Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineers— species in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this paper we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary...
Data from: Real-time assessment of hybridization between wolves and dogs: combining non-invasive samples with ancestry informative markersRaquel Godinho, José Vicente López-Bao, Diana Castro, Luís Llaneza, Susana Lopes, Pedro Silva & Nuno Ferrand
Wolves and dogs provide a paradigmatic example of the ecological and conservation implications of hybridization events between wild and domesticated forms. However, our understanding of such implications has been traditionally hampered by both high genetic similarity and the difficulties in obtaining tissue samples (TS), which limit our ability to assess ongoing hybridization events. To assess the occurrence and extension of hybridization in a pack of wolf-dog hybrids in Northwestern Iberia, we compared the power of...
Data from: A model for non-equilibrium metapopulation dynamics utilizing data on species occupancy, patch ages and landscape historyAlejandro Ruete, Örjan Fritz & Tord Snäll
1. The distribution pattern of many species reflects the past rather than the current structure of landscapes. Consequently, species are most often not in equilibrium with the current landscape structure. Yet this is a well-known fact, there is no appropriate approach to estimate the colonization rate of non-equilibrium species based on only data on the species occurrence pattern in the landscape. 2. We present an approach to estimate the colonization rate of non-equilibrium metapopulations. The...
Analysis of one of the most comprehensive datasets to date of the largest passerine bird clade, Passerida, identified 10 primary well-supported lineages corresponding to Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea, Passeroidea, the ‘bombycillids’ (here proposed to be recognized as Bombycilloidea), Paridae/Remizidae (proposed to be recognized as Paroidea), Stenostiridae, Hyliotidae, Regulidae (proposed to be recognized as Reguloidea) and spotted wren-babbler Spelaeornis formosus. The latter was found on a single branch in a strongly supported clade with Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea and...
1. Species range shifts associated with environmental change or biological invasions are increasingly important study areas. However, quantifying range expansion rates may be heavily influenced by methodology and/or sampling bias. 2. We compared expansion rate estimates of Roesel’s bush-cricket (Metrioptera roeselii, Hagenbach 1822), a non-native species currently expanding its range in south-central Sweden, from range statistic models based on distance measures (mean, median, 95th gamma quantile, marginal mean, maximum and conditional maximum) and an area-based...
Data from: Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killingBarbara Zimmermann, Håkan Sand, Petter Wabakken, Olof Liberg & Harry Petter Andreassen
The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the...
Data from: Intraspecific phenotypic variation among alewife populations drives parallel phenotypic shifts in bluegillMagnus Huss, Jennifer G. Howeth, Julia I. Osterman, David M. Post, J. I. Osterman, D. M. Post & M. Huss
Evolutionary diversification within consumer species may generate selection on local ecological communities, affecting prey community structure. However, the extent to which this niche construction can propagate across food webs and shape trait variation in competing species is unknown. Here, we tested whether niche construction by different life-history variants of the planktivorous fish alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) can drive phenotypic divergence and resource use in the competing species bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Using a combination of common garden...
Predicting how plants will respond to global warming necessitates understanding of local plant adaptation to temperature. Temperature may exert selective effects on plants directly, and also indirectly through environmental factors that covary with temperature, notably soil properties. However, studies on the interactive effects of temperature and soil properties on plant adaptation are rare, and the role of abiotic versus biotic soil properties in plant adaptation to temperature remains untested. We performed two growth chamber experiments...
Data from: Preference for outbred host plants and positive effects of inbreeding on egg survival in a specialist herbivoreAino Kalske, Anne Muola, Pia Mutikainen, Roosa Leimu, A. Muola, A. Kalske & R. Leimu
Inbreeding can profoundly affect the interactions of plants with herbivores as well as with the natural enemies of the herbivores. We studied how plant inbreeding affects herbivore oviposition preference, and whether inbreeding of both plants and herbivores alters the probability of predation or parasitism of herbivore eggs. In a laboratory preference test with the specialist herbivore moth Abrostola asclepiadis and inbred and outbred Vincetoxicum hirundinaria plants, we discovered that herbivores preferred to oviposit on outbred...
Mindell (2013) [henceforth simply “Mindell”] has provided a claim that the Tree of Life (ToL) is still useful in phylogenetics as a model, a metaphor, and a heuristic. Here I examine all three of these claims. Mindell noted that what biologists have long discussed as the ToL is in fact reticulate, and always has been. He therefore objected to simplistic declarations that there is no ToL, in the sense of no recoverable phylogenetic history for...
Data from: Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring and autumn-spawners confined to early post-glacial arrivalBo Delling, Stefan Palm, Eleftheria Palkopoulou & Tore Prestegaard
Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a...
The transitions between ecosystems (ecotones) are often biodiversity hotspots, but we know little about the forces that shape them. Today, often sharp boundaries with low diversity are found between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This has been attributed to environmental factors that hamper succession. However, ecosystem properties are often controlled by both bottom-up and top-down forces, but their relative importance in shaping riparian boundaries is not known. We hypothesize that (1) herbivores may enforce sharp transitions...
Data from: Sperm variation within a single ejaculate affects offspring development in Atlantic salmonSimone Immler, Cosima Hotzy, Ghazal Alavioon, Erik Petersson, Göran Arnqvist, E. Petersson, G. Alavioon, G. Arnqvist, C. Hotzy & S. Immler
It is generally believed that variation in sperm phenotype within a single ejaculate has no consequences for offspring performance, because sperm phenotypes are thought not to reflect sperm genotypes. We show that variation in individual sperm function within an ejaculate affects the performance of the resulting offspring in the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. We experimentally manipulated the time between sperm activation and fertilization in order to select for sperm cohorts differing in longevity within single...
Data from: Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine birdMeit Öberg, Debora Arlt, Tomas Pärt, Ane T. Laugen, Sönke Eggers & Matthew Low
Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age, breeding time, habitat quality, and parental nest...
1. Invasive browsing ungulates can have strong impacts on the structure and composition of forest ecosystems, particularly where ungulates are not native ecosystem components as in New Zealand. Ungulate impacts on plant communities have been considered mostly from an above-ground perspective. However, understanding below-ground effects of these invasive herbivores is critical as they may drive feedbacks to above-ground ecosystem components. 2. We measured growth responses of seedlings of five common tree species in a greenhouse...
Data from: Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indicesVesna Gagic, Ignasi Bartomeus, Astrid Taylor, Camilla Winqvist, Christina Fischer, Eleanor M. Slade, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Mark Emmerson, Simon G. Potts, Teja Tscharntke, Wolfgang Weisser, Riccardo Bommarco, R. Bommarco, V. Gagic, T. Jonsson, A. Taylor, C. Winqvist, E. M. Slade, C. Fischer, I. Bartomeus, S. G. Potts, M. Emmerson, T. Tscharntke & I. Steffan-Dewenter
Drastic biodiversity declines have raised concerns about the deterioration of ecosystem functions and have motivated much recent research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. A functional trait framework has been proposed to improve the mechanistic understanding of this relationship, but this has rarely been tested for organisms other than plants. We analysed eight datasets, including five animal groups, to examine how well a trait-based approach, compared with a more traditional taxonomic approach,...
Biodiversity loss—one of the most prominent forms of modern environmental change—has been heavily driven by terrestrial habitat loss and, in particular, the spread and intensification of agriculture. Expanding agricultural land-use has led to the search for strong conservation strategies, with some suggesting that biodiversity conservation in agriculture is best maximized by reducing local management intensity, such as fertilizer and pesticide application. Others highlight the importance of landscape-level approaches that incorporate natural or semi-natural areas in...
Data from: Fatal attraction: vegetation responses to nutrient inputs attract herbivores to infectious anthrax carcass sitesWendy C. Turner, Kyrre L. Kausrud, Yathin S. Krishnappa, Joris P. G. M. Cromsigt, Holly H. Ganz, Isaac Mapaure, Claudine C. Cloete, Zepee Havarua, Martina Küsters, Wayne M. Getz, Nils Chr. Stenseth, K. L. Kausrud, Y. S. Krishnappa, W. C. Turner, J. P. G. M. Cromsigt, H. H. Ganz, W. M. Getz, C. C. Cloete, Z. Havarua & I. Mapaure
Parasites can shape the foraging behaviour of their hosts through cues indicating risk of infection. When cues for risk co-occur with desired traits such as forage quality, individuals face a trade-off between nutrient acquisition and parasite exposure. We evaluated how this trade-off may influence disease transmission in a 3-year experimental study of anthrax in a guild of mammalian herbivores in Etosha National Park, Namibia. At plains zebra (Equus quagga) carcass sites we assessed (i) carcass...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences18
University of Göttingen2
University of Oxford2
Sun Yat-sen University1
University of Eastern Finland1
Lincoln University - California1
University of Würzburg1
University of Michigan–Ann Arbor1
University of California System1
University of Namibia1
University of California, Berkeley1
Netherlands Institute of Ecology1
University of Gothenburg1