407 Works

Data from: Next-generation monitoring of aquatic biodiversity using environmental DNA metabarcoding

Alice Valentini, Pierre Taberlet, Claude Miaud, Raphaël Civade, Jelger Herder, Philip Francis Thomsen, Eva Bellemain, Aurélien Besnard, Eric Coissac, Frédéric Boyer, Coline Gaboriaud, Pauline Jean, Nicolas Poulet, Nicolas Roset, Gordon H. Copp, Philippe Geniez, Didier Pont, Christine Argillier, Jean-Marc Baudoin, Tiphaine Peroux, Alain J. Crivelli, Anthony Olivier, Manon Acqueberge, Matthieu Le Brun, Peter Rask Møller … & Tony Dejean
Global biodiversity in freshwater and the oceans is declining at high rates. Reliable tools for assessing and monitoring aquatic biodiversity, especially for rare and secretive species, are important for efficient and timely management. Recent advances in DNA sequencing have provided a new tool for species detection from DNA present into the environment. In this study, we tested if an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approach, using water samples, can be used for addressing significant questions in...

Data from: Morphological drivers of trophic cascades

Clémentine Renneville, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Michel Baylac, Alexis Millot, Stéphane Loisel, Eric Edeline & Arnaud Le Rouzic
Worldwide, local anthropogenic extinctions have recently been reported to induce trophic cascades, defined as perturbations of top consumers that propagate along food chains down to primary producers. This focus on the effects of top-consumer extinction (i.e. of species presence) ignores potential cascading effects of the rapid morphological changes that may precede extinction. Here, we show in an experimental, three-level food chain including medaka fish, herbivorous zooplankton and unicellular algae that varying body length of a...

Data from: Climate and habitat interacts to shape the thermal reaction norms of breeding phenology across lizard populations

Alexis Rutschmann, Donald B. Miles, Jean-François Le Galliard, Murielle Richard, Sylvain Moulhérat, Barry Sinervo & Jean Clobert
1. Substantial plastic variation in phenology in response to environmental heterogeneity through time in the same population has been uncovered in many species. However, our understanding of differences in reaction norms of phenology among populations from a given species remains limited. 2. Since the plasticity of phenological traits is often influenced by local thermal conditions, we expect local temperature to generate variation in the reaction norms between populations. 3. Here, we explored temporal variation in...

Data from: Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird

Rémi Fay, Christophe Barbraud, Karine Delord & Henri Weimerskirch
Variability in demographic traits between individuals within populations has profound implications for both evolutionary processes and population dynamics. Parental effects as a source of non-genetic inheritance are important processes to consider to understand the causes of individual variation. In iteroparous species, parental age is known to influence strongly reproductive success and offspring quality, but consequences on offspring fitness component after independence are much less studied. Based on a 37 years longitudinal monitoring of a long-lived...

Data from: Adaptation to climate through flowering phenology: a case study in Medicago truncatula

Concetta Burgarella, Nathalie Chantret, Laurène Gay, Jean-Marie Prosperi, Maxime Bonhomme, Peter Tiffin, Nevin D. Young & Joelle Ronfort
Local climatic conditions likely constitute an important selective pressure on genes underlying important fitness-related traits such as flowering time and in many species flowering phenology and climatic gradients strongly covary. To test whether climate shapes genetic variation on flowering time genes and to identify candidate flowering genes involved in the adaptation to environmental heterogeneity, we used a large M. truncatula core collection to examine the association between nucleotide polymorphisms at 224 candidate genes and both...

Data from: Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

Marion Segall, Raphaël Cornette, Anne-Claire Fabre, Ramiro Godoy-Diana & Anthony Herrel
Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups...

Data from: Seascape and life-history traits do not predict self-recruitment in a coral reef fish

Marcela Herrera, Gerrit B. Nanninga, Serge Planes, Geoffrey P. Jones, Simon R. Thorrold, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Glenn R. Almany & Michael L. Berumen
The persistence and resilience of many coral reef species are dependent on rates of connectivity among sub-populations. However, despite increasing research efforts, the spatial scale of larval dispersal remains unpredictable for most marine metapopulations. Here, we assess patterns of larval dispersal in the angelfish Centropyge bicolor in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, using parentage and sibling reconstruction analyses based on 23 microsatellite DNA loci. We found that, contrary to previous findings in this system, self-recruitment...

Data from: Initial genetic diversity enhances population establishment and alters genetic structuring of a newly established Daphnia metapopulation

Christopher J. Holmes, Jelena H. Pantel, Kimberly L. Schulz & Carla E. Cáceres
When newly created habitats are initially colonized by genotypes with rapid population growth rates, later arriving colonists may be prevented from establishing. Although these priority effects have been documented in multiple systems, their duration may be influenced by the diversity of the founding population. We conducted a large-scale field manipulation to investigate how initial clonal diversity influences temporal and landscape patterns of genetic structure in a developing metapopulation. Six genotypes of obligately asexual Daphnia pulex...

Data from: Morphological integration in the appendicular skeleton of two domestic taxa: the horse and donkey

Pauline Hanot, Anthony Herrel, Claude Guintard & Raphaël Cornette
Organisms are organized into suites of anatomical structures that typically covary when developmentally or functionally related, and this morphological integration plays a determinant role in evolutionary processes. Artificial selection on domestic species causes strong morphological changes over short time spans, frequently resulting in a wide and exaggerated phenotypic diversity. This raises the question of whether integration constrains the morphological diversification of domestic species and how natural and artificial selection may impact integration patterns. Here, we...

Data from: Selection on skewed characters and the paradox of stasis

Suzanne Bonamour, Céline Teplitsky, Anne Charmantier, Pierre-André Crochet & Luis-Miguel Chevin
Observed phenotypic responses to selection in the wild often differ from predictions based on measurements of selection and genetic variance. An overlooked hypothesis to explain this paradox of stasis is that a skewed phenotypic distribution affects natural selection and evolution. We show through mathematical modelling that, when a trait selected for an optimum phenotype has a skewed distribution, directional selection is detected even at evolutionary equilibrium, where it causes no change in the mean phenotype....

Data from: Modelling unbiased dispersal kernels over continuous space by accounting for spatial heterogeneity in marking and observation efforts

Joël Chadoeuf, Alexandre Millon, Jean-Luc Bourrioux, Thierry Printemps, Benoit Van Hecke, Vincent Lecoustre & Vincent Bretagnolle
1. Although a key demographic trait determining the spatial dynamics of wild populations, dispersal is notoriously difficult to estimate in the field. Indeed, dispersal distances obtained from the monitoring of marked individuals typically lead to biased estimations of dispersal kernels as a consequence of i) restricted spatial scale of the study areas compared to species potential dispersal and ii) heterogeneity in marking and observation efforts and therfore in detection probability across space. 2. Here we...

Data from: Offspring development and life-history variation in a water flea depends upon clone-specific integration of genetic, non-genetic and environmental cues

Ewan Harney, Steve Paterson & Stewart J. Plaistow
1. Theory predicts that offspring developmental strategies involve the integration of genetic, non-genetic and environmental ‘cues’. But it is unclear how cue integration is achieved during development, and whether this pattern is general or genotype-specific. 2. In order to test this, we manipulated the maternal and offspring environments of three genetically distinct clones of the water flea Daphnia magna taken from different populations. We then quantified the effect that the genotype, maternal environment and the...

Data from: Interpreting ELISA analyses from wild animal samples: some recurrent issues and solutions

Romain Garnier, Raül Ramos, Ana Sanz-Aguilar, Maud Poisbleau, Henri Weimerskirch, Sarah Burthe, Jeremy Tornos & Thierry Boulinier
1. Many studies in disease and immunological ecology rely on the use of assays that quantify the amount of specific antibodies (immunoglobulin) in samples. Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assays (ELISAs) are increasingly used in ecology due to their availability for a broad array of antigens and the limited amount of sampling material they require. Two recurrent methodological issues are nevertheless faced by researchers: (i) the limited availability of immunological assays and reagents developed for non-model species,...

Data from: Among-individual heterogeneity in maternal behaviour and physiology affects reproductive allocation and offspring life-history traits in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans

Eric J. Gangloff, Amanda M. Sparkman & Anne M. Bronikowski
Accumulating evidence suggests that within-individual plasticity of behavioural and physiological traits is limited, resulting in stable among-individual differences in these aspects of the phenotype. Furthermore, these traits often covary within individuals, resulting in a continuum of correlated phenotypic variation among individuals within populations and species. This heterogeneity, in turn, affects individual fitness and can have cross-generational effects. Patterns of trait covariation, among-individual differences, and subsequent fitness consequences have long been recognized in reptiles. Here, we...

Data from: Body reserves mediate trade-offs between life history traits: new insights from small pelagic fish reproduction

Pablo Brosset, Josep Lloret, Marta Muñoz, Christian Fauvel, Elisabeth Van Beveren, Virginie Marques, Jean-Marc Fromentin, Frédéric Ménard & Claire Saraux
Limited resources in the environment prevent individuals from simultaneously maximizing all life-history traits, resulting in trade-offs. In particular, the cost of reproduction is well known to negatively affect energy investment in growth and maintenance. Here, we investigated these trade-offs during contrasting periods of high versus low fish size and body condition (before/after 2008) in the Gulf of Lions. Female reproductive allocation and performance in anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) were examined based on...

Data from: Trait-matching and mass effect determine the functional response of herbivore communities to land use intensification

Gaëtane Le Provost, Nicolas Gross, Luca Börger, Hélène Deraison, Marilyn Roncoroni & Isabelle Badenhausser
1. Trait-based approaches represent a promising way to understand how trophic interactions shape animal communities. The approach relies on the identification of the traits that mediate the linkages between adjacent trophic levels, i.e. “trait-matching”. Yet, how trait-matching explains the abundance and diversity of animal communities has been barely explored. This question may be particularly critical in the context of land use intensification, currently threatening biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. 2. We collected a large dataset...

Data from: Unexpected high vulnerability of functions in wilderness areas: evidence from coral reef fishes

Stephanie D'agata, Laurent Vigliola, Nickolas A.J. Graham, Laurent Wantiez, Valeriano Parravicini, Sébastien Villéger, Gérard Mou-Tham, Phillipe Frolla, Alan M. Friedlander, Michel Kulbicki, David Mouillot & Nicholas A. J. Graham
High species richness is thought to support the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions and services under changing environments. Yet, some species might perform unique functional roles while others are redundant. Thus, the benefits of high species richness in maintaining ecosystem functioning are uncertain if functions have little redundancy, potentially leading to high vulnerability of functions. We studied the natural propensity of assemblages to be functionally buffered against loss prior to fishing activities, using functional trait...

Data from: Recasting the dynamic equilibrium model through a functional lens: the interplay of trait-based community assembly and climate

Jessy Loranger, Cyrille Violle, Bill Shipley, Sandra Lavorel, Anne Bonis, Pablo Cruz, Frédérique Louault, Grégory Loucougaray, François Mesléard, Nicole Yavercovski & Éric Garnier
1. According to the dynamic equilibrium hypothesis (DEH), plant species richness is locally controlled by productivity and disturbance. Given that regional conditions widely affect local environmental variables such as soil nutrient availability, the DEH predictions could be improved by considering how climate influences local controls of species richness. Further, a trait-based approach to community assembly has the potential to reveal a deeper, mechanistic understanding of species richness variation across environments. Here we bring together DEH...

Data from: Social network structure in wintering golden-crowned sparrows is not correlated with kinship

Nina N. Arnberg, Bruce E. Lyon, Daizaburo Shizuka & Alexis S. Chaine
Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory, and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. In a previous study, we discovered...

Data from: Multicontinental community phylogenetics of avian mixed-species flocks reveal the role of the stability of associations and of kleptoparasitism

Guillaume Péron
If understood as a way to forage socially without incurring intra-specific competition for mates or other resources, mixed-species foraging flocks are predicted to be composed of functionally similar species. In the most intensively studied mixed-species foraging system, understory forest birds, relevant functional traits are however extremely difficult to measure and best replaced by phylogenetic relatedness. A multicontinental analysis of flock phylogenetic structure revealed departures from the expected phylogenetic clustering. Long-lasting associations (> one day) were...

Data from: A circannual perspective on daily and total flight distances in a long-distance migratory raptor, the Montagu's harrier, Circus pygargus

Almut E. Schlaich, Willem Bouten, Vincent Bretagnolle, Henning Heldbjerg, Raymond H. G. Klaassen, Iben H. Sørensen, Alexandre Villers & Christiaan Both
Long-distance migrants are particularly recognized for the distances covered on migration, yet little is known about the distances they cover during the rest of the year. GPS-tracks of 29 Montagu's harriers from breeding areas in France, The Netherlands and Denmark showed that harriers fly between 35 653 and 88 049 km yr−1, of which on average only 28.5% is on migration. Mean daily distances during migration were 296 km d−1 in autumn and 252 km...

Data from: A nonrandom subset of olfactory genes is associated with host preference in the fruit fly Drosophila orena

Aaron A. Comeault, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, David A. Turissini, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Jean R. David & Daniel R. Matute
Specialization onto different host plants has been hypothesized to be a major driver of diversification in insects, and traits controlling olfaction have been shown to play a fundamental role in host preferences. A diverse set of olfactory genes control olfactory traits in insects, and it remains unclear whether specialization onto different hosts is likely to involve a nonrandom subset of these genes. Here, we test the role of olfactory genes in a novel case of...

Data from: Aging parasites produce offspring with poor fitness prospects

Cédric Lippens, Bruno Faivre, Clothilde Lechenault & Gabriele Sorci
Senescing individuals have poor survival prospects and low fecundity. They can also produce offspring with reduced survival and reproductive success. We tested the effect of parental age on the performance of descendants in the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus, an intestinal parasite of rodents. We found that offspring of senescing worms had reduced within-host survival and reduced egg shedding over the first month post-infection compared with offspring produced by young parents. These results suggest that declining offspring...

Data from: An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes

Sam Giles, Laurent Darras, Gaël Clément, Alain Blieck & Matt Friedman
Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse living osteichthyan (bony vertebrate) group, with a rich fossil record. However, details of their earliest history during the middle Palaeozoic (Devonian) ‘Age of Fishes' remains sketchy. This stems from an uneven understanding of anatomy in early actinopterygians, with a few well-known species dominating perceptions of primitive conditions. Here we present an exceptionally preserved ray-finned fish from the Late Devonian (Middle Frasnian, ca 373 Ma) of Pas-de-Calais, northern France....

Data from: Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: heavier females are more likely to breed solitary than communally

Davina L. Hill, Neville Pillay & Carsten Schradin
1. Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are discrete reproductive phenotypes governed by decision rules called strategies. ARTs are fixed for life in species with alternative strategies, while tactic expression is plastic in species with a single strategy. ARTs have been investigated in males of many species, but few studies have tested whether the same theoretical framework applies in females. 2. Female striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a nest shared...

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