86 Works

Data from: Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field exposure up to 3000 µT on human brain activation as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging

Alexandre Legros, Julien Modolo, Samantha Brown, John Robertson, Alex W. Thomas & John Roberston
Several aspects of the human nervous system and associated motor and cognitive processes have been reported to be modulated by extremely low-frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) time-varying Magnetic Fields (MF). Due do their worldwide prevalence; power-line frequencies (60 Hz in North America) are of particular interest. Despite intense research efforts over the last few decades, the potential effects of 60 Hz MF still need to be elucidated, and the underlying mechanisms to be understood. In...

Data from: Migratory monarchs that encounter resident monarchs show life-history differences and higher rates of parasite infection

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz, Mark D. Hunter, D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Keith A. Hobson, D. Ryan Norris, Hillary Streit, Jacobus C. De Roode & Sonia Altizer
Environmental change induces some wildlife populations to shift from migratory to resident behaviours. Newly formed resident populations could influence the health and behaviour of remaining migrants. We investigated migrant-resident interactions among monarch butterflies and consequences for life history and parasitism. Eastern North American monarchs migrate annually to Mexico, but some now breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern U.S. and experience high infection prevalence of protozoan parasites. Using stable isotopes (2H, 13C) and cardenolide...

Data from: Population genetic structure of the western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in British Columbia, Canada

Sheri A. Maxwell, Howard M. A. Thistlewood & Nusha Keyghobadi
1. Population connectivity and movement are key ecological parameters influencing the impact of pests, and are important considerations in control strategies. For many insects, these parameters are difficult to assess directly, although they may be assessed indirectly using population genetic data. 2. We used microsatellite markers to examine population genetic structure of the western cherry fruit fly, the main pest of cherry crops in western North America, in British Columbia, Canada, and make inferences about...

Data from: Genes underlying altruism

Graham J. Thompson, Peter L. Hurd & Bernard J. Crespi
William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of 'genes underlying altruism', under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism, and describe the first candidates for altruism genes from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically-based tradeoffs, underlain by oxytocin-system polymorphisms, between...

Data from: Fine-scale genetic analysis of species-specific female preference in Drosophila simulans

Meghan Laturney & Amanda J. Moehring
Behavioral differences are thought to be the first components to contribute to species isolation, yet the precise genetic basis of behavioral isolation remains poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of behavior assays and genetic mapping to provide the first refined map locating candidate genes for interspecific female preference isolating Drosophila simulans from D. melanogaster. First, we tested whether two genes identified as affecting D. melanogaster female intraspecific mate choice also affect interspecific mate choice;...

Data from: Adaptation of a polyphagous herbivore to a novel host plant extensively shapes the transcriptome of herbivore and host

Nicky Wybouw, Vladimir Zhurov, Catherine Martel, Kristie A. Bruinsma, Frederik Hendrickx, Vojislava Grbić & Thomas Van Leeuwen
Generalist arthropod herbivores rapidly adapt to a broad range of host plants. However, the extent of transcriptional reprogramming in the herbivore and its hosts associated with adaptation remains poorly understood. Using the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and tomato as models with available genomic resources, we investigated the reciprocal genomewide transcriptional changes in both spider mite and tomato as a consequence of mite's adaptation to tomato. We transferred a genetically diverse mite population from bean to...

Data from: Assortative mating but no evidence of genetic divergence in a species characterized by a trophic polymorphism

S.F. Colborne, Shawn R. Garner, Fred J. Longstaffe, Bryan D. Neff & S. F. Colborne
Disruptive selection is a process that can result in multiple subgroups within a population, which is referred to as diversification. Foraging-related diversification has been described in many taxa, but many questions remain about the contribution of such diversification to reproductive isolation and potentially sympatric speciation. Here, we use stable isotope analysis of diet and morphological analysis of body shape to examine phenotypic divergence between littoral and pelagic foraging ecomorphs in a population of pumpkinseed sunfish...

Data from: A cross-seasonal perspective on local adaptation: metabolic plasticity mediates responses to winter in a thermal-generalist moth

Caroline M. Williams, Wesley D. Chick & Brent J. Sinclair
The physiological and ecological impact of the thermal environment across life-stages can result in trade-offs that determine fitness and population dynamics. Understanding mechanisms and consequences of local adaptation for any organism that overwinters requires taking a cross-seasonal perspective. We used a trait-based approach to distinguish variation among ecotypes in ecological and physiological responses to overwintering conditions. We used fall webworms (Hyphantria cunea; Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) from Ottawa, Ontario and Columbus Ohio, representing the centre and periphery...

Data from: Host association influences variation at salivary protein genes in the bat ectoparasite Cimex adjunctus

Benoit Talbot, Maarten J. Vonhof, Hugh G. Broders, Brock Fenton & Nusha Keyghobadi
Parasite-host relationships create strong selection pressures that can lead to adaptation and increasing specialization of parasites to their hosts. Even in relatively loose host-parasite relationships, such as between generalist ectoparasites and their hosts, we may observe some degree of specialization of parasite populations to one of the multiple potential hosts. Salivary proteins are used by blood-feeding ectoparasites to prevent hemostasis in the host and maximize energy intake. We investigated the influence of association with specific...

Supplementary material for: Neural effects of oxytocin and mimicry in frontotemporal dementia: A randomized cross-over study

Lindsay Oliver, Chloe Stewart, Kristy Coleman, James Kryklywy, Robert Bartha, Derek Mitchell & Elizabeth Finger
OBJECTIVE: Reduced empathy is one of the hallmark and untreatable symptoms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The objective of this study was to determine whether intranasal oxytocin, alone or in combination with instructed mimicry of facial expressions, would augment neural activity in patients with FTD in brain regions associated with empathy, emotion processing and the simulation network, as indexed by blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over...

Data from: Mallard resource selection trade‐offs in a heterogeneous environment during autumn and winter

Matthew D. Palumbo, Scott A. Petrie, Michael Schummer, Benjamin D. Rubin & Simon Bonner
Animals select resources to maximize fitness but associated costs and benefits are spatially and temporally variable. Differences in wetland management influence resource availability for ducks and mortality risk from duck hunting. The local distribution of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is affected by this resource heterogeneity and variable risk from hunting. Regional conservation strategies primarily focus on how waterfowl distributions are affected by food resources during the nonbreeding season. To test if Mallard resource selection was...

Data from: “Balancing” balancing selection? Assortative mating at the major histocompatibility complex despite molecular signatures of balancing selection

Joel W. G. Slade, Matthew J. Watson & Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton
In vertebrate animals, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) determine the set of pathogens to which an individual's adaptive immune system can respond. MHC genes are extraordinarily polymorphic, often showing elevated nonsynonymous relative to synonymous sequence variation and sharing presumably ancient polymorphisms between lineages. These patterns likely reflect pathogen‐mediated balancing selection, for example, rare‐allele or heterozygote advantage. Such selection is often reinforced by disassortative mating at MHC. We characterized exon 2 of MHC class...

Data from: Egg size and the adaptive capacity of early life history traits in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Michael W. Thorn & Yolanda E. Morbey
Offspring traits are greatly influenced by maternal effects and these maternal effects may provide an important pathway through which populations can adapt to changing thermal environments. We investigated the effect of egg size on the among and within population variation in early life history traits among introduced Great Lakes Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations under varying thermal conditions. We reared Chinook salmon from three populations in a common garden hatchery study at 6.5°C, 9.4°C, and...

Data from: Eating local: influences of habitat on the diet of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)

Elizabeth L Clare, Brittany R Barber, Bernard W Sweeney, Paul DN Hebert & M Brock Fenton
We employ molecular methods to profile the diet of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and describe spatial and temporal changes in diet over their maternity season. We identified 61 prey species of insects and 5 species of arachnid. The largest proportion of prey (∼32%) were identified as species of the mass-emerging Ephemeroptera (mayfly) genus Caenis. Bats roosting in agricultural settings had lower dietary richness than those occupying a roost located on a forest fragment...

Data from: Time scale matters: genetic analysis does not support adaptation-by-time as the mechanism for adaptive seasonal declines in kokanee reproductive lifespan

Yolanda E. Morbey, Evelyn L. Jensen & Michael A. Russello
Seasonal declines of fitness-related traits are often attributed to environmental effects or individual-level decisions about reproductive timing and effort, but genetic variation may also play a role. In populations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal declines in reproductive life span have been attributed to adaptation-by-time, in which divergent selection for different traits occurs among reproductively isolated temporal components of a population. We evaluated this hypothesis in kokanee (freshwater obligate Oncorhynchus nerka) by testing for temporal...

Data from: Landscape structure and the genetic effects of a population collapse

Serena A. Caplins, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Claudia Ciotir, Jens Roland, Stephen F. Matter & Nusha Keyghobadi
Both landscape structure and population size fluctuations influence population genetics. While independent effects of these factors on genetic patterns and processes are well studied, a key challenge is to understand their interaction, as populations are simultaneously exposed to habitat fragmentation and climatic changes that increase variability in population size. In a population network of an alpine butterfly, abundance declined 60–100% in 2003 because of low over-winter survival. Across the network, mean microsatellite genetic diversity did...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects underlie oxygen-limited thermal tolerance within a coastal population of chinook salmon

Nicolas J. Muñoz, Katja Anttila, Zhongqi Chen, John W. Heath, Anthony P. Farrell, Bryan D. Neff & N. J. Munoz
With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the heritable variation underlying thermal tolerance is critical for understanding the potential for adaptation to climate change. We examined the evolutionary potential of thermal tolerance within a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by conducting a full-factorial breeding design and measuring the thermal performance of cardiac function and the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of offspring from each family. Additive genetic...

Data from: Basal cold but not heat tolerance constrains plasticity among Drosophila species (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Casper Nyamukondiwa, John S Terblanche, Katie E Marshall & Brent J Sinclair
Thermal tolerance and its plasticity are important for understanding ectotherm responses to climate change. However, it is unclear whether plasticity is traded off at the expense of basal thermal tolerance and if plasticity is subject to phylogenetic constraints. Here, we investigated associations between basal thermal tolerance and acute plasticity thereof in laboratory-reared adult males of eighteen Drosophila species at low and high temperatures. We determined the high and low temperatures where 90 % of flies...

Data from: Resource partitioning by insectivorous bats in Jamaica

Matthew A. Emrich, Elizabeth L. Clare, William O. C. Symondson, Susan E. Koenig & Melville Brock Fenton
In this investigation, we use variation in wing morphology, echolocation behaviour, patterns of habitat use and molecular diet analysis to demonstrate that six species of sympatric insectivorous bats in Jamaica show significant differences that could explain resource partitioning among the species. High-intensity echolocating species that used shorter, broadband signals and had shorter, broader wings (Pteronotus macleayii, Pteronotus quadridens, Mormoops blainvillii) foraged most in edge habitats, but differed in timing of peak activity. P. macleayii and...

Data from: The diet of Myotis lucifugus across Canada: assessing foraging quality and diet variability

Elizabeth L. Clare, William O. C. Symondson, Hugh Broders, François Fabianek, Erin E. Frazer, Alistair MacKenzie, Andrew Boughen, Rachel Hamilton, Craig K. R. Willis, Felix Martinez-Nuñez, Allyson K. Menzies, Kaleigh J. O. Norquay, Mark Brigham, Joseph Poissant, Jody Rintoul, Robert M. R. Barclay, Jesika P. Reimer & Erin E. Fraser
Variation in prey resources influences the diet and behaviour of predators. When prey become limiting, predators may travel farther to find preferred food or adjust to existing local resources. When predators are habitat limited, local resource abundance impacts foraging success. We analysed the diet of Myotis lucifugus (little brown bats) from Nova Scotia (eastern Canada) to the Northwest Territories (north-western Canada). This distribution includes extremes of season length and temperature and encompasses colonies on rural...

Metabolic cost of freeze-thaw and source of CO2 production in the freeze-tolerant cricket Gryllus veletis

Adam Smith, Kurtis Turnbull, Julian Moulton & Brent Sinclair
Freeze-tolerant insects can survive the conversion of a substantial portion of their body water to ice. While the process of freezing induces active responses from some organisms, these responses appear absent from freeze-tolerant insects. Recovery from freezing likely requires energy expenditure to repair tissues and re-establish homeostasis, which should be evident as elevations in metabolic rate after thaw. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) production in the spring field cricket (Gryllus veletis) as a proxy for...

Ecological and evolutionary drivers of hemoplasma infection and genotype sharing in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Alexis Brown, Alex Washburne, Brock Fenton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel Streicker, Raina Plowright, Vladimir Chizhikov, Nancy Simmons & Dmitriy Volokhov
Most emerging pathogens can infect multiple species, underscoring the importance of understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that allow some hosts to harbor greater infection prevalence and share pathogens with other species. However, our understanding of pathogen jumps is primarily based around viruses, despite bacteria accounting for the greatest proportion of zoonoses. Because bacterial pathogens in bats (Order: Chiroptera) can have conservation and human health consequences, studies that examine the ecological and evolutionary drivers of...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Data from: Livestock abundance predicts vampire bat demography, immune profiles, and bacterial infection risk

Daniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer & Daniel G. Streicker
Human activities create novel food resources that can alter wildlife–pathogen interactions. If resources amplify or dampen pathogen transmission likely depends on both host ecology and pathogen biology, but studies that measure responses to provisioning across both scales are rare. We tested these relationships with a four-year study of 369 common vampire bats across ten sites in Peru and Belize that differ in the abundance of livestock, an important anthropogenic food source. We quantified innate and...

Data from: Divergent transcriptional responses to low temperature among populations of alpine and lowland species of New Zealand stick insects (Micrarchus)

Luke T. Dunning, Alice B. Dennis, Brent J. Sinclair, Richard D. Newcomb & Thomas R. Buckley
In widespread and genetically-structured populations, temperature variation may lead to among-population differentiation of thermal biology. The New Zealand stick insect genus Micrarchus contains four species that inhabit different thermal environments, two of which are geographically widespread. RNA-Seq and quantitative PCR were used to investigate the transcriptional responses to cold-shock among lowland and alpine species to identify cold-responsive transcripts that differ between the species, and to determine if there is intraspecific geographic variation in gene expression....

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