155 Works

Data from: A tight balance between natural selection and gene flow in a southern African arid-zone endemic bird

Ângela Maria Ribeiro, Penn Lloyd & Rauri C. K. Bowie
Gene flow is traditionally thought to be antagonistic to population differentiation and local adaptation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that local adaptation can proceed provided that selection is greater than the homogenising effects of gene flow. We extend these initial studies by combining ecology (climate), phenotype (body size), physiological genetics (oxidative phosphorylation genes) and neutral loci (nuclear microsatellites and introns) to test whether selection can counter-balance gene flow and hence promote local adaptation in a...

Data from: Host-parasite arms races and rapid changes in bird egg appearance

Claire N. Spottiswoode & Martin Stevens
Coevolutionary arms races are a powerful force driving evolution, adaptation, and diversification. They can generate phenotypic polymorphisms which render it harder for a coevolving parasite or predator to exploit any one individual of a given species. In birds, egg polymorphisms should be an effective defense against mimetic brood parasites, and are extreme in the African tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava) and its parasite the cuckoo finch (Anomalospiza imberbis). Here we use models of avian visual perception...

Data from: Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias

Carolina Granados Mendoza, Sandrine Isnard, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Jan Van Den Bulcke, Nick P. Rowe, Joris Van Acker, Paul Goetghebeur & Marie-Stéphanie Samain
In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long...

Data from: Topography as a driver of diversification in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa

George Anthony Verboom, Nicola G. Bergh, Sarah A. Haiden, Vera Hoffmann & Matthew N. Britton
The rugged topography of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), South Africa, is frequently invoked to explain the spectacular radiation of the Cape flora, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Where recent authors emphasize the importance of elevation gradients as stimuli for ecological speciation, earlier workers stressed the role of topography as an isolating mechanism, particularly in montane lineages. Using six Cape plant lineages, we tested whether elevation niches are phylogenetically conserved. We then assessed whether...

Data from: It's cool to be dominant: social status alters short-term risks of heat stress

Susan J. Cunningham, Michelle L. Thompson & Andrew E. McKechnie
Climate change has potential to trigger social change. As a first step towards understanding mechanisms determining the vulnerability of animal societies to rising temperatures, we investigated interactions between social rank and thermoregulation in three arid-zone bird species: fawn-coloured lark (Mirafra africanoides, territorial); African red-eyed bulbul (Pycnonotus nigricans, loosely social) and sociable weaver (Philetairus socius, complex cooperative societies). We assessed relationships between body temperature (Tb), air temperature (Ta) and social rank in captive groups in the...

Data from: Flexibility in the duration of parental care: female leopards prioritise cub survival over reproductive output

Guy A. Balme, Hugh S. Robinson, Ross T. Pitman & Luke T. B. Hunter
1.Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. 2.We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We...

Data from: Sex differences in the drivers of reproductive skew in a cooperative breeder

Martha J. Nelson-Flower, Tom P. Flower & Amanda R. Ridley
Many cooperatively breeding societies are characterized by high reproductive skew, such that some socially dominant individuals breed, while socially subordinate individuals provide help. Inbreeding avoidance serves as a source of reproductive skew in many high-skew societies, but few empirical studies have examined sources of skew operating alongside inbreeding avoidance, or compared individual attempts to reproduce (reproductive competition) with individual reproductive success. Here we use long-term genetic and observational data to examine factors affecting reproductive skew...

Data from: The evolution of hominoid cranial diversity: a quantitative genetic approach

Lauren Schroeder & Noreen Von Cramon-Taubadel
Hominoid cranial evolution is characterized by substantial phenotypic diversity, yet the cause of this variability has rarely been explored. Quantitative genetic techniques for investigating evolutionary processes underlying morphological divergence are dependent on the availability of good ancestral models, a problem in hominoids where the fossil record is fragmentary and poorly understood. Here, we use a maximum likelihood approach based on a Brownian motion model of evolutionary change to estimate nested hypothetical ancestral forms from 15...

Data from: Processes of community assembly in an environmentally heterogeneous, high biodiversity region

Matthew E. Aiello-Lammens, Jasper A. Slingsby, Cory Merow, Hayley Kilroy Mollmann, Douglas Euston-Brown, Cynthia S. Jones, & John A. Silander
Despite decades of study, the relative importance of niche-based versus neutral processes in community assembly remains largely ambiguous. Recent work suggests niche-based processes are more easily detectable at coarser spatial scales, while neutrality dominates at finer scales. Analyses of functional traits with multi-year multi-site biodiversity inventories may provide deeper insights into assembly processes and the effects of spatial scale. We examined associations between community composition, species functional traits, and environmental conditions for plant communities in...

Data from: Factors associated with leucism in the common blackbird (Turdus merula)

Lucía Izquierdo, Robert L. Thomson, José I. Aguirre, Alazne Díez-Fernández, Bruno Faivre, Jordi Figuerola & Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo
Leucism is the total or partial lack of melanins in the skin and associate structures (i.e. hair or feathers). Little is known about the factors influencing this chromatic aberration although some local studies suggest that there is an effect of habitat, age and sex. To test these hypotheses and expand our knowledge on leucism, we carried out a large‐scale study using common blackbirds (Turdus merula) as our model species. Given the poor information available on...

Data from: Understanding the mechanisms of anti-tropical divergence in the seabird White-faced Storm-petrel (Procellariiformes: Pelagodroma marina) using a multi-locus approach

Monica C. Silva, Rafael Matias, Ross M. Wanless, Peter G. Ryan, Brent Stephenson, Mark Bolton, Nuno Ferrand & M. Manuela Coelho
Analytical methods that apply coalescent theory to multilocus data have improved inferences of demographic parameters that are critical to understanding population divergence and speciation. In particular, at the early stages of speciation, it is important to implement models that accommodate conflicting gene trees, and benefit from the presence of shared polymorphisms. Here, we employ eleven nuclear loci and the mitochondrial control region to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of the pelagic seabird White-faced Storm-petrel...

Data from: Evolutionary factors affecting the cross-species utility of newly developed microsatellite markers in seabirds

Yoshan Moodley, Juan F. Masello, Gopi K. Munimanda, Theresa L. Cole, Marco R. Thali, Rachael Alderman, Richard J. Cuthbert, Manuel Marin, Melanie Massaro, Joan Navarro, Richard A. Phillips, Peter G. Ryan, Cristián G. Suazo, Yves Cherel, Henri Weimerskirch, Petra Quillfeldt & Luciano Calderon
Microsatellite loci are ideal for testing hypotheses relating to genetic segregation at fine spatio-temporal scales. They are also conserved among closely related species, making them potentially useful for clarifying interspecific relationships between recently diverged taxa. However, mutations at primer binding sites may lead to increased nonamplification, or disruptions that may result in decreased polymorphism in nontarget species. Furthermore, high mutation rates and constraints on allele size may also with evolutionary time, promote an increase in...

Data from: Quantifying network resilience: comparison before and after a major perturbation shows strengths and limitations of network metrics

Christine Moore, Graeme S. Cumming & John Grewar
1. The resilience literature often assumes that social–ecological reorganization will result in either the removal of deficient system elements (components, interactions) or social learning. Major perturbations are expected to lead to either adaptation or, if accompanied by a regime shift, transformation. This has led to a conflation of the concepts of resilience and adaptation, which has in turn made it difficult to quantitatively distinguish between cases in which a system returned to a previous state,...

Data from: Leaf traits of African woody savanna species across climate and soil fertility gradients: evidence for conservative vs. acquisitive resource use strategies

Benjamin J. Wigley, Jasper A. Slingsby, Sandra Diaz, William J. Bond, Herve Fritz & Corli Coetsee
1. Establishing trade-offs among traits and the degree to which they co-vary along environmental gradients has become a key focal point in the effort to develop community ecology into a predictive science. While there is evidence for these relationships across global datasets, they are often too broad in scale, and do not consider the particularities of local to regional species pools. This decreases their usefulness for developing predictive models at scales relevant for conservation and...

Data from: Pair complementarity influences reproductive output in the polymorphic black sparrowhawk (Accipiter melanoleucus)

Gareth Tate, Petra Sumasgutner, Ann Koeslag & Arjun Amar
How multiple morphs are maintained within populations of colour polymorphic bird species remains a challenging question in evolutionary ecology. In some systems, differential productivity or survival between morphs are thought to play a role. Here we examine key demographic parameters between the two discrete adult morphs that characterise the polymorphic black sparrowhawk Accipiter melanoleucus. Using long-term breeding and survival data from a population on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, we test for differences in reproductive...

Data from: Dietary studies in birds: testing a non-invasive method using digital photography in seabirds

Davide Gaglio, Timothée Cook, Maëlle Connan, Peter G. Ryan & Richard B. Sherley
Dietary studies give vital insights into foraging behaviour, with implications for understanding changing environmental conditions and the anthropogenic impacts on natural resources. Traditional diet sampling methods may be invasive or subject to biases, so developing non-invasive and unbiased methods applicable to a diversity of species is essential. We used digital photography to investigate the diet fed to chicks of a prey-carrying seabird and compared our approach (photo-sampling) to a traditional method (regurgitations) for the greater...

Heat dissipation behaviour of birds in seasonally hot, arid-zones: are there global patterns?

Nicholas Pattinson, Michelle Thompson, Michael Griego, Grace Russell, Nicola Mitchell, Rowan Martin, Blair Wolf, Ben Smit, Susan Cunningham & Andrew McKechnie
Quantifying organismal sensitivity to heat stress provides one means for predicting vulnerability to climate change. Birds are ideal for investigating this approach, as they display quantifiable fitness consequences associated with behavioural and physiological responses to heat stress. We used a recently developed method that examines correlations between readily-observable behaviours and air temperature (Tair) to investigate interspecific variation in avian responses to heat stress in seasonally hot, arid regions on three continents: the southwestern United States,...

Data from: Urbanization is associated with increased breeding rate, but decreased breeding success in an urban population of near-threatened African Crowned Eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus)

Colleen Downs, Shane McPherson, Rebecca Muller, Petra Sumasgutner & Arjun Amar
Urban areas can be attractive to certain species because of increased food abundance and nesting availability which in turn may increase productivity or breeding rates. However, there are also potential costs associated with urban living such as higher nest failure, poorer body condition or increased prevalence of disease. These costs may result in species trading off the number of young produced against the condition of their young. African Crowned Eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) are a rare...

Epiphytic bryophyte diversity and range distributions along an elevational gradient in Marojejy, Madagascar

Lovanomenjanahary Marline, Claudine Ah-Peng & Terry Hedderson
Describing spatial variation in species richness and understanding its links to ecological mechanisms are complementary approaches for explaining geographical patterns of richness. The study of elevational gradients holds enormous potential for understanding the factors underlying global diversity. This paper investigates the pattern of species richness and range-size distribution of epiphytic bryophytes along an elevational gradient in Marojejy National Park, North-east Madagascar. The main objectives are to describe bryophyte species composition and endemism in Marojejy National...

Data from: A predictive model for improving placement of wind turbines to minimise collision risk potential for a large soaring raptor

Megan Murgatroyd, Willem Bouten & Arjun Amar
1. With the rapid growth of wind energy developments worldwide, it is critical that the negative impacts on wildlife are considered and mitigated. This includes minimising the numbers of large soaring raptors which are killed when they collide with wind turbines. 2. To reduce the likelihood of raptor collisions, turbines should be placed at locations which are least used by sensitive species. For resident or breeding species, this is often delineated crudely through the use...

Gambia Tobacco Survey 2017

Mongolia Illicit Cigarette Data 2017-2018.

Georgia Tobacco Survey 2017

Registration Year

  • 2021
  • 2020
  • 2019
  • 2018
  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2015
  • 2014
  • 2013
  • 2012

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Collection
  • Data Paper
  • Text


  • University of Cape Town
  • University of Cambridge
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Pretoria
  • South African National Biodiversity Institute
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
  • Nelson Mandela University
  • Stellenbosch University
  • Panthera Corporation
  • University of KwaZulu-Natal