285 Works

Cross-scale Spatial Enrichment of Trajectories for Speeding Up Similarity Computing

Cheng Fu & Robert Weibel

Remotely sensed forest understory density and nest predator occurrence interact to predict suitable breeding habitat and the occurrence of a resident boreal bird species

Julian Klein, Paul Haverkamp, Eva Lindberg, Michael Griesser & Sönke Eggers
Habitat suitability models (HSM) based on remotely sensed data are useful tools in conservation work. However, they typically use species occurrence data rather than robust demographic variables, and their predictive power is rarely evaluated. These shortcomings can result in misleading guidance for conservation. Here, we develop and evaluate a HSM based on correlates of long term breeding success of an open nest building boreal forest bird, the Siberian jay. In our study site in northern...

Terrestrial land-cover type richness is positively linked to landscape-level functioning

Jacqueline Oehri, Bernhard Schmid, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub & Pascal A. Niklaus
Biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiments have shown that local species richness promotes ecosystem functioning and stability. Whether this also applies under real-world conditions is still debated. Here, we focus on larger scales of space, time and ecological organization. We develop a quasi-experimental design in which we relate land-cover type richness as measure of landscape richness to 17-year time series of satellite-sensed functioning in 4,974 landscape plots 6.25 or 25 ha in size. We choose plots so...

Rotting Bodies: Sex, Gender, and Horror in Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan

Sarah Rebecca Schmid
The success that the kabuki play Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan enjoyed was not simply due to its spectacular stage tricks, but also because of the inescapably intimate (human) nature of the horror displayed on stage. Sexuality and gender in particular dominate the horror on stage. The central character Oiwa serves as a vehicle for gendered fears rooted in Edoperiod attitudes towards sexuality. Keywords: Kabuki, Theatre, Edo Period, Femininity, Ghosts

A sample of Saturn interior density profiles derived with MCMC and gravity-based likelihood.

Naor Movshovitz, Jonathan Fortney, Chris Mankovich, Daniel Thorngren & Ravit Helled
We ran a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to derive the posterior distribution of density profiles for Saturn, where the likelihood function was a chi-squared distributed distance of each curve's gravity coefficients from the values reported for that planet by the Cassini radio science team (Iess et al., 2019). The result is a large sample of interior profiles of Saturn consistent with observation and minimally constrained by model assumptions. This sample is archived here in sufficiently...

Assessing seasonal demographic covariation to understand environmental-change impacts on a hibernating mammal

Maria Paniw, Dylan Childs, Kenneth Armitage, Daniel Blumstein, Julien Martin, Madan Oli & Arpat Ozgul
Natural populations are exposed to seasonal variation in environmental factors that simultaneously affect several demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction). The resulting covariation in these rates determines population dynamics, but accounting for its numerous biotic and abiotic drivers is a significant challenge. Here, we use a factor-analytic approach to capture partially unobserved drivers of seasonal population dynamics. We use 40 years of individual-based demography from yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) to fit and project population models that...

Drivers of large-scale geographical variation in sexual systems of woody plants

Yunyun Wang, Tong Lyu, Nawal Shrestha, Lisha Lyu, Yaoqi Li, Bernhard Schmid, Robert Freckleton, Dimitar Dimitrov, Shuguang Liu, Zhanqing Hao & Zhiheng Wang
Aim: Sexual systems strongly influence angiosperm evolution, and play important roles in community assembly and species responses to climate change. However, geographical variation in proportions of different sexual systems (dioecy, monoecy, and hermaphroditism) in response to changes in climate, life-history traits and evolutionary age remains poorly understood. Here, we map the geographical variation in proportions of different sexual systems and hypothesize that the prevalence of hermaphrodites increases with aridity due to their advantages in colonizing...

Capture-recapture data with partially known birth date in four populations of yellow-bellied toads

Hugo Cayuela, Jean-François Lemaître, Eric Bonnaire, Julian Pichenot & Benedikt Schmidt
1. Patterns of actuarial senescence can be highly variable among species. Previous comparative analyses revealed that both age at the onset of senescence and rates of senescence are linked to species position along the fast-slow life-history continuum. As there are few long-term datasets of wild populations with known-age individuals, intraspecific (i.e. between-population) variation in senescence is understudied and limited to comparisons of wild and captive populations of the same species, mostly birds and mammals. 2....

Data from: Warming reduces the effects of enrichment on stability and functioning across levels of organization in an aquatic microbial ecosystem

Andrea Tabi, Owen Petchey & Frank Pennekamp
Warming and nutrient enrichment are major environmental factors shaping ecological dynamics. However, cross-scale investigation of their combined effects by linking theory and experiments is lacking. We collected data from aquatic microbial ecosystems investigating the interactive effects of warming (constant and rising temperatures) and enrichment across levels of organization and contrasted them with community models based on metabolic theory. We found high agreement between our observations and theoretical predictions: we observed in many cases the predicted...

Data from: Implementation of new standard operating procedures for geriatric trauma patients with multiple injuries: a single level I trauma centre study

Lorenz Peterer, Christian Ossendorf, Kai Oliver Jensen, Georg Osterhoff, Ladislav Mica, Burkhardt Seifert, Clément ML Werner, Hans-Peter Simmen, Hans-Christoph Pape & Kai Sprengel
Background The demographic changes towards ageing of the populations in developed countries impose a challenge to trauma centres, as geriatric trauma patients require specific diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This study investigated whether the integration of new standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the resuscitation room (ER) has an impact on the clinical course in geriatric patients. The new SOPs were designed for severely injured adult trauma patients, based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) and...

Intergroup aggression in meerkats

Mark Dyble, Thomas Houslay, Marta Manser & Tim Clutton-Brock
Violent conflicts between groups have been observed among many species of group living mammals and can have important fitness consequences, with individuals being injured or killed and with losing groups surrendering territory. Here, we explore between-group conflict among meerkats (Suricata suricatta), a highly social and cooperatively breeding mongoose. We show that interactions between meerkat groups are frequently 18 aggressive and sometimes escalate to fighting and lethal violence and that these interactions have consequences for group...

Plant responses to diversity-driven selection and associated rhizosphere microbial communities

Cameron Wagg, Terhi Hahl, Sofia Van Moorsel, Marc Schmid, Debra Zuppinger-Dingley, Bernhard Schmid & Cameron Wagg
1. Plant diversity loss can alter plant interactions and rhizosphere microbial communities. These altered interactions in turn exert diversity-driven selection pressures to which plants may respond with phenotypic changes. Diverse plant communities may favour the survival and fitness of individuals with traits that avoid competition. Conversely monocultures may accumulate species-specific pests favouring greater investment in defence traits. Yet it is unknown how altered plant rhizosphere interactions influence the plant diversity-driven selection for altered plant phenotypes....

Data from: An analysis of mating biases in trees

Sascha Asif Ismail & Hanna Kokko
Assortative mating is a deviation from random mating based on phenotypic similarity. As it is much better studied in animals than in plants, we investigate for trees whether kinship of realized mating pairs deviates from what is expected from the set of potential mates and use this information to infer mating biases that may result from kin recognition and/or assortative mating. Our analysis covers twenty species of trees for which microsatellite data is available for...

Epidermal Growth Factor signaling promotes sleep through a combined series and parallel neural circuit

Jan Konietzka, Maximilian Fritz, Silvan Spiri, Rebecca McWhirter, Andreas Leha, Sierra Palumbos, Wagner Steuer Costa, Alexandra Oranth, Alexander Gottschalk, M. Miller III, David, Alex Hajnal & Henrik Bringmann
Sleep requires sleep-active neurons that depolarize to inhibit wake circuits. Sleep-active neurons are under the control of homeostatic mechanisms that determine sleep need. However, little is known about the molecular and circuit mechanisms that translate sleep need into the depolarization of sleep-active neurons. During many stages and conditions in C. elegans, sleep requires a sleep-active neuron called RIS. Here, we defined the transcriptome of RIS to discover that genes of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor...

Data from: Fear of the dark? contrasting impacts of humans vs lynx on diel activity of roe deer across Europe

Nadège C. Bonnot, Ophélie Couriot, Anne Berger, Francesca Cagnacci, Simone Ciuti, Johannes De Groeve, Benedikt Gehr, Marco Heurich, Petter Kjellander, Max Kröschel, Nicolas Morellet, Leif Sönnichsen & A.J. Mark Hewison
Humans, as super predators, can have strong effects on wildlife behaviour, including profound modifications of diel activity patterns. Subsequent to the return of large carnivores to human-modified ecosystems, many prey species have adjusted their spatial behaviour to the contrasting landscapes of fear generated by both their natural predators and anthropogenic pressures. The effects of predation risk on temporal shifts in diel activity of prey, however, remain largely unexplored in human-dominated landscapes. We investigated the influence...

Intraspecific mating system evolution and its effect on complex male secondary sexual traits: does male-male competition increase selection on size or shape?

Julian Baur, Jeannine Roy, Martin A. Schäfer, Nalini Puniamoorthy, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Patrick T. Rohner
Sexual selection is generally held responsible for the exceptional diversity in secondary sexual traits in animals. Mating system evolution is therefore expected to profoundly affect the covariation between secondary sexual traits and mating success. While there is such evidence at the interspecific level, data within species remain scarce. We here investigate sexual selection acting on the exaggerated male fore femur and the male wing in the common and widespread dung flies Sepsis punctum and S....

Data from: Global fern and lycophyte richness explained: how regional and local factors shape plot richness

Michael Kessler, Anna Weigand, Helge Bruelheide, Hanna Tuomisto, Holger Kreft & Patrick Weigelt
Aim To disentangle the influence of environmental factors at different spatial grains (regional and local) on fern and lycophyte species richness and ask how regional and plot-level richness are related to each other. Location Global. Time Period Present. Major Taxa studied Ferns and lycophytes. Methods We explored fern and lycophyte species richness at two spatial grains, regional (hexagonal grid cells of 7666 km2) and plot-level (300–500 m2), in relation to environmental data at regional and...

Inferring competitive outcomes, ranks and intransitivity from empirical data: A comparison of different methods

Enrica De Luca, Bernhard Schmid, Yanhao Feng, Santiago Soliveres, Eric Allan, Benjamin Rosenbaum, Cameron Wagg, Andrea Tabi, Nico Eisenhauer, Alexandra Weigelt, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Christiane Roscher & Markus Fischer
The inference of pairwise competitive outcomes (PCO) and multispecies competitive ranks and intransitivity from empirical data is essential to evaluate how competition shapes plant communities. Three categories of methods, differing in theoretical background and data requirements, have been used: (a) theoretically sound coexistence theory‐based methods, (b) index‐based methods, and (c) ‘process‐from‐pattern’ methods. However, how they are related is largely unknown. In this study, we explored the relations between the three categories by explicitly comparing three...

Data from: Steroid hormones in hair reveal sexual maturity and competition in wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus)

Esther Carlitz, Jan-Niklas Runge, Barbara König, Lennart Winkler, Clemens Kirschbaum, Wei Gao & Anna Lindholm
This dataset belongs to the following article: Carlitz, E.H.D., Runge, J.-N., König, B., Winkler, L., Kirschbaum, C., Gao, W., Lindholm, A.K., 2019. Steroid hormones in hair reveal sexual maturity and competition in wild house mice ( Mus musculus domesticus ). Sci Rep 9, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53362-4 Abstract: Endocrine data from wild populations provide important insight into social systems. However, obtaining samples for traditional methods involves capture and restraint of animals, and/or pain, which can influence the...

Affiliation history and age similarity predict alliance formation in adult male bottlenose dolphins

Livia Gerber, Richard Connor, Stephanie King, Simon Allen, Samuel Wittwer, Manuela Bizzozzero, Whitney Friedman, Stephanie Kalberer, William Sherwin, Sonja Wild, Erik Willems & Michael Kruetzen
Male alliances are an intriguing phenomenon in the context of reproduction since, in most taxa, males compete over an indivisible resource, female fertilization. Adult male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Shark Bay, Western Australia, form long-term, multi-level alliances to sequester estrus females. These alliances are therefore critical to male reproductive success. Yet, the long-term processes leading to the formation of such complex social bonds are still poorly understood. To identify the criteria by which male...

Embryo survival in the oviduct not significantly influenced by major histocompatibility complex social signaling in the horse

Elise Jeannerat, Eliane Marti, Selina Thomas, Harald Sieme, Claus Wedekind, Dominik Burger & Carolina Herrera
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influences sexual selection in various vertebrates. Recently, MHC-linked social signaling was also shown to influence female fertility in horses (Equus caballus) diagnosed 17 days after fertilization. However, it remained unclear at which stage the pregnancy was terminated. Here we test if MHC-linked cryptic female choice in horses happens during the first days of pregnancy, i.e., until shortly after embryonic entrance into the uterus and before fixation in the endometrium. We...

Diversity, dynamics and effects of LTR retrotransposons in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

Anne Roulin
Transposable elements (TEs) are the main reason for the high plasticity of plant genomes, where they occur as communities of diverse evolutionary lineages. Because research has typically focused on single abundant families or summarized TEs at a coarse taxonomic level, our knowledge about how these lineages differ in their effects on genome evolution is still rudimentary. Here we investigate the community composition and dynamics of 32 long terminal repeat retrotransposon (LTR-RT) families in the 272...

Estimating uncertainty in divergence times among three-spined stickleback clades using the multispecies coalescent

Bohao Fang, Juha Merilä, Michael Matschiner & Paolo Momigliano
Incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) can lead to biased divergence time estimates. To explore if and how ILS has influenced the results of a recent study of worldwide phylogeny of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we estimated divergence times among major clades by applying both a concatenation approach and the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model to single-nucleotide polymorphisms. To further test the influence of different calibration strategies, we applied different calibrations to the root and to younger nodes...

Phylogeography, more than elevation, accounts for sex-chromosome differentiation in Swiss populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Barret Phillips, Nicolas Rodrigues, Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg & Nicolas Perrin
Sex chromosomes in vertebrates range from highly heteromorphic (as in most birds and mammals) to strictly homomorphic (as in many fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles). Reasons for these contrasted evolutionary trajectories remain unclear, but species such as common frogs with polymorphism in the extent of sex-chromosome differentiation may potentially deliver important clues. By investigating 92 common-frog populations from a wide range of elevations throughout Switzerland, we show that sex-chromosome differentiation strongly correlates with alleles at...

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  • University of Zurich
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
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