra
Background and objectives: With emerging evidence in support of home haemodialysis (HHD), patient factors which determine uptake of the modality need to be better understood. Self-cannulation (SC) is a major step towards enabling self-care ‘in-centre’ and home HD and remains the foremost barrier to its uptake. Human factors governing this aspect of HD practice are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to better understand self-cannulation preferences and factors which define them in end...

Data from: Do cladistic and morphometric data capture common patterns of morphological disparity?

Alexander J. Hetherington, Emma Sherratt, Marcello Ruta, Mark Wilkinson, Bradley Deline & Philip C. J. Donoghue
The distinctly non-random diversity of organismal form manifests itself in discrete clusters of taxa that share a common body plan. As a result, analyses of disparity require a scalable comparative framework. The difficulties of applying geometric morphometrics to disparity analyses of groups with vastly divergent body plans are overcome partly by the use of cladistic characters. Character-based disparity analyses have become increasingly popular, but it is not clear how they are affected by character coding...

Data from: Differences between hard and soft phylogenetic data

Robert S. Sansom & Matthew A. Wills
When building the tree of life, variability of phylogenetic signal is often accounted for by partitioning gene sequences and testing for differences. The same considerations however are rarely applied to morphological data, potentially undermining its use in evolutionary contexts. Here we apply partition heterogeneity tests to 59 animal datasets to demonstrate that significant differences exist between the phylogenetic signal conveyed by ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ characters (bones, teeth and shells versus myology, integument etc). Furthermore, the...

Data from: Bat species comparisons based on external morphology: a test of traditional versus geometric morphometric approaches

Daniela A. Schmieder, Hugo A. Benítez, Ivailo M. Borissov & Carmelo Fruciano
External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species – in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)...

Data from: Two new species of Ichthyosaurus from the lowermost Jurassic (Hettangian) of Somerset, England

Dean R. Lomax & Judy A. Massare
All specimens of Ichthyosaurus from the Lower Jurassic of Somerset were previously identified as I. communis, an abundant and extremely variable species. Here, two new species of Ichthyosaurus are recognized from multiple specimens. The species are assigned to Ichthyosaurus on the basis of the humerus, pectoral girdle and forefin morphologies. I. larkini sp. nov. is distinguished by a broad jugal with a blunt anterior end that extends as far forward as the middle of the...

Data from: Illness beliefs in end stage renal disease and associations with self-care modality choice

Anuradha Jayanti, Philip Foden, Alison Wearden & Sandip Mitra
Background: Interest in self-care haemodialysis (HD) has increased because it improves patients’clinical and quality-of-life outcomes. Patients who undertake self-management for haemodialysis may hold illness beliefs differently to those choosing institutional care at the time of making the modality choice or moulded by their illness and dialysis treatment experience. Illness perceptions amongst predialysis patients and in those undertaking fully-assisted and self-care haemodialysis are being investigated in a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Study Design: The study...

Data from: Testing and quantifying phylogenetic signals and homoplasy in morphometric data

Christian Peter Klingenberg, Nelly A. Gidaszewski, Christian Peter Klingenberg & Nelly A. Gidaszewski
The relationship between morphometrics and phylogenetic analysis has long been controversial. Here we propose an approach that is based on mapping morphometric traits onto phylogenies derived from other data and thus avoids the pitfalls encountered by previous studies. This method treats shape as a single, multidimensional character. We propose a test for the presence of a phylogenetic signal in morphometric data, which simulates the null hypothesis of the complete absence of phylogenetic structure by permutation...

Data from: The interaction of Saccharomyces paradoxus with its natural competitors on oak bark

Vienna Kowallik, Eric Miller & Duncan Greig
The natural history of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is poorly understood and confounded by domestication. In nature, S. cerevisiae and its undomesticated relative S. paradoxus are usually found on the bark of oak trees, a habitat very different from wine or other human fermentations. It is unclear whether the oak trees are really the primary habitat for wild yeast, or whether this apparent association is due to biased sampling. We use culturing and high-throughput...

Data from: The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests

Hannah M. Griffiths, Richard D. Bardgett, Julio Louzada & Jos Barlow
Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will...

Data from: Learning to speciate: the biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation

R. Tucker Gilman & Genevieve M. Kozak
Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth’s biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other...

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