244 Works

Imagining a `‘Buddhist Government‘ ’ (mo. törö šasin) in seventeenth century Mongolia/ MONGOLICA XXIII №1

Karenina Kollmar-Paulenz

Predator-induced maternal effects via eggs shape offspring behaviour and their expression of growth genes in a highly social fish

Sakshi Sharda, Tobias Zuest, Matthias Erb & Barbara Taborsky
Predator-induced non-genetic maternal effects may influence how offspring cope with predation theat. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms and the stages in ontogeny when these take effect effects operate are still largely unresolved. In this integrative study, we investigated maternal effects via egg composition on offspring gene expression, growth, survival and anti-predator escape behaviour. We exposed pairs of the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologous pulcher to visual and chemical cues of its natural predator Lepidolamprogous elongatus, or...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP data suggests complex ancestry of sympatric North Pacific killer whale ecotypes

Andrew D. Foote & Phillip A. Morin
Three ecotypes of killer whale occur in partial sympatry in the North Pacific. Individuals assortatively mate within the same ecotype, resulting in correlated ecological and genetic differentiation. A key question is whether this pattern of evolutionary divergence is an example of incipient sympatric speciation from a single panmictic ancestral population, or whether sympatry could have resulted from multiple colonisations of the North Pacific and secondary contact between ecotypes. Here, we infer multilocus coalescent trees from...

Data from: The summary-likelihood method and its implementation in the Infusion package

Francois Rousset, Alexandre Gouy, Camille Martinez-Almoyna & Alexandre Courtiol
In recent years, simulation methods such as approximate Bayesian computation have extensively been used to infer parameters of population genetic models where the likelihood is intractable. We describe an alternative approach, summary likelihood, that provides a likelihood-based analysis of the information retained in the summary statistics whose distribution is simulated. We provide an automated implementation as a standard R package, Infusion, and we test the method, in particular for a scenario of inference of population-size...

Data from: Fast adaptive responses in the oral jaw of Lake Victoria cichlids

Jacco C. Van Rijssel, Ellen S. Hoogwater, Mary A. Kishe-Machumu, Elize Van Reenen, Kevin V. Spits, Ronald C. Van Der Stelt, Jan H. Wanink & Frans Witte
Rapid morphological changes in response to fluctuating natural environments are a common phenomenon in species that undergo adaptive radiation. The dramatic ecological changes in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to study environmental effects on cichlid morphology. This study shows how four haplochromine cichlids adapted their premaxilla to a changed diet over the past 30 years. Directly after the diet change toward larger and faster prey in the late 1980s, the premaxilla (upper jaw) changed...

Data from: Background selection and biased gene conversion affect more than 95% of the human genome and bias demographic inferences

Fanny Pouyet, Simon Aeschbacher, Alexandre Thiéry & Laurent Excoffier
Disentangling the effect on genomic diversity of natural selection from that of demography is notoriously difficult, but necessary to properly reconstruct the history of species. Here, we use high-quality human genomic data to show that purifying selection at linked sites (i.e. background selection, BGS) and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) together affect as much as 95% of the variants of our genome. We find that the magnitude and relative importance of BGS and gBGC are largely...

Data from: Task-dependent workload adjustment of female breeders in a cooperatively breeding fish

Hirokazu Tanaka, Joachim G. Frommen, Leif Engqvist & Masanori Kohda
Parental investment affects the future survival and reproductive success of breeders. Therefore, breeders should optimize the amount of care they invest into the current offspring. In cooperative breeding systems, the amount of breeders’ parental care is influenced by the behavior of brood-care helpers. Such workload adjustment is expected to depend on the task that needs to be fulfilled. While investment rules of breeders in respect to single tasks are well investigated in many bird and...

Data from: Resting-state gamma-band power alterations in schizophrenia reveal E/I-balance abnormalities across illness-stages

Tineke Grent-'T-Jong, Joachim Gross, Jozien Goense, Michael Wibral, Ruchika Gajwani, Andrew I. Gumley, Stephen M. Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Dagmar Koethe, F. Markus Leweke, Wolf Singer & Peter J. Uhlhaas
We examined alterations in E/I-balance in schizophrenia (ScZ) through measurements of resting-state gamma-band activity in participants meeting clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria (n = 88), 21 first episode (FEP) patients and 34 chronic ScZ-patients. Furthermore, MRS-data were obtained in CHR-participants and matched controls. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) resting-state activity was examined at source level and MEG-data were correlated with neuropsychological scores and clinical symptoms. CHR-participants were characterized by increased 64–90 Hz power. In contrast, FEP- and ScZ-patients showed...

Data from: Wildflower strips enhance pollination in adjacent strawberry crops at the small scale

Dominik Ganser, Barbara Mayr, Matthias Albrecht & Eva Knop
Wildflower strips (WFS) are increasingly used to counteract the negative consequences of agricultural intensification. To date, it is poorly understood how WFS promote flower visitation and pollination services in nearby insect-pollinated crops. We therefore ask whether WFS enhance pollination service in adjacent strawberry crops, and how such an effect depends on the distance from WFS. Over two years we examined the effects of experimentally sown WFS compared to grassy strips on pollination services in adjacent...

Data from: No evidence for larger leaf trait plasticity in ecological generalists compared to specialists

Petr Dostál, Markus Fischer, Milan Chytrý & Daniel Prati
Aim: Phenotypic plasticity is hypothesized to contribute to a species’ capacity to occupy broader ranges of conditions and to optimally exploit resource-rich environments. Although this is supported by case studies of individual species, we do not know whether larger plasticity in functional traits is generally associated with ecological characteristics of species such as their niche breadth or niche position. Here, we test whether there is such a relationship for plasticity in leaf functional traits. Location:...

Data from: What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger: the burdens and benefits of toxin sequestration in a milkweed aphid

Tobias Züst, Sophie Mou & Anurag A. Agrawal
1. Specialized insect herbivores commonly co-opt plant defences for protection against predators, but the costs, benefits, and mechanisms of sequestration are poorly understood. 2. We quantified sequestration of toxic cardenolides by the specialist aphid Aphis nerii when reared on four closely related milkweed (Asclepias) species with >20-fold variation in cardenolide content, and in the presence or absence of ladybug predators. 3. Increasing concentrations of apolar plant cardenolides increased sequestered amounts in aphids. High concentrations in...

Data from: Differences in male coloration are predicted by divergent sexual selection between populations of a cichlid fish

Oliver M. Selz, Rahel Thommen, Michele R. Pierotti, Jaime M. Anaya-Rojas, Ole Seehausen & M. E. R. Pierotti
Female mating preferences can influence both intraspecific sexual selection and interspecific reproductive isolation, and have therefore been proposed to play a central role in speciation. Here, we investigate experimentally in the African cichlid fish Pundamilia nyererei if differences in male coloration between three para-allopatric populations (i.e. island populations with gene flow) of P. nyererei are predicted by differences in sexual selection by female mate choice between populations. Second, we investigate if female mating preferences are...

Data from: Developmental effects of visual environment on species-assortative mating preferences in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

Daniel S. Wright, Nicolle Demandt, Jeroen T. Alkema, Ole Seehausen, Ton G.G. Groothuis & Martine E. Maan
Local adaptation can be a potent force in speciation, with environmental heterogeneity leading to niche specialization and population divergence. However, local adaption often requires non-random mating in order to generate reproductive isolation. Population divergence in sensory properties can be particularly consequential in speciation, affecting both ecological adaptation and sexual communication. Pundamilia pundamila and Pundamilia nyererei are two closely related African cichlid species that differ in male coloration, blue vs. red. They co-occur at rocky islands...

Data from: Transient dominance in a central African rain forest

David McClintock Newbery, Xander M. Van Der Burgt, Martin Worbes & George B. Chuyong
The large-crowned emergent tree Microberlinia bisulcata dominates rainforest groves at Korup, along with two co-dominants Tetraberlinia bifoliolata and T. korupensis. M. bisulcata has a pronounced modal size frequency distribution around ~110 cm stem diameter: its recruitment potential is very poor. It is a long-lived light-demanding species, one of many found in African forests. Tetraberlinia species lack modality, are more shade-tolerant and recruit better. All three species are ectomycorrhizal. M. bisulcata dominates grove basal area, even...

Experimental predator intrusions in a cooperative breeder reveal threat-dependent task partitioning

Dario Josi, Annika Freudiger, Michael Taborsky & Joachim G. Frommen
In cooperatively breeding species, non-breeding individuals provide alloparental care and help in territory maintenance and defence. Antipredator behaviours of subordinates can enhance offspring survival, which may provide direct and indirect fitness benefits to all group members. Helping abilities and involved costs and benefits, risks and outside options (e.g. breeding independently) usually diverge between group members, which calls for status-specific differentiated behavioural responses. Such role differentiation within groups may generate task-specific division of labour, as exemplified...

Data from: Plasticity via feedback reduces the cost of developmental instability

Remi Matthey-Doret
Costs of plasticity are thought to have important physiological and evolutionary consequences. A commonly predicted cost to plasticity is that plastic genotypes are likely to suffer from developmental instability. Adaptive plasticity requires that the developing organism can in some way sense what environment it is in or how well it is performing in that environment. These two information pathways—an “environmental signal” or a “performance signal” that indicates how well a developing phenotype matches the optimum...

Deer density drives habitat use of establishing wolves in the Western European Alps

Stefanie Roder, François Biollaz, Stéphane Mettaz, Fridolin Zimmermann, Ralph Manz, Marc Kery, Sergio Vignali, Luca Fumagalli, Raphaël Arlettaz & Veronika Braunisch
1. The return of top carnivores to their historical range triggers conflicts with the interests of different stakeholder groups. Anticipating such conflicts is key to appropriate conservation management, which calls for reliable spatial predictions of future carnivore occurrence. Previous models have assessed general habitat suitability for wolves, but the factors driving the settlement of dispersing individuals remain ill-understood. In particular, little attention has been paid to the role of prey availability in the recolonization process....

The genome of Draba nivalis shows signatures of adaptation to the extreme environmental stresses of the Arctic

Michael Nowak, Siri Birkeland, Terezie Mandáková, Rimjhim Roy Choudhury, Xinyi Guo, Lovisa Gustafsson, Abel Gizaw, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Marco Fracassetti, Anne Brysting, Loren Rieseberg, Tanja Slotte, Christian Parisod, Martin Lysak & Christian Brochmann
The Arctic is one of the most extreme terrestrial environments on the planet. Here we present the first complete genome assembly of a plant adapted to the high Arctic, Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae), an attractive model species for studying plant adaptation to the stresses imposed by this harsh environment. We used an iterative scaffolding strategy with data from short-reads, single-molecule long reads, proximity ligation data, and a genetic map to produce a 302 Mb assembly that...

Light availability and light demand of plants shape the arbuscular fungal communities in their roots

Lena Neuenkamp, Martin Zobel, Kadri Koorem, Teele Jairus, John Davison, Maarj Öpik, Martti Vasar & Mari Moora
Plants involved in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis trade photosynthetically derived carbon for fungal-provided soil nutrients. However, little is known about how plant light demand and ambient light conditions influence root-associating AM fungal communities. We conducted a manipulative field experiment to test whether plants’ shade tolerance influences their root AM fungal communities in open and shaded grassland sites. We found similar light-dependent shifts shifts in AM fungal community structure for experimental bait plant roots and...

Evaluation of Argon-37 as a means for identifying clandestine subsurface nuclear tests

Roland Purtschert, Robin Riedmann & H. H. Loosli

Data from: Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest Mechanisms Involving Early B-Cell Development in Canine IgA Deficiency

Mia Olsson, Katarina Tengvall, Marcel Frankowiack, Marcin Kierczak, Kerstin Bergvall, Erik Axelsson, Linda Tintle, Eliane Marti, Petra Roosje, Tosso Leeb, Åke Hedhammar, Lennart Hammarström & Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immune deficiency disorder in both humans and dogs, characterized by recurrent mucosal tract infections and a predisposition for allergic and other immune mediated diseases. In several dog breeds, low IgA levels have been observed at a high frequency and with a clinical resemblance to human IgAD. In this study, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genomic regions associated with low IgA levels in dogs...

Data from: Validation of network communicability metrics for the analysis of brain structural networks.

Jennifer Andreotti, Kay Jann, Lester Melie-Garcia, Stéphanie Giezendanner, Eugenio Abela, Roland Wiest, Thomas Dierks & Andrea Federspiel
Computational network analysis provides new methods to analyze the brain's structural organization based on diffusion imaging tractography data. Networks are characterized by global and local metrics that have recently given promising insights into diagnosis and the further understanding of psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Most of these metrics are based on the idea that information in a network flows along the shortest paths. In contrast to this notion, communicability is a broader measure of connectivity which...

Data from: Relaxed trait covariance in interspecific cichlid hybrids predicts morphological diversity in adaptive radiations

Oliver M. Selz, Kay Lucek, Kyle A. Young & Ole Seehausen
The process of adaptive radiation involves multiple events of speciation in short succession, associated with ecological diversification. Understanding this process requires identifying the origins of heritable phenotypic variation that allows adaptive radiation to progress. Hybridization is one source of genetic and morphological variation that may spur adaptive radiation. We experimentally explored the potential role of hybridization in facilitating the onset of adaptive radiation. We generated first- and second-generation hybrids of four species of African cichlid...

Data from: First- and second-order sociality determine survival and reproduction in cooperative cichlids

Arne Jungwirth & Michael Taborsky
Cooperative breeders are model organisms for the study of cooperation. The costs and benefits involved in cooperation are typically scrutinised only at the group level. However, multi-level social organisations, involving interactions among individuals at various levels, are often observed. To understand the adaptive value of cooperation and the evolution of complex social organisation, the importance of different levels of social organisation for direct and indirect fitness components should be identified. Here we show that in...

Data from: Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits

Mélissa Lemoine, Kay Lucek, Charles Perrier, Verena Saladin, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Eduardo J. Belda, Anne Charmantier, Mariusz Cichon, Eeva Tapio, Arnaud Gregoire, Camilla A. Hinde, Arild Johnsen, Jan Komdeur, Raivo Mand, Erik Matthysen, Ana Claudia Norte, Natalia Pitala, Ben C. Sheldon, Tore Slagsvold, Joost M. Tinbergen, Janos Torok, Richard Ubels, Kees Van Oers, Marcel E. Visser … & Tapio Eeva
Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species – the great...

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