Data from: The consequences of genetic variation in male sex peptide gene-expression levels for SP retention and egg laying in female DrosophilaDamian T. Smith, Laura K. Sirot, Mariana F. Wolfner, David J. Hosken, L K Sirot, M F Wolfner, D T Smith, D J Hosken & N Wedell
The accessory gland proteins (Acps) that male Drosophila melanogaster produce and transfer to females during copulation are key to male and female fitness. One Acp, the sex peptide (SP), is largely responsible for a dramatic increase in female egg laying and decrease in female receptivity after copulation. While genetic variation in male SP expression levels correlate with refractory period duration in females, it is unknown whether male SP expression influences female egg laying or if...
Data from: Sexual selection and experimental evolution of chemical signals in Drosophila pseudoobscuraJohn Hunt, Rhonda R. Snook, Christopher Mitchell, Helen S. Crudgington, Allen J. Moore, J. Hunt, C. Mitchell, R. R. Snook & H. S. Crudgington
Our expectations for the evolution of chemical signals in response to sexual selection are uncertain. How are chemical signals elaborated? Does sexual selection result in complexity of the composition or in altered quantities of expression? We addressed this in Drosophila pseudoobscura by examining male and female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) after 82 generations of elevated (E) sexual selection or relaxed sexual selection through monogamy (M). The CH profile consisted of 18 different components. We extracted three...
Data from: The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) re-colonizing the River Mersey in northwest EnglandCharles I. Ikediashi, Sam Billington, Jamie R. Stevens & Charles Ikediashi
By the 1950s, pollution had extirpated Atlantic salmon in the river Mersey in northwest England. During the 1970s, an extensive restoration program began and in 2001, an adult salmon was caught ascending the river. Subsequently, a fish trap was installed and additional adults are now routinely sampled. In this study, we have genotyped 138 adults and one juvenile salmon at 14 microsatellite loci from across this time period (2001–2011). We have used assignment analysis with...
Sequential mate choice strategies predict how females should alter their choosiness based on the availability of attractive males. While there are many studies on sequential mate choice within species, few have asked if females apply these strategies to interactions between species and how these strategies may affect hybridization. We tested how previous interactions with conspecific and heterospecific males affect mate preference and sexual isolation in two threespine stickleback species (benthics and limnetics: Gasterosteus spp.). Consistent...
Mechanisms that prevent different species from interbreeding are fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity. Barriers to interspecific matings, such as failure to recognize a potential mate, are often relatively easy to identify. Those occurring after mating, such as differences in the how successful sperm are in competition for fertilisations, are cryptic and have the potential to create selection on females to mate multiply as a defence against maladaptive hybridization. Cryptic advantages to conspecific sperm may...
Data from: Diverse reproductive barriers in hybridising crickets suggests extensive variation in the evolution and maintenance of isolationThor Veen, Joseph Faulks, Frances Tyler, Jodie Lloyd & Tom Tregenza
Reproductive barriers reduce gene flow between populations and maintain species identities. A diversity of barriers exist, acting before, during and after mating. To understand speciation and coexistence, these barriers need to be quantified and their potential interactions revealed. We use the hybridising field crickets Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris as a model to understand the full compliment and relative strength of reproductive barriers. We find that males of both species prefer conspecific females, but the...
Data from: Interactive effects of inbreeding and endocrine disruption on reproduction in a model laboratory fishLisa K. Bickley, Andrew R. Brown, David J. Hosken, Patrick B. Hamilton, Gareth Le Page, Gregory C. Paull, Stewart F. Owen & Charles R. Tyler
Inbreeding depression is expected to be more severe in stressful environments. However, the extent to which inbreeding affects the vulnerability of populations to environmental stressors, such as chemical exposure, remains unresolved. Here we report on the combined impacts of inbreeding and exposure to an endocrine disrupting chemical (the fungicide, clotrimazole) on zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that whilst inbreeding can negatively affect reproductive traits, not all traits are affected equally. Inbreeding depression frequently only became...
Data from: Pairing context determines condition-dependence of song rate in a monogamous passerine birdMorgan David, Yannick Auclair, Sasha R. X. Dall, Frank Cézilly, Morgan David, Yannick Auclair, Sasha R. X. Dall, Frank Cézilly, S. R. X. Dall & M. David
Condition-dependence of male ornaments is thought to provide honest signals on which females can base their sexual choice for genetic quality. Recent studies show that condition-dependence patterns can vary within populations. Although long-term association is thought to promote honest signalling, no study has explored the influence of pairing context on the condition-dependence of male ornaments. In this study, we assessed the influence of natural variation in body condition on song rate in zebra finches (Taeniopygia...
Data from: Kin selection, not group augmentation, predicts helping in an obligate cooperatively breeding birdLucy E. Browning, Samantha C. Patrick, Lee A. Rollins, Simon C. Griffith, Andrew F. Russell, S. C. Patrick, S. C. Griffith, L. A. Rollins & A. F. Russell
Kin selection theory has been the central model for understanding the evolution of cooperative breeding, where non-breeders help bear the cost of rearing young. Recently the dominance of this idea has been questioned; particularly in obligate cooperative breeders where breeding without help is uncommon and seldom successful. In such systems, the direct benefits gained through augmenting current group size have been hypothesised to provide a tractable alternative (or addition) to kin selection. However, clear empirical...
Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependent young, interactions within families nearly always involve more...
Data from: Fine-scale spatiotemporal patterns of genetic variation reflect budding dispersal coupled with strong natal philopatry in a cooperatively breeding mammalHazel J. Nichols, Neil R. Jordan, Gabriel A. Jamie, Michael A. Cant & Joseph I. Hoffman
The relatedness structure of animal populations is thought to be a critically important factor underlying the evolution of mating systems and social behaviours. While previous work has shown that population structure is shaped by many biological processes, few studies have investigated how these factors vary over time. Consequently, we explored the fine-scale spatiotemporal genetic structure of an intensively studied population of cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) over a ten-year period. Overall population structure was...
Data from: Food fight: sexual conflict over free amino acids in the nuptial gifts of male decorated cricketsSusan N. Gershman, John Hunt, Scott K. Sakaluk, J. Hunt & S. K. Sakaluk
In decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, the spermatophore that a male transfers at mating includes a gelatinous spermatophylax that the female consumes, delaying her removal of the sperm-filled ampulla. Male fertilization success increases with the length of time females spend feeding on the spermatophylax, while females may benefit by prematurely discarding the spermatophylaxes of undesirable males. This sexual conflict should favour males that produce increasingly appealing spermatophylaxes, and females that resist this manipulation. To determine the...
Data from: Sex-specific genotype-by-environment interactions for cuticular hydrocarbon expression in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus: implications for the evolution of signal reliabilityCarie B. Weddle, Christopher Mitchell, Sean K. Bay, Scott K. Sakaluk, John Hunt, C. Mitchell, S. K. Bay, J. Hunt, C. B. Weddle & S. K. Sakaluk
Phenotypic traits that convey information about individual identity or quality are important in animal social interactions, and the degree to which such traits are influenced by environmental variation can have profound effects on the reliability of these cues. Using inbred genetic lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, we manipulated diet quality to test how the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of males and females respond across two different nutritional rearing environments. There were significant differences...
Many animals, such as migrating shoals of fish, navigate in groups. Knowing the mechanisms involved in animal navigation is important when it comes to explaining navigation accuracy, dispersal patterns, population and evolutionary dynamics and consequently the design of conservation strategies. When navigating towards a common target, animals could interact socially by sharing available information directly or indirectly, or each individual could navigate by itself and aggregations may not disperse because all animals are moving towards...
Data from: Heritability of male attractiveness persists despite evidence for unreliable sexual signals in Drosophila simulansFiona C. Ingleby, John Hunt, David J. Hosken, F. C. Ingleby, J. Hunt & D. J. Hosken
Sexual signals can be used to attract mates, but to be honest indicators of signaller quality they need to convey information reliably. However, environmental variation and genotype-by-environment (G x E) interactions have the potential to compromise the reliability of sexual signals. Here we test the reliability of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) as signals of heritable aspects of male attractiveness in Drosophila simulans. We examined the heritability of male attractiveness and a measure of the difference between...
Data from: Genotype-by-environment interactions for cuticular hydrocarbon expression in Drosophila simulansFiona C. Ingleby, David J. Hosken, Kristy Flowers, Michael F. Hawkes, Sarah M. Lane, James Rapkin, Ian Dworkin, John Hunt, F. C. Ingleby, D. J. Hosken, K. Flowers, M. F. Hawkes, S. M. Lane, J. Rapkin, J. Hunt & I. Dworkin
Genotype-by-environment interactions (G x Es) describe genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Recent interest in the role of these interactions in sexual selection has identified G x Es across a diverse range of species and sexual traits. Additionally, theoretical work predicts that G x Es in sexual traits could help to maintain genetic variation, but could also disrupt the reliability of these traits as signals of mate quality. However, empirical tests of these theoretical predictions are...
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