401 Works

Exploration, analyse et gestion d’environnements archéologiques virtuels

Jean-Baptiste Barreau
La numérisation des sites et des objets archéologiques permet de mieux comprendre leur fonctionnement et de proposer des reconstitutions de leur état passé. Cette technologie permet de restituer un « environnement archéologique 3D » constitué, en plus des architectures statiques, de simulations physiques et d’êtres vivants. Lorsque celui-ci est simulé à l’aide de techniques interactives et immersives de réalité virtuelle, on parle alors d’un « environnement archéologique virtuel » ; les archéologues peuvent l’explorer, l’analyser...

Aux dimensions de l’image dans l’étude des représentations gravées néolithiques

Serge Cassen & Valentin Grimaud
En voulant témoigner des gravures qu’ils apercevaient sur les rochers, les stèles et les parois des tombeaux néolithiques de l’Europe occidentale, les premiers archéologues en recherche d’une représentation tentent de restituer la morphologie des supports par le jeu de la lumière sur le relief de la pierre. Mais par une volonté compréhensible de clarifier les tracés en éliminant le détail naturel, la troisième dimension va progressivement se perdre jusqu’à atteindre, dans la seconde moitié du...

Data from: Nutrient starvation impairs the trophic plasticity of reef-building corals under ocean warming

Leïla Ezzat, Jean-François Maguer, Renaud Grover, Cécile Rottier, Pascale Tremblay, Christine Ferrier-Pagès & Jean‐François Maguer
1) Global warming of the world’s oceans is driving reef-building corals towards their upper thermal limit, inducing bleaching, nutrient starvation and mortality. In addition, corals are predicted to experience large fluctuations in seawater nutrient concentrations, following water column stratification or eutrophication problems, which can further alter their nutritional capacities and ultimately their resilience to global change. 2) We investigated the effect of thermal stress and dissolved inorganic nutrient (DINUT) availability on the auto- and heterotrophic...

Cassini RPWS Jupiter Encounter Calibrated Dataset

Baptiste Cecconi & Philippe Zarka

Cocoa agroforest multifunctionality and soil fertility explained by shade tree litter traits

Marie Sauvadet, Stéphane Saj, Grégoire Freschet, Jean-Daniel Essobo, Séguy Enock, Thierry Becquer, Philippe Tixier & Jean-Michel Harmand
Manipulating plant functional diversity to improve agroecosystem multifunctionality is a central challenge of agricultural systems worldwide. In cocoa agroforestry systems (cAFS), shade trees are used to supply many services to farmers, yet their impact on soil functioning and cocoa yields is likely to vary substantially among tree species. Here, we compared the impact of five shade tree species (Canarium schweinfurthii (Canarium), Dacryoides edulis (Safou), Milicia excelsa (Iroko), Ceiba pentandra (Kapok tree), Albizia adianthifolia (Albizia)) and...

Data from: Breakdown of gametophytic self-incompatibility in subdivided populations

Thomas Brom, Vincent Castric & Sylvain Billiard
In many hermaphroditic flowering plants self-fertilization is prevented by self-incompatibility (SI), often controlled by a single locus, the S-locus. In single isolated populations, the maintenance of SI depends chiefly on inbreeding depression and the number of SI alleles at the S-locus. In subdivided populations, however, population subdivision has complicated effects on both the number of SI alleles and the level of inbreeding depression, rendering the maintenance of SI difficult to predict. Here, we explore the...

Data from: Water availability and temperature induce changes in oxidative status during pregnancy in a viviparous lizard

Andréaz Dupoué, Pauline Blaimont, David Rozen-Rechels, Murielle Richard, Sandrine Meylan, Jean Clobert, Donald Miles, Rémi Martin, Beatriz Decencière, Simon Agostini & Jean-François Le Galliard
Reproduction involves considerable reorganization in an organism’s physiology that incurs potential toxicity for cells (e.g., oxidative stress) and decrease in fitness. This framework has been the cornerstone of the so-called ‘oxidative cost of reproduction’, a theory that remains controversial and relatively overlooked in non-model ectotherms. Here, we used two complementary approaches in natural and controlled conditions to test whether altered access to climate conditions (water and temperature resources) alters oxidative status and mediates reproductive trade-offs...

Data from: Leaf drought tolerance cannot be inferred from classic leaf traits in a tropical rainforest

Isabelle Maréchaux, Laurent Saint-André, Megan K. Bartlett, Lawren Sack & Jérôme Chave
Plants are enormously diverse in their traits and ecological adaptation, even within given ecosystems, such as tropical rainforests. Accounting for this diversity in vegetation models poses serious challenges. Global plant functional trait databases have highlighted general trait correlations across species that have considerably advanced this research program. However, it remains unclear whether trait correlations found globally hold within communities, and whether they extend to drought tolerance traits. For 134 individual plants spanning a range of...

Data from: How neighbourhood interactions control the temporal stability and resilience to drought of trees in mountain forests

Marion Jourdan, Georges Kunstler & Xavier Morin
1. Over the coming decades, the predicted increase in frequency and intensity of extreme events such as droughts is likely to have a strong effect on forest functioning. Recent studies have shown that species mixing may buffer the temporal variability of productivity. However, most studies have focused on temporal stability of productivity, while species mixing may also affect forest resilience to extreme events. Our understanding of mechanisms underlying species mixing effects on forest stability and...

Data from: Multiple facets of diversity effects on plant productivity: species richness, functional diversity, species identity and intraspecific competition

Lucie Mahaut, Florian Fort, Violle Cyrille & Grégoire T. Freschet
1. Deciphering the mechanisms that drive variation in biomass production across plant communities of contrasting species composition and diversity is a main challenge of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research. Niche complementarity and selection effect have been widely investigated to address biodiversity-productivity relationships. However, the overlooking of the specific role played by key species have limited so far our capacity to comprehensively assess the relative importance of other potential drivers of biodiversity effects. 2. Here, we conducted a...

Data from: Genetic variability and transgenerational regulation of investment in sex in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

Denis Roze, Océane Seudre, Eloïse Vanhoenacker, Stéphane Mauger, Jérôme Coudret & Denis Roze
In cyclical parthenogens such as aphids, cladocerans and rotifers, the coupling between sexual reproduction and the production of resting stages (diapausing eggs) imposes strong constraints on the timing of sex. While induction of sex is generally triggered by environmental cues, the response to such cues may vary across individuals according to genetic and non-genetic factors. In this study, we explored genetic and epigenetic causes of variation for the propensity for sex using a collection of...

Data from: Filling a gap in the proboscidean fossil record: a new genus from the Lutetian of Senegal

Rodolphe Tabuce
A long hiatus encompassing most of the Eocene (end of the Ypresian to the early Priabonian) breaks up the proboscidean evolutionary history, which is otherwise documented by a rich fossil record. Only two post Ypresian localities from West Africa (Mali and Senegal) yielded scarce Moeritherium-like dental remains. Here, we study one of these remains from Senegal and name a new genus, Saloumia. This taxon, confidently mid-Lutetian in age, evokes Moeritherium and elephantifoms in view of...

Individual variation in age-dependent reproduction: fast explorers live fast but senesce young?

Niels Dingemanse, Maria Moiron, Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet & Robin N. Abbey-Lee
1. Adaptive integration of life history and behaviour is expected to result in variation in the pace-of-life. Previous work focused on whether “risky” phenotypes live-fast-but-die-young, but reported conflicting support. We posit that individuals exhibiting risky phenotypes may alternatively invest heavily in early-life reproduction but consequently suffer greater reproductive senescence. 2. We used a 7-year longitudinal dataset with >1200 breeding records of >800 female great tits assayed annually for exploratory behaviour to test whether within-individual age-dependency...

Sexual isolation with and without ecological isolation in marine isopods Jaera albifrons and J. praehirsuta

Ambre Ribardière, Elsa Pabion, Jérôme Coudret, Claire Daguin-Thiébaut, Céline Houbin, Stéphane Loisel, Sébastien Henry & Thomas Broquet
Sexual barriers associated with mate choice are often found to be associated with some level of ecological isolation between species. The independence and relative strength of sexual isolation are thus difficult to assess. Here we take advantage of a pair of marine isopod species (Jaera albifronsand J. praehirsuta) that show sexual isolation and coexist in populations where they share the same microhabitat or not (i.e. without or with ecological isolation). We estimated the strength of...

Species diversity and composition drive the aesthetic value of coral reef fish assemblages

Nicolas Mouquet, Anne Sophie Tribot, Julie Deter, Thomas Claverie, François Guillhaumon & Sebastien Villéger
Data set corresponding to the manuscript : "Species diversity and composition drive the aesthetic value of coral reef fish assemblages".

The two oxpecker species reveal the role of movement rates and foraging intensity in species coexistence

Guillaume PERON, Christophe Bonenfant, Roxanne Gagnon & Cheryl Mabika
The two Buphagus oxpecker species are specialized passerines that forage for ticks and other food particles on the body of ungulates in the African savannas. One of their intriguing features is their ability to coexist despite sharing the same, specialized diet. Using co-occurrence data (photographs of giraffes with oxpeckers on them) and Approximate Bayesian Computing, we demonstrate that yellow-billed oxpeckers changed host faster than red-billed oxpeckers and appeared to displace red-billed oxpeckers from preferred giraffe...

Data from: Joint estimation of survival and breeding probability in female dolphins and calves with uncertainty in state assignment

Pauline Couet, François Gally, Coline Canonne & Aurélien Besnard
While the population growth rate in long-lived species is highly sensitive to adult survival, reproduction can also significantly drive population dynamics. Reproductive parameters can be challenging to estimate as breeders and non-breeders may vary in resighting probability and reproductive status may be difficult to assess. We extended capture–recapture (CR) models previously fitted for data on other long-lived marine mammals to estimate demographic parameters while accounting for detection heterogeneity between individuals and state uncertainty regarding reproductive...

Data from: Diet variability among insular populations of Podarcis lizards reveals diverse strategies to face resource-limited environments

Maxime Taverne, Anne-Claire Fabre, Nina King-Gillies, Marija Krajnović, Duje Lisičić, Louise Martin, Leslie Michal, Donat Petricioli, Anamaria Stambuk, Zoran Tadić, Chloé Vigliotti, Beck Wehrle & Anthony Herrel
Access to resources is a dynamic and multi-causal process that determines the success and survival of a population. It is therefore often challenging to disentangle the factors affecting ecological traits like diet. Insular habitats provide a good opportunity to study how variation in diet originates, in particular in populations of mesopredators such as lizards. Indeed, high levels of population density associated with low food abundance and low predation are selection pressures typically observed on islands....

Data from: Assessing the effects of quantitative host resistance on the life-history traits of sporulating parasites with growing lesions

Melen Leclerc, Julie Clément, Didier Andrivon & Frédéric Hamelin
Assessing life-history traits of parasites on resistant hosts is crucial in evolutionary ecology. In the particular case of sporulating pathogens with growing lesions, phenotyping is difficult because one needs to disentangle properly pathogen spread from sporulation. By considering Phytophthora infestans on potato, we use mathematical modelling to tackle this issue and refine the assessment pathogen response to quantitative host resistance. We elaborate a parsimonious leaf-scale model by convolving a lesion growth model and a sporulation...

Data from: Globally consistent impact of tropical cyclones on the structure of tropical and subtropical forests

Thomas Ibanez, Gunnar Keppel, Christophe Menkes, Thomas W. Gillespie, Matthieu Lengaigne, Morgan Mangeas, Gonzalo Rivas-Torres & Philippe Birnbaum
1. Tropical cyclones (TCs) are large-scale disturbances that regularly impact tropical forests. Although long-term impacts of TCs on forest structure have been proposed, a global test of the relationship between forest structure and TC frequency and intensity is lacking. We test on a pantropical scale whether TCs shape the structure of tropical and subtropical forests in the long-term. 2. We compiled forest structural features (stem density, basal area, mean canopy height and maximum tree size)...

Data from: Habitat fragmentation, not habitat loss, drives the prevalence of blood parasites in a Caribbean passerine

Antón Pérez-Rodríguez, Aurélie Khimoun, Anthony Ollivier, Cyril Eraud, B. Faivre & S. Garnier
Habitat destruction due to human land-use activities is well recognized as a central threat to biodiversity. However, there is still debate about the relative influence of its two components, habitat loss and habitat fragmentation, mostly because few studies have been able to disentangle their respective effects. We studied mechanisms by which habitat destruction might influence the prevalence of vector-transmitted haemosporidian blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus the Lesser Antillean Bullfinch, Loxigilla noctis, on...

Data from: Life-history trait database of European reptile species

Annegret Grimm, Ana María Prieto Ramírez, Sylvain Moulherat, Julie Reynaud & Klaus Henle
Life-history data are essential for providing answers to a wide range of questions in evolution, ecology, and conservation biology. While life history data for many species, especially plants, are available online, life history traits of European reptiles are available only widely scattered in different languages and primarily in printed media. For this reason, we generated a comprehensive trait database covering all European reptile species. Data were compiled by searching the peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed literature. The...

Data from: Genome scans reveal candidate regions involved in the adaptation to host plant in the pea aphid complex

Julie Jaquiéry, Solenn Stoeckel, Pierre Nouhaud, Lucie Mieuzet, Frédérique Mahéo, Fabrice Legeai, Nina Bernard, Antoine Bonvoisin, Renaud Vitalis & Jean-Christophe Simon
A major goal in evolutionary biology is to uncover the genetic basis of adaptation. Divergent selection exerted on ecological traits may result in adaptive population differentiation and reproductive isolation and affect differentially the level of genetic divergence along the genome. Genome-wide scan of large sets of individuals from multiple populations is a powerful approach to identify loci or genomic regions under ecologically divergent selection. Here, we focused on the pea aphid, a species complex of...

Data from: Relationship between spectral characteristics of spontaneous postural sway and motion sickness susceptibility

Rafael Laboissière, Corinne Cian, Michel Mazzuca & Pierre-Alain Barraud
Motion sickness (MS) usually occurs for a narrow band of frequencies of the imposed oscillation. It happens that this frequency band is close to that which are spontaneously produced by postural sway during natural stance. This study examined the relationship between reported susceptibility to motion sickness and postural control. The hypothesis is that the level of MS can be inferred from the shape of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) profile of spontaneous sway, as measured...

Data from: Long-lasting modification of soil fungal diversity associated with the introduction of rabbits to a remote sub-Antarctic archipelago

Johan Pansu, Richard C. Winkworth, Françoise Hennion, Ludovic Gielly, Pierre Taberlet & Philippe Choler
During the late nineteenth century, Europeans introduced rabbits to many of the sub-Antarctic islands, environments that prior to this had been devoid of mammalian herbivores. The impacts of rabbits on indigenous ecosystems are well studied; notably, they cause dramatic changes in plant communities and promote soil erosion. However, the responses of fungal communities to such biotic disturbances remain unexplored. We used metabarcoding of soil extracellular DNA to assess the diversity of plant and fungal communities...

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