64 Works

Data from: Rapid recovery following short-term acoustic disturbance in two fish species

Rick Bruintjes, Julia Purser, Kirsty A. Everley, Stephanie Mangan, Stephen D. Simpson & Andrew N. Radford
Noise from human activities is known to impact organisms in a variety of taxa, but most experimental studies on the behavioural effects of noise have focused on examining responses associated with the period of actual exposure. Unlike most pollutants, acoustic noise is generally short-lived, usually dissipating quickly after the source is turned off or leaves the area. In a series of experiments, we use established experimental paradigms to examine how fish behaviour and physiology are...

Data from: On the evolutionary interplay between dispersal and local adaptation in heterogeneous environments

Andrew M. Berdahl, Colin J. Torney, Emmanuel Schertzer, Simon A. Levin & Andrew Berdahl
Dispersal, whether in the form of a dandelion seed drifting on the breeze, or a salmon migrating upstream to breed in a non-natal stream, transports genes between locations. At these locations, local adaptation modifies the gene frequencies so their carriers are better suited to particular conditions, be those of newly disturbed soil or a quiet river pool. Both dispersal and local adaptation are major drivers of population structure; however, in general, their respective roles are...

Data from: Understanding the mechanisms of anti-tropical divergence in the seabird White-faced Storm-petrel (Procellariiformes: Pelagodroma marina) using a multi-locus approach

Monica C. Silva, Rafael Matias, Ross M. Wanless, Peter G. Ryan, Brent Stephenson, Mark Bolton, Nuno Ferrand, Manuela Coelho & M. Manuela Coelho
Analytical methods that apply coalescent theory to multilocus data have improved inferences of demographic parameters that are critical to understanding population divergence and speciation. In particular, at the early stages of speciation, it is important to implement models that accommodate conflicting gene trees, and benefit from the presence of shared polymorphisms. Here, we employ eleven nuclear loci and the mitochondrial control region to investigate the phylogeography and historical demography of the pelagic seabird White-faced Storm-petrel...

Data from: The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context-dependent

Sean Meaden, Konrad Paszkiewicz & Britt Koskella
Parasites are ubiquitous features of living systems and many parasites severely reduce the fecundity or longevity of their hosts. This parasite-imposed selection on host populations should strongly favor the evolution of host resistance, but hosts typically face a trade-off between investment in reproductive fitness and investment in defense against parasites. The magnitude of such a trade-off is likely to be context-dependent, and accordingly costs that are key in shaping evolution in nature may not be...

Data from: The role of host phenology in determining the incidence of an insect sexually transmitted infection

Daria Pastok, Mary-Jo Hoare, Jonathan J. Ryder, Michael Boots, Rob J. Knell, David Atkinson, Gregory D. D. Hurst, Jon J. Ryder & Mike Boots
Changes in the timing of life history events within the year alter the degree to which the activity patterns of different species coincide, making the dynamics of interspecific interactions sensitive to the phenology of the interacting parties. For parasites, the availability of suitable hosts to infect represents a crucial determinant of dynamics, and changes in the host (and parasite) phenology may thus alter disease epidemiology and the conditions for disease maintenance. We tested the hypothesis...

Data from: Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved egg signatures with elevated information content

Eleanor M. Caves, Martin Stevens, Edwin S. Iversen & Claire N. Spottiswoode
Hosts of brood-parasitic birds must distinguish their own eggs from parasitic mimics, or pay the cost of mistakenly raising a foreign chick. Egg discrimination is easier when different host females of the same species each lay visually distinctive eggs (egg ‘signatures’), which helps to foil mimicry by parasites. Here, we ask whether brood parasitism is associated with lower levels of correlation between different egg traits in hosts, making individual host signatures more distinctive and informative....

Data from: Evidence for aggressive mimicry in an adult brood parasitic bird, and generalised defences in its host

William E. Feeney, Jolyon Troscianko, Naomi E. Langmore, Claire N. Spottiswoode, W. E. Feeney, N. E. Langmore, J. Troscianko & C. N. Spottiswoode
Mimicry of a harmless model (aggressive mimicry) is used by egg, chick and fledgling brood parasites that resemble the host's own eggs, chicks and fledglings. However, aggressive mimicry may also evolve in adult brood parasites, to avoid attack from hosts and/or manipulate their perception of parasitism risk. We tested the hypothesis that female cuckoo finches (Anomalospiza imberbis) are aggressive mimics of female Euplectes weavers, such as the harmless, abundant and sympatric southern red bishop (Euplectes...

Data from: Pre-adapting parasitic phages to a pathogen leads to increased pathogen clearance and lowered resistance evolution with Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis bacterial isolates

Ville-Petri Friman, V-P. Friman, D. Soanes-Brown, P. Sierocinski, A. Buckling, H. K. Johansen, S. Molin & M. Merabishvili
Recent years have seen renewed interest in phage therapy - the use of viruses to specifically kill disease-causing bacteria – because of the alarming rise in antibiotic resistance. However, a major limitation of phage therapy is the ease at with bacteria can evolve resistance to phages. Here we determined if in vitro experimental coevolution can increase the efficiency of phage therapy by limiting the resistance evolution of intermittent and chronic cystic fibrosis Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung...

Data from: Modelling short-rotation coppice and tree planting for urban carbon management – a city-wide analysis

Nicola McHugh, Jill L. Edmondson, Kevin J. Gaston, Jonathan R. Leake, Odhran S. O’Sullivan & Odhran S. O'Sullivan
1. The capacity of urban areas to deliver provisioning ecosystem services is commonly overlooked and underutilized. Urban populations have globally increased fivefold since 1950, and they disproportionately consume ecosystem services and contribute to carbon emissions, highlighting the need to increase urban sustainability and reduce environmental impacts of urban dwellers. Here, we investigated the potential for increasing carbon sequestration, and biomass fuel production, by planting trees and short-rotation coppice (SRC), respectively, in a mid-sized UK city...

Data from: Natural vegetation benefits synergistic control of the three main insect and pathogen pests of fruit crop in southern Africa

Dominic C. Henri, Owen Jones, Ariana Tsiattalos, Elisa Thébault, Colleen L. Seymour & F. J. Frank Van Veen
1. Most studies of the potential for natural habitat to improve agricultural productivity have been conducted in transformed, temperate regions, but little is known of the importance of agroecosystem services in biodiverse developing countries. 2. Natural vegetation may promote the density and/or diversity of natural enemies of crop pests, but the strength of the effect varies, and few studies directly measure concurrent impacts on pest density. Considering multiple pest species within the same agroecosystem may...

Data from: Sex differences in senescence: the role of intra-sexual competition in early adulthood

Christopher Beirne, Richard Delahay & Andrew Young
Males and females frequently differ in their rates of ageing, but the origins of these differences are poorly understood. Sex differences in senescence have been hypothesized to arise, because investment in intra-sexual reproductive competition entails costs to somatic maintenance, leaving the sex that experiences stronger reproductive competition showing higher rates of senescence. However, evidence that sex differences in senescence are attributable to downstream effects of the intensity of intra-sexual reproductive competition experienced during the lifetime...

Data from: Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

Anna W. Santure, Jocelyn Poissant, Isabelle De Cauwer, Kees Van Oers, Matthew R. Robinson, John L. Quinn, Martien A. M. Groenen, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon & Jon Slate
Currently there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar phenotypic variation in different populations? Great tits (Parus major) have been studied extensively in long-term studies across Europe, and consequently are considered an ecological 'model organism'. Recently,...

Data from: Terminal investment in the gustatory appeal of nuptial food gifts in crickets

Kristin R. Duffield, John Hunt, James Rapkin, Ben M. Sadd, Scott K. Sakaluk, J. Hunt, J. Rapkin, K. R. Duffield, B. M. Sadd & S. K. Sakaluk
Investment in current versus future reproduction represents a prominent trade-off in life-history theory, and is likely dependent on an individual's life expectancy. The terminal investment hypothesis posits that a reduction in residual reproductive value (i.e., potential for future offspring) will result in increased investment in current reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus), when cued to their impending mortality, should increase their reproductive effort by altering the composition of their nuptial...

Data from: The effect of size and sex-ratio experiences on reproductive competition in Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles in the wild

Paul E. Hopwood, Allen J. Moore, Tom Tregenza, Nick J. Royle, A. J. Moore, P. E. Hopwood, T. Tregenza & N. J. Royle
Male parents face a choice: should they invest more in caring for offspring or in attempting to mate with other females? The most profitable course depends on the intensity of competition for mates, which is likely to vary with the population sex ratio. However, the balance of pay-offs may vary among individual males depending on their competitive prowess or attractiveness. We tested the prediction that sex ratio and size of the resource holding male provide...

Data from: Male burying beetles extend, not reduce, parental care duration when reproductive competition is high

Paul E. Hopwood, Allen J. Moore, Tom Tregenza, Nick J. Royle, A. J. Moore, P. E. Hopwood, T. Tregenza & N. J. Royle
Male parents spend less time caring than females in many species with biparental care. The traditional explanation for this pattern is that males have lower confidence of parentage, so they desert earlier in favor of pursuing other mating opportunities. However, one recent alternative hypothesis is that prolonged male parental care might also evolve if staying to care actively improves paternity. If this is the case, an increase in reproductive competition should be associated with increased...

Data from: Integrated population modelling reveals a perceived source to be a cryptic sink

Mitch D. Weegman, Stuart Bearhop, Anthony D. Fox, Geoff M. Hilton, Alyn J. Walsh, Jennifer L. McDonald & David J. Hodgson
Demographic links among fragmented populations are commonly studied as source-sink dynamics, whereby source populations exhibit net recruitment and net emigration, while sinks suffer net mortality but enjoy net immigration. It is commonly assumed that large, persistent aggregations of individuals must be sources, but this ignores the possibility that they are sinks instead, buoyed demographically by immigration. We tested this assumption using Bayesian integrated population modelling of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) at their largest...

Data from: Direct and indirect effects of nursery habitats on coral-reef fish assemblages, grazing pressure, and benthic dynamics

Alastair R. Harborne, Ivan Nagelkerken, Nicholas H. Wolff, Yves-Marie Bozec, Martijn Dorenbosch, Monique G. G. Grol & Peter J. Mumby
Migrating species are common within seascapes, but the potential for these movements to alter the populations and functional roles of non-migrating species (e.g. by increasing predation) is rarely investigated. This study considers whether the presence of nursery habitats (mangroves and seagrass) simply enhances the abundance of nursery-using parrotfishes and piscivores on nearby coral reefs, or also affects other parrotfishes. Data from 131 reef sites and multiple seascape configurations across 13 degrees of latitude were used...

Data from: Do stressful conditions make adaptation difficult? Guppies in the oil-polluted environments of southern Trinidad

Gregor Rolshausen, Dawn A. T. Phillip, Denise M. Beckles, Ali Akbari, Subhasis Ghoshal, Patrick B. Hamilton, Charles R. Tyler, Alan G. Scarlett, Indar Ramnarine, Paul Bentzen & Andrew P. Hendry
The ability of populations to rapidly adapt to new environments will determine their future in an increasingly human-modified world. Although meta-analyses do frequently uncover signatures of local adaptation, they also reveal many exceptions. We suggest that particular constraints on local adaptation might arise when organisms are exposed to novel stressors, such as anthropogenic pollution. To inform this possibility, we studied the extent to which guppies (Poecilia reticulata) show local adaptation to oil pollution in southern...

Data from: Reef flattening effects on total richness and species responses in the Caribbean

Steven P. Newman, Erik H. Meesters, Charlie S. Dryden, Stacey M. Williams, Cristina Sanchez, Peter J. Mumby, Nicholas V.C. Polunin & Nicholas V. C. Polunin
1. There has been ongoing flattening of Caribbean coral reefs with the loss of habitat having severe implications for these systems. Complexity and its structural components are important to fish species richness and community composition, but little is known about its role for other taxa or species-specific responses. 2. This study reveals the importance of reef habitat complexity and structural components to different taxa of macrofauna, total species richness, and individual coral and fish species...

Data from: Ocean acidification boosts larval fish development but reduces the window of opportunity for successful settlement

Tullio Rossi, Ivan Nagelkerken, Stephen D. Simpson, Jennifer C.A. Pistevos, Sue-Ann Watson, Laurene Merillet, Peter Fraser, Philip L. Munday & Sean D. Connell
Locating appropriate settlement habitat is a crucial step in the life cycle of most benthic marine animals. In marine fish, this step involves the use of multiple senses, including audition, olfaction and vision. To date, most investigations of fish audition focus on the hearing thresholds to various frequencies of sounds without testing an ecological response to such sounds. Identifying responses to biologically relevant sounds at the development stage in which orientation is most relevant is...

Data from: Macronutrient balance mediates the growth of sexually selected weapons but not genitalia in male broad-horned beetles

Clarissa M. House, Kim Jensen, James Rapkin, Sarah Lane, Kensuke Okada, David J. Hosken & John Hunt
Condition is defined as the pool of resources available to an individual that can be allocated to fitness-enhancing traits. Consequently, condition could influence developmental trade-offs if any occur. Although many studies have manipulated diet to demonstrate condition-dependent trait expression, few studies have determined the contribution of specific nutrients to condition or trade-offs. We used nutritional geometry to quantify the effects of dietary protein and carbohydrate content on larval performance and the development of adult morphology...

Data from: Banded mongooses avoid inbreeding when mating with members of the same natal group

Jennifer L. Sanderson, Jinliang Wang, Emma I. K. Vitikainen, Michael A. Cant & Hazel J. Nichols
Inbreeding and inbreeding avoidance are key factors in the evolution of animal societies, influencing dispersal and reproductive strategies which can affect relatedness structure and helping behaviours. In cooperative breeding systems, individuals typically avoid inbreeding through reproductive restraint and/or dispersing to breed outside their natal group. However, where groups contain multiple potential mates of varying relatedness, strategies of kin recognition and mate choice may be favoured. Here, we investigate male mate choice and female control of...

Data from: The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time

Britt Koskella & Nicole Parr
Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host–parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from...

Data from: Behavioral plasticity and GxE of reproductive tactics in Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles

Mauricio J. Carter, Megan L. Head, Allen J. Moore & Nick J. Royle
Phenotypic plasticity is important in the evolution of traits and facilitates adaptation to rapid environmental changes. However, variation in plasticity at the individual level, and the heritable basis underlying this plasticity is rarely quantified for behavioral traits. Alternative behavioral reproductive tactics are key components of mating systems but are rarely considered within a phenotypic plasticity framework (i.e., as reaction norms). Here, using lines artificially selected for repeated mating rate, we test for genetic (GxE) sources...

Data from: The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder

Dominic L. Cram, Jonathan D. Blount & Andrew J. Young
Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesised that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    64

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    64

Affiliations

  • University of Exeter
    64
  • University of Georgia
    5
  • University of Cambridge
    4
  • University of Sheffield
    4
  • University of Queensland
    3
  • University of Glasgow
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    3
  • University of Liverpool
    3
  • Illinois State University
    3