The belly button is one of the habitats closest to us, and yet it remains relatively unexplored. We analyzed bacteria and arachaea from the belly buttons of humans from two different populations sampled within a nation-wide citizen science project. We examined bacterial and archaeal phylotypes present and their diversity using multiplex pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA libraries. We then tested the oligarchy hypothesis borrowed from tropical macroecology, namely that the frequency of phylotypes in one sample...
Large-scale multi-locus studies have become common in the field of molecular phylogenetics, but the best way to interpret these studies when their results strongly conflict with prior information about phylogeny remains unclear. An example of such a conflict is provided by the ratites (the large flightless birds of southern land masses, including ostriches, emus, and rheas). Ratite monophyly is strongly supported by both morphological data and many earlier molecular studies and is used as a...
The first analyses of gene sequence data indicated that the eukaryotic tree of life consisted of a long stem of microbial groups ‘topped’ by a crown containing plants, animals, and fungi and their microbial relatives. While more recent multigene concatenated analyses have refined the relationships among the many branches of eukaryotes, the root of the eukaryotic tree of life has remained elusive. Inferring the root of extant eukaryotes is challenging because of the age of...
The success of model-based methods in phylogenetics has motivated much research aimed at generating new, biologically informative models. This new computer-intensive approaches to phylogenetics demands validation studies and sound measures of performance. To date such work has consisted only of simulation studies, estimation of known phylogenies and difficult mathematical analyses assessing the estimability of parameters. Little practical guidance has been available to practitioners and theoreticians alike as to when and why the parameters in a...
Data from: Genetic variation in the Yolk protein expression network of Drosophila melanogaster: sex-biased negative correlations with longevityAaron M. Tarone, Lauren M. Mcintyre, Lawrence G. Harshman, Sergey V. Nuzhdin, A M Tarone, L G Harshman, L M McIntyre & S V Nuzhdin
One of the persistent problems in biology is understanding how genetic variation contributes to phenotypic variation. Associations at many levels have been reported, and yet causal inference has remained elusive. We propose to rely on the knowledge of causal relationships established by molecular biology approaches. The existing molecular knowledge forms a firm backbone upon which hypotheses connecting genetic variation, transcriptional variation and phenotypic variation can be built. The sex determination pathway is a well-established molecular...
BACKGROUND: The organization of networks of interacting species, such as plants and animals engaged in mutualisms, strongly influences the ecology and evolution of partner communities. Habitat fragmentation is a globally pervasive form of spatial heterogeneity that could profoundly impact the structure of mutualist networks. This is particularly true for biodiversity-rich tropical ecosystems, where the majority of plant species depend on mutualisms with animals and it is thought that changes in the structure of mutualist networks...
Data from: A maximum likelihood approach to generate hypotheses on the evolution and historical biogeography in the Lower Volga Valley regions (southwest Russia)Evgeny V. Mavrodiev, Alexy P. Laktionov & Nico Cellinese
The evolution of the diverse flora in the Lower Volga Valley (LVV) (southwest Russia) is complex due to the composite geomorphology and tectonic history of the Caspian Sea and adjacent areas. In the absence of phylogenetic studies and temporal information, we implemented a maximum likelihood (ML) approach and stochastic character mapping reconstruction aiming at recovering historical signals from species occurrence data. A taxon-area matrix of 13 floristic areas and 1018 extant species was constructed and...
The motivation for the development of phylogenetic nomenclature (originally called “phylogenetic taxonomy”) was to allow biological classification (or “systematization”) to represent phylogenetic relationships, and to embody important principles such as “the untenability of paraphyletic groups” (de Queiroz and Gauthier 1990). From this starting point de Queiroz and Gauthier developed a creative new basis for systematization in which the entities are not ranked taxa but clades (de Queiroz and Gauthier 1990, 1992, 1994; de Queiroz 1992,...
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Primers were developed for a portion of the ycf1 plastid gene in magnoliid taxa to investigate the utility of ycf1 in phylogenetic analyses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six species across six families within the magnoliid group (Canellales, Piperales, Laurales, and Magnoliales) were sampled to examine the ability to amplify ycf1. Additionally, 29 accessions of Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae) were sequenced to assess levels of variation in ycf1 compared to matK and trnL-F....
Data from: Montane refugia predict population genetic structure in the Large-blotched Ensatina salamanderThomas J. Devitt, Susan E. Cameron Devitt, Bradford D. Hollingsworth, Jimmy A. McGuire, Craig Moritz & Susan E. Cameron Devitt
Understanding the biotic consequences of Pleistocene range shifts and fragmentation remains a fundamental goal in historical biogeography and evolutionary biology. Here, we combine species distribution models (SDM) from the present and two late Quaternary time periods with multilocus genetic data (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites) to evaluate the effect of climate-induced habitat shifts on population genetic structure in the Large-blotched Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii klauberi), a plethodontid salamander endemic to middle and high-elevation conifer forest in the...
Data from: Greenhouse biogeography: the relationship of geographic range to invasion and extinction in the Cretaceous Western Interior SeawayCorinne E. Myers, MacKenzie III, Richard A., Bruce S. Lieberman & Richard A. MacKenzie
Significant warming of Earth's climate in the near term seems increasingly likely. If significant enough, this climatic regime could, in the long term, come to resemble previous greenhouse intervals in earth history. Consequently, analysis of the fossil record during periods of extreme warmth may provide important lessons for species biology, including biogeography, in a much warmer world. To explore this issue, we analyzed the biogeographic response of 63 molluscan species to the long-term global warmth...
Data from: High diversity and widespread occurrence of mitotic spore mats in ectomycorrhizal PezizalesRosanne A. Healy, Matthew E. Smith, Gregory M. Bonito, Donald H. Pfister, Gonzalo G. Guevara, Caroline Hobart, Leticia Kumar, Thai Lee, Katherine Stafford, Zai-Wei Ge, Rytas Vilgalys, Gwendolyn Williams, James Trappe, David J. McLaughlin, D. H. Pfister, Ge, Z. -W., G. M. Bonito, G. Williams, K. Stafford, R. Vilgalys, J. Trappe, R. A. Healy, L. Kumar, T. Lee, D. J. McLaughlin … & C. Hobart
Fungal mitospores may function as dispersal units and/ or spermatia and thus play a role in distribution and/or mating of species that produce them. Mitospore production in ectomycorrhizal (EcM) Pezizales is rarely reported, but here we document mitospore production by a high diversity of EcM Pezizales on three continents, in both hemispheres. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) nuclear rDNA from 292 spore mats (visible mitospore clumps) collected in...
Plastid DNA sequences have been widely used by systematists for reconstructing plant phylogenies. The utility of any DNA region for phylogenetic analysis is determined by ease of amplification and sequencing, confidence of assessment in phylogenetic character alignment, and by variability across broad taxon sampling. Often, a compromise must be made between using relatively highly conserved coding regions or highly variable introns and intergenic spacers. Analyses of a combination of these types of DNA regions yield...
Ferns of the genus Marsilea (water clover) are potentially invasive aquatic and wetland plants. They are difficult to identify to species because of subtle diagnostic characters, the sterile condition of many specimens, and unresolved taxonomic problems. We sequenced four plastid regions (rbcL, rps4, rps4-trnS spacer, and trnL-F spacer) from 223 accessions across ca. 38 species. Our goals were to: 1) attempt to identify problematic Marsilea specimens from the southeastern U.S., and 2) assess species delimitation...
University of Florida14
University of Colorado Boulder2
Eastern Illinois University2
University of Kansas1
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
University of California System1
Oregon State University1
University of Minnesota1
North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences1
Texas A&M University1
Kunming Institute of Botany1
Florida Museum of Natural History1
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute1
Royal Botanic Garden Sydney1