54 Works

Data from: Incorporating uncertainty into forest management planning: timber harvest, wildfire and climate change in the boreal forest

Colin J. Daniel, Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian, B. Mike Wotton, Bronwyn Rayfield & Marie-Josée Fortin
In an effort to ensure the sustainability of their forests, boreal forest managers often use forest planning models to make future projections of timber supply and other key services, such as habitat for wildlife. Projecting the fate of these services has proven to be challenging, however, as major uncertainties exist regarding the principal drivers of boreal ecosystem dynamics, including the future spatial and temporal distribution of wildfire and timber harvesting. Existing forest planning models are...

Data from: Using experimentation to understand the 10-year snowshoe hare cycle in the boreal forest of North America

Charles Krebs, Rudy Boonstra, Stan Boutin & Charles J. Krebs
1. Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. 2. Since the 1930s ecologists have investigated the...

Data from: Aging asexual lineages and the evolutionary maintenance of sex

Eddie Ka Ho Ho, Aneil F. Agrawal & Eddie K. H. Ho
Finite populations of asexual and highly selfing species suffer from a reduced efficacy of selection. Such populations are thought to decline in fitness over time due to accumulating slightly deleterious mutations or failing to adapt to changing conditions. These within-population processes that lead non-recombining species to extinction may help maintain sex and outcrossing through species level selection. Although inefficient selection is proposed to elevate extinction rates over time, previous models of species selection for sex...

Data from: Geographically structured genetic variation in the Medicago lupulina – Ensifer mutualism

Tia L. Harrison, Corlett Wolfe Wood, Katy D. Heath, John R. Stinchcombe & Corlett W. Wood
Gene flow between genetically differentiated populations can maintain variation in species interactions, especially when population structure is congruent between interacting species. However, large-scale empirical comparisons of the population structure of interacting species are rare, particularly in positive interspecific interactions (mutualisms). One agriculturally and ecologically important mutualism is the partnership between legume plants and rhizobia. Through characterizing and comparing the population genomic structure of the legume Medicago lupulina and two rhizobial species (Ensifer medicae and E....

Data from: Species colonisation, not competitive exclusion, drives community overdispersion over long-term succession

Shao-Peng Li, Marc W. Cadotte, Scott J. Meiners, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Lin Jiang & Wen-Sheng Shu
Ecological communities often transition from phylogenetic and functional clustering to overdispersion over succession as judged by space-for-time substitution studies. Such a pattern has been generally attributed to the increase in competitive exclusion of closely related species with similar traits through time, although colonisation and extinction have rarely been examined. Using 44 years of uninterrupted old-field succession in New Jersey, USA, we confirmed that phylogenetic and functional clustering decreased as succession unfolded, but the transition was...

Data from: Oilbirds produce echolocation signals beyond their best hearing range and adjust signal design to natural light conditions

Signe Brinkløv, Coen P. H. Elemans & John M. Ratcliffe
Oilbirds are active at night, foraging for fruits using keen olfaction and extremely light-sensitive eyes, and echolocate as they leave and return to their cavernous roosts. We recorded the echolocation behaviour of wild oilbirds using a multi-microphone array as they entered and exited their roosts under different natural light conditions. During echolocation, the birds produced click bursts (CBs) lasting less than 10 ms and consisting of a variable number (2–8) of clicks at 2–3 ms...

Data from: The effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution in different environments

Josianne Lachapelle & Nick Colegrave
The adaptive function of sex has been extensively studied, while less consideration has been given to the potential downstream consequences of sex on evolution. Here, we investigate one such potential consequence, the effect of sex on the repeatability of evolution. By affecting the repeatability of evolution, sex could have important implications for biodiversity, and for our ability to make predictions about the outcome of environmental change. We allowed asexual and sexual populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...

Data from: Modelling the evolution of HIV-1 virulence in response to imperfect therapy and prophylaxis

David R. M. Smith & Nicole Mideo
Average HIV-1 virulence appears to have evolved in different directions in different host populations since antiretro- viral therapy first became available, and models predict that HIV drugs can select for either higher or lower virulence, depending on how treatment is administered. However, HIV virulence evolution in response to ‘leaky’ therapy (treat- ment that imperfectly suppresses viral replication) and the use of preventive drugs (pre-exposure prophylaxis) has not been explored. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that...

Data from: Spatial detection of outlier loci with Moran eigenvector maps (MEM)

Helene H. Wagner, Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira & Brenna R. Forester
The spatial signature of microevolutionary processes structuring genetic variation may play an important role in the detection of loci under selection. However, the spatial location of samples has not yet been used to quantify this. Here, we present a new two-step method of spatial outlier detection at the individual and deme levels using the power spectrum of Moran eigenvector maps (MEM). The MEM power spectrum quantifies how the variation in a variable, such as the...

Data from: 8-way randomized controlled trial of doxylamine, pyridoxine and dicyclomine for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: restoration of unpublished information

Navindra Persaud & Rujun Zhang
Objectives: We report information about an unpublished 1970s study (“8-way” Bendectin Study) that aimed to evaluate the relative therapeutic efficacy of doxylamine, pyridoxine, and dicyclomine in the management of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. We are publishing the trial's findings according to the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative because the trial was never published. Design: Double blinded, multi-centred, randomized placebo-controlled study. Setting: 14 clinics in the United States. Participants: 2308 patients in the...

Data from: Origins of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus): impacts of ice-olation and introgression

Ryan P. Walter, Denis Roy, Nigel E. Hussey, Björn Stelbrink, Kit M. Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Bailey C. McMeans, Jörundur Svavarsson, Steven T. Kessel, Sebastian Biton Porsmoguer, Sharon Wildes, Cindy A. Tribuzio, Steven E. Campana, Stephen D. Petersen, R. Dean Grubbs, Daniel D. Heath, Kevin J. Hedges & Aaron T. Fisk
Herein, we use genetic data from 277 sleeper sharks to perform coalescent-based modeling to test the hypothesis of early Quaternary emergence of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) from ancestral sleeper sharks in the Canadian Arctic-Subarctic region. Our results show that morphologically cryptic somniosids S. microcephalus and Somniosus pacificus can be genetically distinguished using combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Our data confirm the presence of genetically admixed individuals in the Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic, and...

Data from: Inference of facultative mobility in the enigmatic Ediacaran organism Parvancorina

Simon A.F. Darroch, Imran A. Rahman, Brandt Gibson, Rachel A. Racicot, Marc Laflamme & Simon A. F. Darroch
Establishing how Ediacaran organisms moved and fed is critical to deciphering their ecological and evolutionary significance, but has long been confounded by their non-analogue body plans. Here, we use computational fluid dynamics to quantitatively analyze water flow around the Ediacaran taxon Parvancorina, thereby testing between competing models for feeding mode and mobility. The results show that flow was not distributed evenly across the organism, but was directed towards localized areas; this allows us to reject...

Data from: An ant–plant mutualism through the lens of cGMP-dependent kinase genes

Pierre-Jean G. Malé, Kyle M. Turner, Manjima Doha, Ina Anreiter, Aaron M. Allen, Marla B. Sokolowski & Megan E. Frederickson
In plant–animal mutualisms, how an animal forages often determines how much benefit its plant partner receives. In many animals, foraging behaviour changes in response to foraging gene expression or activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that foraging encodes. Here, we show that this highly conserved molecular mechanism affects the outcome of a plant–animal mutualism. We studied the two PKG genes of Allomerus octoarticulatus, an Amazonian ant that defends the ant–plant Cordia nodosa against herbivores....

Data from: Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements

Lina M. Arcila Hernández, Jon G. Sanders, Gabriel A. Miller, Alison Ravenscraft & Megan E. Frederickson
Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to...

Data from: The role of ecology, neutral processes and antagonistic coevolution in an apparent sexual arms race

Jennifer C. Perry, Colin J. Garroway & Locke Rowe
Some of the strongest examples of a sexual ‘arms race’ come from observations of correlated evolution in sexually antagonistic traits among populations. However, it remains unclear whether these cases truly represent sexually antagonistic coevolution; alternatively, ecological or neutral processes might also drive correlated evolution. To investigate these alternatives, we evaluated the contributions of intersex genetic correlations, ecological context, neutral genetic divergence and sexual coevolution in the correlated evolution of antagonistic traits among populations of Gerris...

Data from: Ecological drift and the distribution of species diversity

Benjamin Gilbert & Jonathan M. Levine
Ecological drift causes species abundances to fluctuate randomly, lowering diversity within communities and increasing differences among otherwise equivalent communities. Despite broad interest in ecological drift, ecologists have little experimental evidence of its consequences in nature, where competitive forces modulate species abundances. We manipulated drift by imposing 40-fold variation in the size of experimentally assembled annual plant communities and holding their edge-to-interior ratios comparable. Drift over three generations was greater than predicted by neutral models, causing...

Data from: Linking resource availability and heterogeneity to understorey species diversity through succession in boreal forest of Canada

Praveen Kumar, H.Y.H. Chen, S.C Thomas, Chander Shahi, Sean C. Thomas & Han Y. H. Chen
Understorey vegetation hosts the majority of species diversity and contributes greatly to ecosystem functioning in natural systems. Although patterns of understorey abundance, species diversity and composition associated with forest stand development are well researched, mechanisms driving these patterns remain largely speculative. We sampled fire origin stands of varying stand ages and overstorey compositions on mesic sites of the boreal forest of Canada and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to link time since fire (stand age),...

Data from: Environmental complexity and the purging of deleterious alleles

Amardeep Singh, Aneil F. Agrawal & Howard D. Rundle
Sexual interactions among adults can generate selection on both males and females with genome-wide consequences. Sexual selection through males is one component of this selection that has been argued to play an important role in purging deleterious alleles. A common technique to assess the influence of sexual selection is by a comparison of experimental evolution under enforced monogamy vs. polygamy. Mixed results from past studies may be due to the use of highly simplified lab...

Data from: Plant sex alters Allee effects in aggregating plant parasites

Denon Start, Benjamin Gilbert & Denon Start
Species interactions are central to our understanding of population dynamics. While density typically strengthens competition, reducing absolute fitness, Allee effects can reverse this pattern, increasing fitness with density. Allee effects emerge in host-parasite systems when higher parasite densities dilute immune responses or increase resource-mobilization. The optimal density of individuals in these systems should be influenced by how host quality alters the rates at which facilitative and competitive effects change across densities. We tested these ideas...

Data from: Sex-biased dispersal is independent of sex ratio in a semiaquatic insect

Celina B. Baines, Ilia Maria Ferzoco & Shannon J. McCauley
Dispersal influences a variety of ecological and evolutionary dynamics including metapopulation persistence and local adaptation. Sex-biased dispersal evolves when the costs and benefits associated with dispersal differ between the sexes. These costs and benefits may be fixed, resulting in a consistent pattern of sex-biased dispersal within species whereby one sex always disperses more and/or further than the other. Alternatively, the costs and benefits may vary depending on the intensity of competition experienced by the two...

Data from: Predator personality structures prey communities and trophic cascades

Denon Start & Benjamin Gilbert
Intraspecific variation is central to our understanding of evolution and population ecology, yet its consequences for community ecology are poorly understood. Animal personality—consistent individual differences in suites of behaviors – may be particularly important for trophic dynamics, where predator personality can determine activity rates and patterns of attack. We used mesocosms with aquatic food webs in which the top predator (dragonfly nymphs) varied in activity and subsequent attack rates on zooplankton, and tested the effects...

Data from: Aggressive behaviours, food deprivation and the foraging gene

Silu Wang & Marla B. Sokolowski
A pleiotropic gene governs multiple traits, which might constrain the evolution of complexity due to conflicting selection on these traits. However, if the pleiotropic effect is modular, then this can facilitate synergistic responses to selection on functionally related traits, thereby leveraging the evolution of complexity. To understand the evolutionary consequence of pleiotropy, the relation among functionally different traits governed by the same gene is key. We examined a pleiotropic function of the foraging (for) gene...

Data from: How do seasonality, substrate, and management history influence macrofungal fruiting assemblages in a central Amazonian Forest?

Dirce Leimi Komura, Jean-Marc Moncalvo, Cristian S. Dambros, Larissa S. Bento, Maria A. Neves & Charles E. Zartman
Worldwide, fungal richness peaks in tropical forest biomes where they are the primary drivers of decomposition. Understanding how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence tropical macrofungal fruiting patterns should provide insight as to how, for example, climate change and deforestation may impact their long-term demographic stability and evolutionary potential. However, in Amazonia no studies have yet to disentangle the effects of substrate, seasonality and forest history on phenology. Here, we quantitate spatial and temporal variation in...

Data from: Induced defences alter the strength and direction of natural selection on reproductive traits in common milkweed

Ken A. Thompson, Kaitlin A. Cory, Marc T.J. Johnson, K. A. Thompson, K. A. Cory & M. T. J. Johnson
Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the ecological processes that generate plant reproductive diversity. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive antiherbivore defences can alter natural selection on reproductive traits, but it is unclear whether induced defences will have the same effect and whether reduced foliar damage in defended plants is the cause of this pattern. In a factorial field experiment using common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., we induced plant defences using jasmonic acid (JA) and...

Data from: Ecological causes and consequences of flower color polymorphism in a self-pollinating plant (Boechera stricta)

Priya Vaidya, Ansley McDurmon, Emily Mattoon, Michaela Keefe, Lauren Carley, Cheng-Ruei Lee, Robin Bingham & Jill T. Anderson
Intraspecific variation in flower color is often attributed to pollinator-mediated selection, yet this mechanism cannot explain flower color polymorphisms in self-pollinating species. Indirect selection mediated via biotic and abiotic stresses could maintain flower color variation in these systems. The selfing forb, Boechera stricta, typically displays white flowers, but some individuals produce purple flowers. We quantified environmental correlates of flower color in natural populations. To disentangle plasticity from genotypic variation, we performed a multiyear field experiment...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    54

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    54

Affiliations

  • University of Toronto
    54
  • University of British Columbia
    5
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • McGill University
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • Duke University
    2
  • Royal Ontario Museum
    2
  • University of Windsor
    2
  • Vanderbilt University
    2
  • Harvard University
    2
  • Uppsala University
    2
  • University of Liverpool
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • Michigan State University
    2