151 Works

Measurements of respiration and microbial assimilation of carbon substrates and priming of soil organic matter mineralisation in tropical lowland and montane forest soils

J. Whitaker, N. Ostle, N. McNamara, A.T. Nottingham, A.W. Stott, R.D. Bardgett, N. Salinas, A.J.Q. Ccahuana & P. Meir
This dataset includes measurements of microbial community composition by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, soil respiration (Carbon dioxide (CO2)), soil physico-chemical properties and 13C enrichment in CO2 samples and microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFAs). Data were produced for an investigation of the effects of carbon (C) substrate addition on soil carbon cycling processes in ten tropical soils from the Peruvian Andes. Soils were amended with 13C labelled substrates (xylose, glycine, vanillin and hemicellulose) and incubated...

Data from: Pervasive genetic integration directs the evolution of human skull shape

Neus Martínez-Abadías, Mireia Esparza, Torstein Sjøvold, Rolando González-José, Mauro Santos, Miquel Hernández & Christian Peter Klingenberg
It has long been unclear whether the different derived cranial traits of modern humans evolved independently in response to separate selection pressures or whether they resulted from the inherent morphological integration throughout the skull. In a novel approach to this issue, we combine evolutionary quantitative genetics and geometric morphometrics to analyze genetic and phenotypic integration in human skull shape. We measured human skulls in the ossuary of Hallstatt (Austria), which offer a unique opportunity because...

Data from: Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae).

Andrew G. Briscoe, Sarah Goodacre, Susan E. Masta, Martin I. Taylor, Miquel A. Arnedo, David Penney, John Kenny, Simon Creer & Sara Goodacre
The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput...

Data from: Parasitoid wasps influence where aphids die via an inter-specific indirect genetic effect

Mouhammad Shadi Khudr, Johan A. Oldekop, David M. Shuker, Richard F. Preziosi, D. M. Shuker, M. S. Khudr, J. A. Oldekop & R. F. Preziosi
Host–parasite interactions are a key paradigm for understanding the process of coevolution. Central to coevolution is how genetic variation in interacting species allows parasites to evolve manipulative strategies. However, genetic variation in the parasite may also be associated with host phenotype changes, thereby changing the selection on both species. For instance, parasites often induce changes in the behaviour of their host to maximize their own fitness, yet the quantitative genetic basis for behavioural manipulation has...

Data from: Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus

Laurence M. Cook, Bruce S. Grant, Ilik J. Saccheri, James Mallet, J. Mallet, L. M. Cook & I. J. Saccheri
Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of...

Data from: A new titanosaurian braincase from the Cretaceous “Lo Hueco” locality in Spain sheds light on neuroanatomical evolution within Titanosauria

Fabien Knoll, Lawrence M. Witmer, Ryan C. Ridgely, Francisco Ortega & Jose Luis Sanz
Despite continuous improvements, our knowledge of the neurocranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs as a whole is still poor, which is especially true for titanosaurians even though their postcranial remains are common in many Upper Cretaceous sites worldwide. Here we describe a braincase from the uppermost Cretaceous locality of ‘‘Lo Hueco” in Spain that is one of the most complete titanosaurian braincases found so far in Europe. Although the titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp. is known from the...

Data from: Sperm number trumps sperm size in mammalian ejaculate evolution

Stefan Lüpold & John L. Fitzpatrick
Postcopulatory sexual selection is widely accepted to underlie the extraordinary diversification of sperm morphology. However, why does it favour longer sperm in some taxa but shorter in others? Two recent hypotheses addressing this discrepancy offered contradictory explanations. Under the sperm dilution hypothesis, selection via sperm density in the female reproductive tract favours more but smaller sperm in large, but the reverse in small, species. Conversely, the metabolic constraint hypothesis maintains that ejaculates respond positively to...

Data from: Endoskeletal structure in Cheirolepis (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii), an early ray-finned fish

Sam Giles, Michael I. Coates, Russell J. Garwood, Martin D. Brazeau, Robert Atwood, Zerina Johanson & Matt Friedman
As the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, the Middle to Late Devonian (Eifelian–Frasnian) Cheirolepis occupies a pivotal position in vertebrate phylogeny. Although the dermal skeleton of this taxon has been exhaustively described, very little of its endoskeleton is known, leaving questions of neurocranial and fin evolution in early ray-finned fishes unresolved. The model for early actinopterygian anatomy has instead been based largely on the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Mimipiscis, preserved in stunning detail from the...

Data from: An advanced shape-fitting algorithm applied to quadrupedal mammals: improving volumetric mass estimates

Charlotte A. Brassey & James D. Gardiner
Body mass is a fundamental physical property of an individual and has enormous bearing upon ecology and physiology. Generating reliable estimates for body mass is therefore a necessary step in many palaeontological studies. Whilst early reconstructions of mass in extinct species relied upon isolated skeletal elements, volumetric techniques are increasingly applied to fossils when skeletal completeness allows. We apply a new ‘alpha shapes’ (α-shapes) algorithm to volumetric mass estimation in quadrupedal mammals. α-shapes are defined...

Data from: No evidence for a trade-off between sperm length and male premating weaponry

Stefan Lüpold, Leigh W. Simmons, Joseph L. Tomkins & John L. Fitzpatrick
Male ornaments and armaments that mediate success in mate acquisition and ejaculate traits influencing competitive fertilization success are under intense sexual selection. However, relative investment in these pre- and postcopulatory traits depends on the relative importance of either selection episode and on the energetic costs and fitness gains of investing in these traits. Theoretical and empirical work has improved our understanding of how precopulatory sexual traits and investments in sperm production covary in this context....

Data from: Fossilization of melanosomes via sulfurization

Maria E. McNamara, Bart E. Van Dongen, Nick P. Lockyer, Ian D. Bull & Patrick J. Orr
Fossil melanin granules (melanosomes) are an important resource for inferring the evolutionary history of colour and its functions in animals. The taphonomy of melanin and melanosomes, however, is incompletely understood. In particular, the chemical processes responsible for melanosome preservation have not been investigated. As a result, the origins of sulfur-bearing compounds in fossil melanosomes are difficult to resolve. This has implications for interpretations of original colour in fossils based on potential sulfur-rich phaeomelanosomes. Here we...

Data from: Chemical signals from eggs facilitate cryptic female choice in humans

John Fitzpatrick, Charlotte Willis, Alessandro Devigili, Amy Young, Michael Carroll, Helen Hunter & Daniel Brison
Mate choice can continue after mating via chemical communication between the female reproductive system and sperm. While there is a growing appreciation that females can bias sperm use and paternity by exerting cryptic female choice for preferred males, we know surprisingly little about the mechanisms underlying these post-mating choices. In particular, whether chemical signals released from eggs (chemoattractants) allow females to exert cryptic female choice to favour sperm from specific males remains an open question,...

Data from: Testing the CREA ‘rule’ in Galliformes

Marta Linde-Medina & M. Linde-Medina
Recent comparative studies have indicated the existence of a common cranial evolutionary allometric (CREA) pattern in mammals and birds, in which smaller species have relatively smaller faces and bigger braincases than larger species. In these studies, cranial allometry was tested using a multivariate regression between shape (described using landmarks coordinates) and size (i.e. centroid size), after accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Alternatively, cranial allometry can be determined by comparing the sizes of two anatomical parts using...

Data from: Illness beliefs in end stage renal disease and associations with self-care modality choice

Anuradha Jayanti, Philip Foden, Alison Wearden & Sandip Mitra
Background: Interest in self-care haemodialysis (HD) has increased because it improves patients’clinical and quality-of-life outcomes. Patients who undertake self-management for haemodialysis may hold illness beliefs differently to those choosing institutional care at the time of making the modality choice or moulded by their illness and dialysis treatment experience. Illness perceptions amongst predialysis patients and in those undertaking fully-assisted and self-care haemodialysis are being investigated in a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Study Design: The study...

Data from: Comparative phylogeography reveals a shared impact of Pleistocene environmental change in shaping genetic diversity within nine Anopheles mosquito species across the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot

Katy Morgan, Samantha M. O’Loughlin, Bin Chen, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Damrongpan Thongwat, Pradya Somboon, Mun Yik Fong, Roger Butlin, Robert Verity, Anil Prakash, Thaung Hlaing, Simone Nambanya, Duong Socheat, Trung Ho Dinh & Catherine Walton
Southeast Asia is one of the world’s richest regions in terms of biodiversity. An understanding of the distribution of diversity and the factors shaping it is lacking, yet essential for identifying conservation priorities for the region’s highly threatened biodiversity. Here we take a large scale comparative approach, combining data from nine forest associated Anopheles mosquito species and using statistical phylogeographic methods to disentangle the effects of environmental history, species specific ecology, and random coalescent effects....

Data from: Simple measures of climate, soil properties and plant traits predict national scale grassland soil carbon stocks

Peter Manning, Franciska T. De Vries, Jerry R. B. Tallowin, Roger Smith, Simon R. Mortimer, Emma S. Pilgrim, Kate A. Harrison, Daniel G. Wright, Helen Quirk, Joseph Benson, Bill Shipley, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bönisch, Christian Wirth & Richard D. Bardgett
1. Soil carbon (C) storage is a key ecosystem service. Soil C stocks play a vital role in soil fertility and climate regulation, but the factors that control these stocks at regional and national scales are unknown, particularly when their composition and stability are considered. As a result, their mapping relies on either unreliable proxy measures or laborious direct measurements. 2. Using data from an extensive national survey of English grasslands, we show that surface...

Data from: A multi-breed genome-wide association analysis for canine hypothyroidism identifies a shared major risk locus on CFA12

Matteo Bianchi, Stina Dahlgren, Jonathan Massey, Elisabeth Dietschi, Marcin Kierczak, Martine Lund-Ziener, Katarina Sundberg, Stein Istre Thoresen, Olle Kämpe, Göran Andersson, William E. R. Ollier, Åke Hedhammar, Tosso Leeb, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Lorna J. Kennedy, Frode Lingaas, Gerli Rosengren Pielberg & Stein Istre Thoresen
Bianchi, Dahlgren et al., Canine Hypothyroidism data

Data from: Almost a spider: a 305-million-year-old fossil arachnid and spider origins

Russell J. Garwood, Jason A. Dunlop, Paul A. Selden, Alan R. T. Spencer, Robert C. Atwood, Nghia T. Vo & Michael Drakopoulos
Spiders are an important animal group, with a long history. Details of their origins remain limited, with little knowledge of their stem group, and no insights into the sequence of character acquisition during spider evolution. We describe a new fossil arachnid, Idmonarachne brasieri gen. et sp. nov. from the late Carboniferous (Stephanian, ca. 305–299 Ma) of Montceau-les-Mines, France. It is three-dimensionally preserved within a siderite concretion, allowing both laboratory- and synchrotron-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT)...

Data from: Spatially coordinated dynamic gene transcription in living pituitary tissue

Karen Featherstone, Kirsty Hey, Hiroshi Momiji, Anne V. McNamara, Amanda L. Patist, Joanna Woodburn, David G. Spiller, Helen C. Christian, Alan S. McNeilly, John J. Mullins, Barbel F. Finkenstadt, David A. Rand, Michael R. H. White & Julian R. E. Davis
Transcription at individual genes in single cells is often pulsatile and stochastic. A key question emerges regarding how this behaviour contributes to tissue phenotype, but it has been a challenge to quantitatively analyse this in living cells over time, as opposed to studying snap-shots of gene expression state. We have used imaging of reporter gene expression to track transcription in living pituitary tissue. We integrated live-cell imaging data with statistical modelling for quantitative real-time estimation...

Data from: Novel Fibonacci and non-Fibonacci structure in the sunflower: results of a citizen science experiment

Jonathan Swinton & Erinma Ochu
This citizen science study evaluates the occurrence of Fibonacci structure in the spirals of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedheads. This phenomenon has competing biomathematical explanations, and our core premise is that observation of both Fibonacci and non-Fibonacci structure is informative for challenging such models. We collected data on 657 sunflowers. In our most reliable data subset, we evaluated 768 clockwise or anticlockwise parastichy numbers of which 565 were Fibonacci numbers, and a further 67 had Fibonacci...

Financing Community Energy Case Studies : Gwent Energy CIC

Iain Cairns, Matthew Hannon, Timothy Braunholtz-Speight, Carly McLachlan, Sarah Mander, Edward Manderson, Maria Sharmina & Jeff Hardy
This report presents the third of four case studies of UK community energy organisations conducted during 2018/19. These will later be included as part of a synthesis briefing alongside a series of sector-level interviews. The case study makes use of a combination of qualitative (e.g. interviews, organisation reports) and quantitative (e.g. financial reports) data. Summary of key lessons: The withdrawal of the FiT has made business model innovation necessary, whilst legacy revenues from the FiT...

HELIO, a powerful tool for Space Weather Science

Jean Aboudarham, Robert D. Bentley, André Csillaghy, Christian Jacquey, Philip J. Richards, Karine Bocchialini, Mauro Messerotti, John Brooke, Peter Gallagher, Aaron Roberts, Peter Fox & Neal Hurlburt
This paper describes all the tools developed in the European FP7 project HELIO. Detailed explanation of all that is available at publication date on the HELIO web site and in each individual service. It gives also clues on the way to use it to perform efficient data search oriented towards Space Weather application.

Financing Community Energy Case Studies : Edinburgh Community Solar Cooperative

Iain Cairns, Matthew Hannon, Timothy Braunholtz-Speight, Carly McLachlan, Sarah Mander, Edward Manderson, Maria Sharmina & Jeff Hardy
This report presents the first of four case studies of UK community energy organisations conducted during 2018/19. These will later be included as part of a synthesis briefing alongside findings from a series of sectoral-level interviews. The case study makes use of a combination of qualitative (e.g. interviews, organisation reports) and quantitative (e.g. financial reports) data. Key summary lessons include: The ability of community energy organisations to raise community finance is underpinned by government subsidies...

Ecosystem functions and vegetation data for Winklebury Hill, Salisbury Plain, UK in 2015

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock & S. Oakley
This dataset contains vegetation survey data, and nitrate and ammonium concentrations, nitrification and mineralisation rates, microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen stock data from soils taken from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data were measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and...

Ecosystem function data from Winklebury Hill, UK, in 2013

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell & J.M. Bullock
This dataset contains nitrate and ammonium concentrations, nitrification and mineralisation rates, particle size and microbial biomass data from soils taken from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The experiment used seeds and plug plants to create different plant communities on the bare chalk on Winklebury Hill and tested the resulting carbon and nutrient cycling rates and compared these to the characteristics of different plant functional groups. The experiment ran from 2013 to 2016 and...

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