411 Works

Data from: Structural and defensive roles of angiosperm leaf venation network reticulation across an Andes-Amazon elevation gradient

Benjamin Blonder, Norma Salinas, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Alexander Shenkin, Percy Orlando Chambi Porroa, Yolvi Valdez Tejeira, Tatiana Erika Boza Espinoza, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Lucas Enrico, Roberta Martin, Gregory P. Asner, Sandra Díaz, Brian J. Enquist, Yadvinder Malhi & Lisa Patrick Bentley
1.The network of minor veins of angiosperm leaves may include loops (reticulation). Variation in network architecture has been hypothesized to have hydraulic and also structural and defensive functions. 2.We measured venation network trait space in eight dimensions for 136 biomass-dominant angiosperm tree species along a 3,300 m elevation gradient in southeastern Peru. We then examined the relative importance of multiple ecological, and evolutionary predictors of reticulation. 3.Variation in minor venation network reticulation was constrained to...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Daphnia invest in sexual reproduction when its relative costs are reduced

Nina Gerber, Hanna Kokko, Dieter Ebert & Isobel Booksmythe
The timing of sex in facultatively sexual organisms is critical to fitness, due to the differing demographic consequences of sexual vs. asexual reproduction. In addition to the costs of sex itself, an association of sex with the production of dormant life stages also influences the optimal use of sex, especially in environments where resting eggs are essential to survive unfavourable conditions. Here we document population dynamics and the occurrence of sexual reproduction in natural populations...

Data from: Reverse audience effects on helping in cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys

Rahel K. Brügger, Theresa Kappeler-Schmalzriedt, Judith M. Burkart, J. M. Burkart & T. Kappeler-Schmalzriedt
Cooperatively breeding common marmosets show substantial variation in the amount of help they provide. Pay-to-stay and social prestige models of helping attribute this variation to audience effects, i.e. that individuals help more if group members can witness their interactions with immatures, whereas models of kin selection, group augmentation, or ones stressing the need to gain parenting experience do not predict any audience effects. We quantified the readiness of adult marmosets to share food in the...

Data from: Evaluating alternative explanations for an association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness in multiple insular lineages.

Ben H. Warren, Oskar Hagen, Florian Gerber, Christophe Thebaud, Emmanuel Paradis & Elena Conti
Studies in insular environments have often documented a positive association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness (i.e. how distant a species is from its closest living relative). However, the cause of this association is unclear. One explanation is that species threatened with extinction are evolutionarily unique because they are old, implying that extinction risk increases with time since speciation (age-dependent extinction). An alternative explanation is that such threatened species are last survivors of clades that...

Data from: Assessing canalisation of intraspecific variation on a macroevolutionary scale: the case of crinoid arms through the Phanerozoic

Catalina Pimiento, Kit Lam Tang, Samuel Zamora, Christian Klug & Marcelo Ricardo Sánchez-Villagra
Pictures of Crinoid Specimens 1Pictures of species with names that start with the letters A-Ccrinoids_1.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 2Pictures of species with names that start with the letters D-Ocrinoids_2.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 3Pictures of species with names that start with the letter Pcrinoids_3.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 4Pictures of species with names that start with the letters S-Zcrinoids_4.zip

Data from: Sex-specific additive genetic variances and correlations for fitness in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population subject to natural immigration and inbreeding

Matthew Ernest Wolak, Peter Arcese, Lukas F. Keller, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Jane M. Reid & Matthew E. Wolak
Quantifying sex-specific additive genetic variance (VA) in fitness, and the cross-sex genetic correlation (rA), is prerequisite to predicting evolutionary dynamics and the magnitude of sexual conflict. Further, quantifying VA and rA in underlying fitness components, and genetic consequences of immigration and resulting gene flow, is required to identify mechanisms that maintain VA in fitness. However, these key parameters have rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation and immigration. We used comprehensive pedigree...

Data from: Lecanora caperatica (Lecanoraceae, lichenized ascomycetes) a new sorediate species widespread in eastern North America

Olivia A. Asher & James C. Lendemer
Lecanora caperatica is described based on collections from throughout temperate eastern North America. It is a crustose sorediate species in the L. subfusca group which has pulcaris-type apothecia, and produces atranorin and caperatic acid often with accessory roccellic/angardianic acid. The species is chemically similar to the European L. mugosphagneti which differs in ecology, thallus morphology and in having albella-type apothecia. The generic placement of L. caperatica, and its affinity to the L. subfusca group, are...

Data from: Parasites driving host diversity: incidence of disease correlated with Daphnia clonal turnover

Patrick Turko, Christoph Tellenbach, Esther Keller, Nadine Tardent, Barbara Keller, Piet Spaak & Justyna Wolinska
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency-dependant selection by co-evolving parasites. If common clones are selected against and rare clones gain a concomitant advantage, we expect that clonal turnover should be faster during parasite epidemics than between them. We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia – Caullerya host-parasite system. The clonal make-up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with...

Data from: Climatic factors shape plastic trade-offs in the polyphenic black scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica (Diptera: Sepsidae)

Juan Pablo Busso & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Aim: Trade-offs allow individuals to optimize their fitness by tailoring the investment into different traits to variable environmental conditions, such as along geographic gradients. Trade-offs thus can help in adjusting to changing thermal and insolation profiles, especially in small ectotherms, whose body temperature typically follows environmental temperatures closely. Two traits usually involved in latitudinal adaptation are body size and melanism. Since both traits are costly, individuals need to optimize investment into each trait. Here we...

Data from: Socially informed dispersal in a territorial cooperative breeder

Gabriele Cozzi, Nino Maag, Luca Börger, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Arpat Ozgul
1. Dispersal is a key process governing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations, and involves three distinct stages: emigration, transience, and settlement. At each stage, individuals have to make movement decisions, which are influenced by social, environmental, and individual factors. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the drivers that influence such decisions is still lacking, particularly for the transient stage during which free-living individuals are inherently difficult to follow. 2. Social circumstances such as...

Data from: Resilience of seed production to a severe El Niño‐induced drought across functional groups and dispersal types

Michael J. O'Brien, Daniel Peréz-Aviles & Jennifer S. Powers
More frequent and severe El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) are causing episodic periods of decreased rainfall. Although the effects of these ENSO-induced droughts on tree growth and mortality have been well studied, the impacts on other demographic rates such as reproduction are less well known. We use a four-year seed rain dataset encompassing the most severe ENSO-induced drought in more than 30 years to assess the resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery) of the seed composition...

Data from: Plant life history stage and nurse age change the development of ecological networks in an arid ecosystem

Gianalberto Losapio, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Michael J. O'Brien & Christian Schöb
Understanding how ecological networks are organised over the course of an organism’s lifetime is crucial for predicting the dynamics of interacting populations and communities across temporal scales. However, most studies so far considered only one life history stage at a time, such as adult, when studying networks of interacting species. Therefore, knowledge about how multiple life history stages affect the development and stability of plant–plant association networks is lacking. We measured the understory adult plant...

Data from: Male monkeys use punishment and coercion to de-escalate costly intergroup fights

T. Jean M. Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L. Taucher, Carel P. Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
In numerous social species, males direct aggression towards female group members during intergroup fights, and this behaviour is commonly thought to function as mate guarding, even though males often target non-receptive females. In studying intergroup fights in a wild population of vervet monkeys, we found that male intragroup aggression was primarily directed towards individuals who had either just finished exhibiting, or were currently attempting to instigate intergroup aggression. Targeted females were less likely to instigate...

Data from: Hibernation constrains brain size evolution in mammals

Sandra Andrea Heldstab, Karin Isler, Carel P. Van Schaik & Sandra A. Heldstab
The expensive brain hypothesis predicts that the lowest stable level of steady energy input acts as a strong constraint on a species’ brain size, and thus that periodic troughs in net energy intake should select for reduced brain size relative to body mass. Here, we test this prediction for the extreme case of hibernation. Hibernators drastically reduce food intake for up to several months, and are therefore expected to have smaller relative brain sizes than...

Data from: Ramalina sarahae (Ramalinaceae), a new species from the Channel Islands of California, U.S.A.

Kerry Knudsen, James C. Lendemer & Jana Kocourková
Ramalina sarahae is described as new to science and considered to be closely related to the widespread R. lacera. It has a cortex without chondroid strands but differs from R. lacera in having a densely caespitose thallus of thin branches with only pseudocyphellae. The species is considered to be naturally rare, occurring in a small area of San Miguel Island in southern California, and on San Nicolas Island. Currently eight species of Ramalina are known...

Data from: Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia

Carlos Jaramillo, Ingrid Romero, Carlos D'Apolito, German Bayona, Edward Duarte, Stephen Louwye, Jaime Escobar, Javier Luque, Jorge D. Carrillo-Briceño, Vladimir Zapata, Andrés Mora, Stefan Schouten, Michael Zavada, Guy Harrington, John Ortiz & Frank P. Wesselingh
There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during the Miocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in the Llanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and palynological data from two sediment cores taken in eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil together with seismic information. We observed two distinct marine intervals in the Llanos Basin, an early Miocene that lasted...

Data from: The strength of the association between heterozygosity and probability of interannual local recruitment increases with environmental harshness in blue tits

Esperanza S. Ferrer, Vicente García-Navas, Juan José Sanz & Joaquín Ortego
The extent of inbreeding depression and the magnitude of heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFC) have been suggested to depend on the environmental context in which they are assayed, but little evidence is available for wild populations. We combine extensive molecular and capture–mark–recapture data from a blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) population to (1) analyze the relationship between heterozygosity and probability of interannual adult local recruitment and (2) test whether environmental stress imposed by physiologically suboptimal temperatures and rainfall...

Data from: Information use shapes the dynamics of range expansions into environmental gradients

Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Nicolai Nitsche & Florian Altermatt
Globally, the geographical distributions of species are dynamic and strongly influenced by dispersal. At the same time, range dynamics feed back and may select for increased dispersal at expanding range fronts. This interplay between macroecological and evolutionary dynamics happens almost universally across environmental gradients and such gradients can have a direct impact on the fitness of organisms due to the match or mismatch between an individual's environmental optimum and the current conditions along the gradient....

Data from: Genome assembly and annotation of Arabidopsis halleri, a model for heavy metal hyperaccumulation and evolutionary ecology

Roman V. Briskine, Timothy Paape, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Satoru Akama, Jun Sese & Kentaro K. Shimizu
The self-incompatible species Arabidopsis halleri is a close relative of the self-compatible model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The broad European and Asian distribution and heavy metal hyperaccumulation ability make A. halleri a useful model for ecological genomics studies. We used long-insert mate-pair libraries to improve the genome assembly of the A. halleri ssp. gemmifera Tada mine genotype (W302) collected from a site with high contamination by heavy metals in Japan. After five rounds of forced selfing,...

Data from: Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block & Barbara König
Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship...

Data from: Female monkeys use both the carrot and the stick to promote male participation in intergroup fights

T. Jean Marie Arseneau-Robar, Anouk Lisa Taucher, Eliane Müller, Carel Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
Group-level cooperation often poses a social dilemma in which joint action may be difficult to achieve. Theoretical models and experimental work on humans show that social incentives, such as punishment of defectors and rewarding of cooperators, can promote cooperation in groups of unrelated individuals. Here, we demonstrate that these processes can operate in a non-human animal species, and be used to effectively promote the production of a public good. We took advantage of the fact...

Data from: Predation risk drives the expression of mobbing across bird species

Filipe C.R. Cunha, Julio C.R. Fontenelle & Michael Griesser
Many species approach predators to harass and drive them away, even though mobbing a predator can be deadly. However, not all species display this behavior, and those that do can exhibit different behaviors while mobbing different predators. Here we experimentally assessed the role of social and ecological traits on the expression of mobbing behavior in a bird community in SE Brazil (n=157 species). We exposed birds to models of two morphologically similar diurnal owls that...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism in epicuticular compounds despite similar sexual selection in sex role-reversed seed beetles

Isobel Booksmythe, Howard D. Rundle, Göran Arnqvist, H. D. Rundle, I. Booksmythe & G. Arnqvist
Sexual selection imposed by mating preferences is often implicated in the evolution of both sexual dimorphism and divergence between species in signalling traits. Epicuticular compounds (ECs) are important signalling traits in insects and show extensive variability among and within taxa. Here, we investigate whether variation in the multivariate EC profiles of two sex role-reversed beetle species, Megabruchidius dorsalis and Megabruchidius tonkineus, predicts mate attractiveness and mating success in males and females. The two species had...

Data from: Ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing in Early Jurassic belemnites from Germany and France, and their palaeobiological implications

Ryoji Wani, Amane Tajika, Kenji Ikuno & Tetsuro Iwasaki
Based on well-preserved belemnites, the ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing between succeeding chambers were analysed. In the examined species (Passaloteuthis laevigata, Parapassaloteuthis zieteni and Pseudohasitites longiformis) that come from Buttenheim, Germany, and Lixhausen, France, the ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing follow exponentially increasing trends with no decreasing phase of septal crowding during the earliest ontogenetic stage. The absence of a decreasing trend at the earliest ontogenetic stage is a unique character in contrast with those...

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