230 Works

Annual estimates of occupancy for bryophytes, lichens and invertebrates in the UK (1970-2015)

C.L. Outhwaite, G.D. Powney, T.A. August, R.E. Chandler, S. Rorke, O. Pescott, M. Harvey, H.E. Roy, R. Fox, K. Walker, D.B. Roy, K. Alexander, S. Ball, T. Bantock, T. Barber, B.C. Beckmann, T. Cook, J. Flanagan, A. Fowles, P. Hammond, P. Harvey, D. Hepper, D. Hubble, J. Kramer, P. Lee … & N.J.B. Isaac
This dataset provides annual estimates of species occupancy and species trend estimates in the form of growth rates for 5,293 UK invertebrate, bryophyte and lichen species for the period 1970 to 2015. Estimates are provided at the country level for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland as well as for the UK and Great Britain (GB) where possible. These data were generated using observations of species collated by UK recording schemes and societies as the...

Parental perspectives of children’s use of internet connected toys

Ioanna Palaiologou, Lorna Arnott & Colette Gray
Internet Connected Toys (IoToys) are becoming increasingly popular among very young children (birth to seven years) within families. Meanwhile, increasingly complex and multipurpose digital devices and IoToys require new attitudes, aptitudes and competences on the part of parents. This qualitative study focused on examining how children interact with IoToys at home and in early childhood education. Data were collected using a multi-method approach over an eight-month period. We conducted interviews with parents and teachers, observed...

Of woodlice and men: A Bayesian account of cognition, life and consciousness. An interview with Karl Friston.

Karl Friston, Martin Fortier & Daniel Friedman
Prof. Karl J. Friston is a scientist who has made fundamental contributions to areas such as functional brain imaging, statistical techniques for dynamical systems, and the Free Energy Principle (FEP). Here, various topics are formally and informally explored. First there are personal, scientific, and mathematical accounts related to the (origins of the) FEP, and how the FEP diverges from the Predictive coding and Bayesian brain hypotheses. Next, there is a discussion of how the FEP...

Data from: Within- and between-group dynamics in an obligate cooperative breeder

Rosie Woodroffe, Helen O'Neill & Daniella Rabaiotti
1. Cooperative behaviour can have profound effects on demography. In many cooperative species, components of fitness (e.g. survival, reproductive success) are diminished in smaller social groups. These effects (termed group-level component Allee effects) may lead smaller groups to grow relatively slowly or fail to persist (termed group-level demographic Allee effects). 2. If these group-level effects were to propagate to the population level, small populations would grow slowly or decline to extinction (termed population-level demographic Allee...

Data from: Targeted next-generation sequencing panels in the diagnosis of Charcot Marie Tooth disease

Andrea Cortese, Janel Wilcox, James M. Polke, Roy Poh, Mariola Skorupinska, Alexader Rossor, Matilde Laura, Pedro J. Tomaselli, Henry Houlden, Michael E. Shy & Mary M. Reilly
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of targeted NGS panels in achieving a molecular diagnosis in CMT and related disorders in a clinical setting Methods: We prospectively enrolled 220 patients from two tertiary referral centres, one in London, UK (n=120) and one in Iowa, US (n=100) in whom a targeted CMT NGS panel had been requested as a diagnostic test. PMP22 duplication/deletion was previously excluded in demyelinating cases. We reviewed the genetic and clinical data upon...

Data from: Negative biotic interactions drive predictions of distributions for species from a grassland community

Phillip P.A. Staniczenko, Kenwyn Blake Suttle, Richard G. Pearson & Phillip P. A. Staniczenko
Understanding the factors that determine species’ geographic distributions is important for addressing a wide range of biological questions, including where species will be able to maintain populations following environmental change. New methods for modelling species distributions include the effects of biotic interactions alongside more commonly used abiotic variables such as temperature and precipitation; however, it is not clear which types of interspecific relationship contribute to shaping species distributions and should therefore be prioritised in models....

Data from: Resilience of self-organised and top-down planned cities—a case study on London and Beijing street networks

Jiaqiu Wang
The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street...

Data from: Investigating the association between social interactions and personality states dynamics

Didem Gundogdu, Ailbhe N. Finnerty, Jacopo Staiano, Stefano Teso, Andrea Passerini, Fabio Pianesi & Bruno Lepri
The recent personality psychology literature has coined the name of personality states to refer to states having the same behavioural, affective and cognitive content (described by adjectives) as the corresponding trait, but for a shorter duration. The variability in personality states may be the reaction to specific characteristics of situations. The aim of our study is to investigate whether specific situational factors, that is, different configurations of face-to-face interactions, are predictors of variability of personality...

Data from: An auditory illusion reveals the role of streaming in the temporal misallocation of perceptual objects

Anahita H. Mehta, Nori Jacoby, Ifat Yasin, Andrew J. Oxenham & Shihab A. Shamma
This study investigates the neural correlates and processes underlying the ambiguous percept produced by a stimulus similar to Deutsch's ‘octave illusion’, in which each ear is presented with a sequence of alternating pure tones of low and high frequencies. The same sequence is presented to each ear, but in opposite phase, such that the left and right ears receive a high–low–high … and a low–high–low … pattern, respectively. Listeners generally report hearing the illusion of...

Data from: Validating the power of mitochondrial metagenomics for community ecology and phylogenetics of complex assemblages

Carola Gómez-Rodríguez, Alex Crampton-Platt, Martijn J. T. N. Timmermans, Andrés Baselga & Alfried P. Vogler
1. The biodiversity of mixed-species samples of arthropods can be characterized by shotgun sequencing of bulk genomic DNA and subsequent bioinformatics assembly of mitochondrial genomes. Here, we tested the power of mitochondrial metagenomics by conducting Illumina sequencing on mixtures of >2600 individuals of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) from 10 communities. 2. Patterns of species richness, community dissimilarity and biomass were assessed from matches of reads against three reference databases, including (i) a custom set of mitogenomes...

Data from: Increased dystrophin production with golodirsen in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Diane E. Frank, Frederick J. Schnell, Cody Akana, Saleh H. El-Husayni, Cody A. Desjardins, Jennifer Morgan, Jay S. Charleston, Valentina Sardone, Joana Domingos, George Dickson, Volker Straub, Michela Guglieri, Eugenio Mercuri, Laurent Servais & Francesco Muntoni
Objective To report safety, pharmacokinetics, exon 53 skipping, and dystrophin expression in golodirsen-treated patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) amenable to exon 53 skipping. Methods Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week dose titration of once-weekly golodirsen; Part 2 is an ongoing, open-label evaluation. Safety and pharmacokinetics were primary and secondary objectives of Part 1. Primary biological outcome measures of part 2 were blinded exon skipping and dystrophin protein production on muscle biopsies (baseline,...

Data from: The evolution of locomotor rhythmicity in tetrapods

Callum F. Ross, Richard W. Blob, David R. Carrier, Monica A. Daley, Stephen M. Deban, Brigitte Demes, Janaya L. Gripper, Jose Iriarte-Diaz, Brandon Michael Kilbourne, Tobias Landberg, John D. Polk, Nadja Schilling & Bieke Vanhooydonck
Differences in rhythmicity (relative variance in cycle period) between mammal, fish, and lizard feeding systems have been hypothesized to be associated with differences in their sensorimotor control systems. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether the locomotion of tachymetabolic tetrapods (birds and mammals) is more rhythmic than that of bradymetabolic tetrapods (lizards, alligators, turtles, salamanders). Species averages of intra-individual coefficients of variation in cycle period were compared while controlling for gait and substrate. Variance in...

Data from: Not just passengers: Pigeons, Columba livia, can learn homing routes while flying with a more experienced conspecific

Benjamin Pettit, Andrea Flack, Robin Freemain, Tim Guilford, Dora Biro, R. Freeman, D. Biro, A. Flack, T. Guilford & B. Pettit
For animals that travel in groups, the directional choices of conspecifics are potentially a rich source of information for spatial learning. In this study, we investigate how the opportunity to follow a locally experienced demonstrator affects route learning by pigeons over repeated homing flights. This test of social influences on navigation takes advantage of the individually distinctive routes that pigeons establish when trained alone. We found that pigeons learn routes just as effectively while flying...

Data from: Alien species richness is currently unbounded in all but the most urbanized bird communities

Toby P. Tsang, Ellie E. Dyer & Tim C. Bonebrake
Urban areas suffer high pressure of introductions of alien species compared to other habitats due to intensive human activities. As trading globally continues to rise, more species will likely be introduced into urban areas. To determine whether this increase in introduction pressure will lead to increased alien species richness in urban areas, or whether other processes would act to impose an upper limit on species richness, we examined how the shape of the relationship between...

Nutrient chemistry of Arctic Lakes in Greenland, Norway, Russia and Alaska

E. J. Whiteford, M. Van Hardenbroek, S. McGowan, V. J. Jones, M.E. Edwards, P. G. Langdon & N. J. Anderson
This dataset contains nutrient chemistry data from 14 lakes in the Arctic region: 4 in Russia and Alaska and 3 in Greenland and Norway. Nutrient chemistry was measured on one occasion only at each lake, with date of collection ranging from 01/04/2011 to 14/03/2014. The following nutrients were measured: total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, chlorophyll a, silicate, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sulphate, chloride and dissolved organic carbon. All nutrients were measured...

Data from: Lepidosaurian diversity in the Mesozoic–Paleogene: the potential roles of sampling biases and environmental drivers

Terri J. Cleary, Roger B.J. Benson, Susan E. Evans, Paul M. Barrett & Roger B. J. Benson
Lepidosauria is a speciose clade with a long evolutionary history, but there have been few attempts to explore its taxon-richness through time. Here we estimate patterns of terrestrial lepidosaur genus diversity for the Triassic–Paleogene (252–23 Ma), and compare observed and sampling-corrected richness curves generated using Shareholder Quorum Subsampling and classical rarefaction. Generalized least-squares regression (GLS) is used to investigate the relationships between richness, sampling and environmental proxies. We found low levels of richness from the...

Data From: Analysing social media forums to discover potential causes of phasic shifts in cryptocurrency price series

Andrew Burnie, Emine Yilmaz & Tomaso Aste
The recent extreme volatility in cryptocurrency prices occurred in the setting of popular social media forums devoted to the discussion of cryptocurrencies. We develop a framework that discovers potential causes of phasic shifts in the price movement captured by social media discussions. This draws on principles developed in healthcare epidemiology where, similarly, only observational data are available. Such causes may have a major, one-off effect or recurring effects on the trend in the price series....

Data from: Ejaculate sperm number compensation in stalk-eyed flies carrying a selfish meiotic drive element

Lara C. Meade, Deidre Dinneen, Ridhima Kad, Dominic Lynch, Kevin Fowler & Andrew Pomiankowski
Meiotic drive genes cause the degeneration of non-carrier sperm to bias transmission in their favour. Males carrying meiotic drive are expected to suffer reduced fertility due to the loss of sperm and associated harmful side-effects of the mechanisms causing segregation distortion. However, sexual selection should promote adaptive compensation to overcome these deleterious effects. We investigate this using SR, an X-linked meiotic drive system in the stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni. Despite sperm destruction caused by drive,...

Data from: Rapid evolution of the inter-sexual genetic correlation for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster

Julie M. Collet, Sara Fuentes, Jack Hesketh, Mark S. Hill, Paolo Innocenti, Edward H. Morrow, Kevin Fowler & Max Reuter
Sexual antagonism (SA) arises when male and female phenotypes are under opposing selection, yet genetically correlated. Until resolved, antagonism limits evolution towards optimal sex-specific phenotypes. Despite its importance for sex-specific adaptation and existing theory, the dynamics of SA resolution are not well understood empirically. Here, we present data from Drosophila melanogaster, compatible with a resolution of SA. We compared two independent replicates of the 'LHM' population in which SA had previously been described. Both had...

Data from: Short-term impacts and value of a periodic no take zone (NTZ) in a community-managed small-scale lobster fishery, Madagascar

Stephen Long
The small-scale lobster fisheries of Madagascar’s impoverished southeast coast account for the majority of national catch and export, making a significant contribution to the regional economy. Data suggests catches have declined, likely due to over-exploitation. In response, the community of Sainte Luce has established a locally managed marine area (LMMA) to manage their lobster fishery, including a 13 km2 periodic no take zone (NTZ). Participatory monitoring data were used to assess compliance, identify changes in...

Data from: Bumblebees show cognitive flexibility by improving on an observed complex behavior

Olli J. Loukola, Clint J. Perry, Louie Coscos & Lars Chittka
We explored bees’ behavioral flexibility in a task that required transporting a small ball to a defined location to gain a reward. Bees were pretrained to know the correct location of the ball. Subsequently, to obtain a reward, bees had to move a displaced ball to the defined location. Bees that observed demonstration of the technique from a live or model demonstrator learned the task more efficiently than did bees observing a “ghost” demonstration (ball...

Data from: Eutherians experienced elevated evolutionary rates in the immediate aftermath of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene mass extinction

Thomas J.D. Halliday, Paul Upchurch, Anjali Goswami & Thomas John Dixon Halliday
The effect of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) mass extinction on the evolution of many groups, including placental mammals, has been hotly debated. The fossil record suggests a sudden adaptive radiation of placentals immediately after the event, but several recent quantitative analyses have reconstructed no significant increase in either clade origination rates or rates of character evolution in the Palaeocene. Here we use stochastic methods to date a recent phylogenetic analysis of Cretaceous and Palaeocene mammals and...

Data from: Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia

Amir S. Siraj, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Menno J. Bouma, Damtew Yadeta, Daniel Ruiz Carrascal & Mercedes Pascual
The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence...

Data from: Long-distance dispersal suppresses introgression of local alleles during range expansions

C. E. G. Amorim, T Hofer, N Ray, M Foll, A Ruiz-Linares & L Excoffier
During range expansions, even low levels of interbreeding can lead to massive introgression of local alleles into an invader's genome. Nonetheless, this pattern is not always observed in human populations. For instance, European Americans in North America are barely introgressed by Amerindian genes in spite of known contact and admixture. With coalescent spatially explicit simulations, we examined the impact of long-distance dispersal (LDD) events on introgression of local alleles into the invading population using a...

Data from: Long-term use benefits of personal frequency-modulated systems for speech in noise perception in patients with stroke with auditory processing deficits: a non-randomised controlled trial study

Nehzat Koohi, Deborah Vickers, Jason Warren, David Werring & Doris-Eva Bamiou
Objectives: Approximately one in five stroke survivors suffer from difficulties with speech reception in noise, despite normal audiometry. These deficits are treatable with personal Frequency Modulated systems (FMs). This study aimed to evaluate long term benefits in speech reception in noise, after daily 10 week use of personal FMs, in non-aphasic stroke patients with auditory processing deficits. Design: This was a prospective non randomised controlled trial study. Patients were allocated to an intervention care group...

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