24 Works

Data from: Incubation time as an important influence on egg production and distribution into clutches for sauropod dinosaurs

Graeme D. Ruxton, Geoffrey F. Birchard & D. Charles Deeming
Individual egg size and clutch size of the largest of the dinosaurs (the sauropods) are both smaller than might be expected for such large oviparous organisms. We suggest that these effects can be understood in the light of likely incubation times of sauropod eggs. Using allometric relationships from extant birds and crocodilians, we estimate that time from laying to hatching was likely to have been 65–82 days. If total predation risk varies with length of...

Data from: Global population structure and demographic history of the grey seal

Anastasia Klimova, Caleb D. Phillips, Katharina Fietz, Morten T. Olsen, John Harwood, William Amos, Joseph I. Hoffman, A. Klimova, J. I. Hoffman, C. D. Phillips, W. Amos, K. Fietz, M. T. Olsen & J. Harwood
Although the grey seal Halichoerus grypus is one of the most familiar and intensively studied of all pinniped species, its global population structure remains to be elucidated. Little is also known about how the species as a whole may have historically responded to climate-driven changes in habitat availability and anthropogenic exploitation. We therefore analysed samples from over 1500 individuals collected from 22 colonies spanning the Western and Eastern Atlantic and the Baltic Sea regions, represented...

Data from: The application of optical coherence tomography to image subsurface tissue structure of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba

Nicola Bellini, Martin J. Cox, Danielle J. Harper, Sebastian R. Stott, Praveen C. Ashok, Kishan Dholakia, So Kawaguchi, Robert King, Tammy J. Horton, Christian T. A. Brown & Tammy Horton
Many small open ocean animals, such as Antarctic krill, are an important part of marine ecosystems. To discover what will happen to animals such as krill in a changing ocean, experiments are run in aquaria where conditions can be controlled to simulate water characteristics predicted to occur in the future. The response of individual animals to changing water conditions can be hard to observe, and with current observation techniques it is very difficult to follow...

Data from: Developmental stress predicts social network position

Neeltje J. Boogert, Damien R. Farine, Karen A. Spencer, D. R. Farine, K. A. Spencer & N. J. Boogert
The quantity and quality of social relationships, as captured by social network analysis, can have major fitness consequences. Various studies have shown that individual differences in social behaviour can be due to variation in exposure to developmental stress. However, whether these developmental differences translate to consistent differences in social network position is not known. We experimentally increased levels of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in nestling zebra finches in a fully balanced design. Upon...

Data from: Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

Catherine Hobaiter, Timothée Poisot, Klaus Zuberbühler, William Hoppitt & Thibaud Gruber
Claims of culture in animals have been stimulated by studies on a wide range of taxa revealing group-specific behavior patterns that remain stable through generations, consistent with different behavioral innovations spreading within groups by social transmission in a manner similar to human culture. In chimpanzees, 39 behaviors have been identified as 'cultural', because alternative genetic and environmental explanations for the observed regional variation appear less plausible. This interpretation is supported by experimental data from captive...

Data from: Diploid hybrid origin of Ostryopsis intermedia (Betulaceae) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau triggered by Quaternary climate change

Bingbing Liu, Richard J. Abbott, Zhiqiang Lu, Bin Tian & Jianquan Liu
Despite the well known effects that Quaternary climate oscillations had on shaping intraspecific diversity, their role in driving homoploid hybrid speciation is less clear. Here we examine their importance in the putative homoploid hybrid origin and evolution of Ostryopsis intermedia, a diploid species occurring in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), a biodiversity hotspot. We investigated interspecific relationships between this species and its only other congeners, O. davidiana and O. nobilis, based on four sets of nuclear...

Data from: In absence of local adaptation, plasticity and spatially varying selection rule: a view from genomic reaction norms in a panmictic species (Anguilla rostrata)

Caroline L. Côté, Martin Castonguay, Kalujnaia Svetlana McWilliam, Gordon Cramb & Louis Bernatchez
Background: American eel (Anguilla rostrata) is one of the few species for which panmixia has been demonstrated at the scale of the entire species. As such, the development of long term local adaptation is impossible in this species. Instead, both plasticity and spatially varying selection have been invoked in explaining how American eel may cope with an unusual broad scope of environmental conditions. Here, we address this question through transcriptomic analyses and genomic reaction norms...

Data from: The function of multiple ejaculations in bitterling

Carl Smith, Mark Warren, Romain Rouchet, Martin Reichard, C. Smith, R. Rouchet, M. Reichard & M. Warren
In some taxa, males perform multiple ejaculations, which may function in sperm competition or in maintaining a baseline density of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract to ensure fertilization, a process that has been termed ‘topping up’. We investigated the function of multiple ejaculations in two species of bitterling, the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) and Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Bitterling oviposit in living freshwater mussels, with fertilization taking place within the mussel gill cavity....

Data from: Evolution of divergent female mating preference in response to experimental sexual selection

Allan Debelle, Michael G. Ritchie & Rhonda R. Snook
Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence among populations. We manipulated the...

Environmental and chemical determinands associated with phosphorus in Loch Leven bed sediments (2004-2005)

B.M. Spears, J. Watt, L. Carvalho & D.M. Paterson
This is a dataset obtained from analysis of lake sediment and overlying water from six sites along a depth gradient, in Loch Leven, Scotland, over a period of one year. Parameters measured from the water and included in the dataset are dissolved oxygen concentration, conductivity, pH, temperature, concentrations of three forms of phosphorus, and ammonium and silica concentrations. Chlorophyll a concentration measured from the sediment surface is included, and within the sediment concentrations of seven...

Data from: Human children rely more on social information than chimpanzees

Edwin J. C. Van Leeuwen, Josep Call, Daniel B. M. Haun, J. Call, D. B. M. Haun & E. J. C. Van Leeuwen
Human societies are characterized by more cultural diversity than chimpanzee communities. However, it is currently unclear what mechanism might be driving this difference. Since reliance on social information is a pivotal characteristic of culture, we investigated individual and social information reliance in children and chimpanzees. We repeatedly presented subjects with a reward-retrieval task on which they had collected conflicting individual and social information of equal accuracy in counterbalanced order. While both species relied mostly on...

Data from: Higher frequency of social learning in China than in the West shows cultural variation in the dynamics of cultural evolution

Alex Mesoudi, Lei Chang, Keelin Murray, Hui Jing Lu, K. Murray, A. Mesoudi, H. J. Lu & L. Chang
Cultural evolutionary models have identified a range of conditions under which social learning (copying others) is predicted to be adaptive relative to asocial learning (learning on one's own), particularly in humans where socially learned information can accumulate over successive generations. However, cultural evolution and behavioural economics experiments have consistently shown apparently maladaptive under-utilization of social information in Western populations. Here we provide experimental evidence of cultural variation in people's use of social learning, potentially explaining...

Data from: Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes

Sofia A. V. Fortunato, Marcin Adamski, Olivia Mendivil Ramos, Sven Leininger, Jing Liu, David E. K. Ferrier & Maja Adamska
Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors1, 2, 3, 4, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class5, 6, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians5. It has...

Data from: Continuous-time spatially explicit capture-recapture models, with an application to a jaguar camera-trap survey.

Rebecca Foster, Bart Harmsen, Lorenzo Milazzo, Greg Distiller & David Borchers
1. Many capture-recapture surveys of wildlife populations operate in continuous time but detections are typically aggregated into occasions for analysis, even when exact detection times are available. This discards information and introduces subjectivity, in the form of decisions about occasion definition. 2. We develop a spatio-temporal Poisson process model for spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) surveys that operate continuously and record exact detection times. We show that, except in some special cases (including the case in...

Data from: Interspecific crossing and genetic mapping reveal intrinsic genomic incompatibility between two Senecio species that form a hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily

Adrian C. Brennan, Simon J. Hiscock & Richard J. Abbott
Studies of hybridizing species can reveal much about the genetic basis and maintenance of species divergence in the face of gene flow. Here we report a genetic segregation and linkage analysis conducted on F2 progeny of a reciprocal cross between Senecio aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius that form a hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily, aimed at determining the genetic basis of intrinsic hybrid barriers between them. Significant transmission ratio distortion (TRD) was detected at 34...

Data from: Socially flexible female choice and premating isolation in field crickets (Teleogryllus spp.)

Nathan W. Bailey, Elaine Macleod, N. W. Bailey & E. Macleod
Social influences on mate choice are predicted to influence evolutionary divergence of closely-related taxa, because of the key role mate choice plays in reproductive isolation. However, it is unclear whether females choosing between heterospecific and conspecific male signals use previously experienced social information in the same manner or to the same extent that they do when discriminating among conspecific mates only. We tested this using two field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus)...

Data from: Frequency-dependent conspecific attraction to food patches

Guy Beauchamp, Graeme D. Ruxton & G. D. Ruxton
In many ecological situations, resources are difficult to find but become more apparent to nearby searchers after one of their numbers discovers and begins to exploit them. If the discoverer cannot monopolize the resources, then others may benefit from joining the discoverer and sharing their discovery. Existing theories for this type of conspecific attraction have often used very simple rules for how the decision to join a discovered resource patch should be influenced by the...

Data from: Direct evidence that density-dependent regulation underpins the temporal stability of abundant species in a diverse animal community

Peter A. Henderson, Anne E. Magurran & A. E. Magurran
To understand how ecosystems are structured and stabilized, and to identify when communities are at risk of damage or collapse, we need to know how the abundances of the taxa in the entire assemblage vary over ecologically meaningful timescales. Here, we present an analysis of species temporal variability within a single large vertebrate community. Using an exceptionally complete 33-year monthly time series following the dynamics of 81 species of fishes, we show that the most...

Data from: Evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations

Nicholas G. Davies, Andy Gardner, A. Gardner & N. G. Davies
W. D. Hamilton famously suggested that the inflated relatedness of full sisters under haplodiploidy explains why all workers in the social hymenoptera are female. This suggestion has not stood up to further theoretical scrutiny and is not empirically supported. Rather, it appears that altruistic sib-rearing in the social hymenoptera is performed exclusively by females because this behaviour has its origins in parental care, which was performed exclusively by females in the ancestors of this insect...

Data from: Emergent patterns of population genetic structure for a coral reef community

Kimberly A. Selkoe, Oscar E. Gaggiotti, ToBo Laboratory, Brian W. Bowen & Robert J. Toonen
What shapes variation in genetic structure within a community of co-distributed species is a central but difficult question for the field of population genetics. With a focus on the isolated coral reef ecosystem of the Hawaiian Archipelago, we assessed how life history traits influence population genetic structure for 35 reef animals. Despite the archipelago's stepping stone configuration, isolation by distance was the least common type of genetic structure, detected in 4 species. Regional structuring (i.e.,...

Data from: Evidence of land-sea transfer of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter to a wildlife marine sentinel species

Johanna L. Baily, Guillaume Méric, Sion Bayliss, Geoffrey Foster, Simon E. Moss, Eleanor Watson, Ben Pascoe, Jane Mikhail, Robert J. Goldstone, Romain Pizzi, David G. E. Smith, Kim Willoughby, Alisa J. Hall, Mark P. Dagleish, Samuel K. Sheppard & Ailsa J. Hall
Environmental pollution often accompanies the expansion and urbanization of human populations where sewage and wastewaters commonly have an impact on the marine environments. Here, we explored the potential for faecal bacterial pathogens, of anthropic origin, to spread to marine wildlife in coastal areas. The common zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter was isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), an important sentinel species for environmental pollution, and compared to isolates from wild birds, agricultural sources and clinical samples to...

Data from: Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals

Nicola Atton, Bennett J. Galef, William Hoppitt, Mike M. Webster, Kevin N. Laland, N. Atton, K. N. Laland, M. M. Webster, B. J. Galef & W. Hoppitt
Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal....

Data from: Age-dependent social learning in a lizard

Daniel W. A. Noble, Richard W. Byrne, Martin J. Whiting, D. W. A. Noble, M. J. Whiting & R. W. Byrne
Evidence of social learning, whereby the actions of an animal facilitate the acquisition of new information by another, is taxonomically biased towards mammals, especially primates, and birds. However, social learning need not be limited to group-living animals because species with less interaction can still benefit from learning about potential predators, food sources, rivals and mates. We trained male skinks (Eulamprus quoyii), a mostly solitary lizard from eastern Australia, in a two-step foraging task. Lizards belonging...

Data from: Detecting cryptic indirect genetic effects

Nathan W. Bailey & Jessica L. Hoskins
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) occur when genes expressed in one individual alter the phenotype of an interacting partner. IGEs can dramatically affect the expression and evolution of social traits. However, the interacting phenotype(s) through which they are transmitted are often unknown, or cryptic, and their detection would enhance our ability to accurately predict evolutionary change. To illustrate this challenge and possible solutions to it, we assayed male leg tapping behaviour using inbred lines of Drosophila...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of St Andrews
  • University of Oxford
  • Anglia Ruskin University
  • University of Cambridge
  • Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics
  • University of Belize
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
  • Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • University of Neuchâtel