51 Works

Plant Respiration Modelling with JULES for a changing climate (1860-2100)

C. Huntingford, O.K. Atkin, A. Martinez-De La Torre, L.M. Mercado, M.A. Heskel, A.B. Harper, K.J. Bloomfield, O.S. O'Sullivan, P.B. Reich, K.R. Wythers, E.E. Butler, M. Chen, K.L. Griffin, P. Meir, M.G. Tjoelker, M.H. Turnbull, S. Sitch, A. Wiltshire & Y. Malhi
The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf...

Plant physiological measurements in North Wales and Northwest England (2013, 2014 and 2016)

M.C. Blanes, S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, H. Harmens, S. Smart, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of plant physiological measurements from 15 sites located in the Conwy catchment (North Wales) and from 2 sites in North West England. Plant photosynthetic parameters for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) and the maximum light saturated photosynthesis (Asat) were measured on the dominant plant species as were foliar nitrogen (Foliar N) and phosphorus (Foliar P). Leaf mass area (LMA) and specific leaf area (SLA)...

Plant aboveground and belowground standing biomass measurements in the Conwy catchment in North Wales (2013 and 2014)

S.M. Smart., S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, M.C. Blanes, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of, standing aboveground biomass, and belowground biomass measurements, from sites in the Conwy catchment. Standing aboveground biomass was measured at 7 sites and belowground biomass measurements were made at 8 sites. Data were collected in 2013 and 2014. The sites were chosen to represent habitat types and the terrestrial productivity gradient in Britain from intensive agriculturally managed lowland grasslands through to montane heath. Standing aboveground biomass (grams of dry mass per metre...

Data from: Demonstrating multiple benefits from periodically harvested fisheries closures

Jordan S. Goetze, Joachim Claudet, Fraser Januchowski-Hartley, Timothy J. Langlois, Shaun K. Wilson, Crow White, Rebecca Weeks & Stacy D. Jupiter
1.Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) are one of the most common forms of fisheries management in Melanesia, demonstrating multiple objectives, including sustaining fish stocks and increasing catch efficiency to support small-scale fisheries. No studies have comprehensively assessed their ability to provide short-term fisheries benefits across the entire harvest regime. 2.We present a novel analytical framework to guide a meta-analysis and assist future research in conceptualizing and assessing the potential of PHCs to deliver benefits for multiple...

Data from: Does fuel type influence the amount of charcoal produced in wildfires? Implications for the fossil record

Victoria A. Hudspith, Rory M. Hadden, Alastair I. Bartlett & Claire M. Belcher
Charcoal occurrence is extensively used as a tool for understanding wildfires over geological timescales. Yet, the fossil charcoal literature to date rarely considers that fire alone is capable of creating a bias in the abundance and nature of charcoal it creates, before it even becomes incorporated into the fossil record. In this study we have used state-of-the-art calorimetry to experimentally produce charcoal from twenty species that represent a range of surface fuels and growth habits,...

Data from: Egg mimicry by the pacific koel: mimicry of one host facilitates exploitation of other hosts with similar egg types

Virginia E. Abernathy, Jolyon Troscianko & Naomi E. Langmore
When brood parasites exploit multiple host species, egg rejection by hosts may select for the evolution of host-specific races, where each race mimics a particular host’s egg type. However, some brood parasites that exploit multiple hosts with the ability to reject foreign eggs appear to have only a single egg type. In these cases, it is unclear how the parasite egg escapes detection by its hosts. Three possible explanations are: (i) host-specific races are present,...

Data from: Seasonal variation in daily patterns of social contacts in the European badger Meles meles

Matthew J. Silk, Nicola Weber, Lucy C. Steward, Richard J. Delahay, Darren P. Croft, David J. Hodgson, Mike Boots & Robbie A. McDonald
Social interactions among hosts influence the persistence and spread of infectious pathogens. Daily and seasonal variation in the frequency and type of social interactions will play an important role in disease epidemiology and, alongside other factors, may have an influence on wider disease dynamics by causing seasonal forcing of infection, especially if the seasonal variation experienced by a population is considerable. We explored temporal variation in within-group contacts in a high-density population of European badgers...

Data from: Wild birds respond to flockmate loss by increasing their social network associations to others

Josh A. Firth, Bernhard Voelkl, Ross A. Crates, Lucy M. Aplin, Dora Biro, Darren P. Croft & Ben C. Sheldon
Understanding the consequences of losing individuals from wild populations is a current and pressing issue, yet how such loss influences the social behaviour of the remaining animals is largely unexplored. Through combining the automated tracking of winter flocks of over 500 wild great tits (Parus major) with removal experiments, we assessed how individuals' social network positions responded to the loss of their social associates. We found that the extent of flockmate loss that individuals experienced...

Data from: Contact networks structured by sex underpin sex-specific epidemiology of infection

Matthew J. Silk, Nicola L. Weber, Lucy C. Steward, David J. Hodgson, Michael Boots, Darren P. Croft, Richard J. Delahay, Robbie A. McDonald & Mike Boots
Contact networks are fundamental to the transmission of infection and host sex often affects the acquisition and progression of infection. However, the epidemiological impacts of sex-related variation in animal contact networks have rarely been investigated. We test the hypothesis that sex-biases in infection are related to variation in multilayer contact networks structured by sex in a population of European badgers Meles meles naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Our key results are that male-male and between-sex...

Data from: Genetic drift and selection in many-allele range expansions

Bryan T. Weinstein, Maxim O. Lavrentovich, Wolfram Moebius, Andrew W. Murray, David R. Nelson & Wolfram Möbius
We experimentally and numerically investigate the evolutionary dynamics of four competing strains of E. coli with differing expansion velocities in radially expanding colonies. We compare experimental measurements of the average fraction, correlation functions between strains, and the relative rates of genetic domain wall annihilations and coalescences to simulations modeling the population as a one-dimensional ring of annihilating and coalescing random walkers with deterministic biases due to selection. The simulations reveal that the evolutionary dynamics can...

Data from: Increased prenatal maternal investment reduces inbreeding depression in offspring

Kate E. Ihle, Pascale Hutter & Barbara Tschirren
Inbreeding depression refers to the reduction of fitness that results from matings between relatives. Evidence for reduced fitness in inbred individuals is widespread, but the strength of inbreeding depression varies widely both within and among taxa. Environmental conditions can mediate this variation in the strength of inbreeding depression, with environmental stress exacerbating the negative consequences of inbreeding. Parents can modify the environment experienced by offspring, and have thus the potential to mitigate the negative consequences...

Data from: Reproductive isolation in the acoustically divergent groups of Tettigoniid, Mecopoda elongata

Rochishnu Dutta, Tregenza Tom, Balakrishnan Rohini & Tom Tregenza
Sympatric divergent populations of the same species provide an opportunity to study the evolution and maintenance of reproductive isolation. Male mating calls are important in sexual selection acoustically communicating species, and they also have the potential to maintain isolation among species or incipient species. We studied divergent south Indian populations of the bush cricket Mecopoda elongata which are extremely difficult to distinguish morphologically, but which exhibit striking divergence in male acoustic signals. We performed phonotactic...

Data from: Artificial light at night alters trophic interactions of intertidal invertebrates

Charlotte N. Underwood, Thomas W. Davies & Ana M. Queirós
Despite being globally widespread in coastal regions, the impacts of light pollution on intertidal ecosystems has received little attention. Intertidal species exhibit many night-time-dependent ecological strategies, including feeding, reproduction, orientation and predator avoidance, which are likely negatively affected by shifting light regimes, as has been observed in terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Coastal lighting may shape intertidal communities through its influence on the nocturnal foraging activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), a widespread predatory mollusc that structures...

Data from: Ecosystem engineering strengthens bottom-up and weakens top-down effects via trait-mediated indirect interactions

Zhiwei Zhong, Xiaofei Li, Dean Pearson, Deli Wang, Dirk Sanders, Yu Zhu & Ling Wang
Trophic interactions and ecosystem engineering are ubiquitous and powerful forces structuring ecosystems, yet how these processes interact to shape natural systems is poorly understood. Moreover, trophic effects can be driven by both density- and trait-mediated interactions. Microcosm studies demonstrate that trait-mediated interactions may be as strong as density-mediated interactions, but the relative importance of these pathways at natural spatial and temporal scales is underexplored. Here, we integrate large-scale field experiments and microcosms to examine the...

Data from: Multichannel feeding by spider functional groups is driven by feeding strategies and resource availability

Matthew J. Perkins, Richard Inger, Stuart Bearhop & Dirk Sanders
Multichannel feeding, whereby consumers feed across resource channels such as upon herbivore and detritivore resources, acts to link discrete compartments of a food web with implications for ecosystem functioning and stability. Currently however, we have little understanding which feeding strategies of consumers underlie multichannel feeding. We therefore link spider functional group and resource density-dependent or density-independent feeding strategies to multichannel feeding by quantifying not only consumer diet, but also the relative availability of resources. Here...

Data from: Carotenoid coloration is related to fat digestion efficiency in a wild bird

Christina Madonia, Pierce Hutton, Mathieu Giraudeau & Tuul Sepp
Some of the most spectacular visual signals found in the animal kingdom are based on dietarily derived carotenoid pigments (which cannot be produced de novo), with a general assumption that carotenoids are limited resources for wild organisms, causing trade-offs in allocation of carotenoids to different physiological functions and ornamentation. This resource trade-off view has been recently questioned, since the efficiency of carotenoid processing may relax the trade-off between allocation toward condition or ornamentation. This hypothesis...

Data from: Evolutionary divergence in life history traits among populations of the Lake Malawi cichlid fish Astatotilapia calliptera

Paul J. Parsons, Jon R. Bridle, Lukas Rüber & Martin J. Genner
During the early stages of adaptive radiation, populations diverge in life history traits such as egg size and growth rates, in addition to eco-morphological and behavioral characteristics. However, there are few studies of life history divergence within ongoing adaptive radiations. Here, we studied Astatotilapia calliptera, a maternal mouthbrooding cichlid fish within the Lake Malawi haplochromine radiation. This species occupies a rich diversity of habitats, including the main body of Lake Malawi, as well as peripheral...

Data from: Divergent artificial selection for female reproductive investment has a sexually concordant effect on male reproductive success

Joel L Pick, Pascale Hutter, Barbara Tschirren & Joel L. Pick
Depending on the genetic architecture of male and female fitness, sex-specific selection can have negative, positive or neutral consequences for the opposite sex. Theory predicts that conflict between male and female function may drive the breakdown of intrasexual genetic correlations, allowing sexual dimorphism in sexually antagonistic traits. Reproductive traits are the epitome of this, showing highly differentiated proximate functions between the sexes. Here we use divergent artificial selection lines for female reproductive investment to test...

Data from: Natal foraging philopatry in eastern Pacific hawksbill turtles

Alexander R. Gaos, Rebecca L. Lewison, Michael P. Jensen, Michael J. Liles, Ana Henriquez, Sofia Chavarria, Carlos Mario Pacheco, Melissa Valle, David Melero, Velkiss Gadea, Eduardo Altamirano, Perla Torres, Felipe Vallejo, Cristina Miranda, Carolina LeMarie, Jesus Lucero, Karen Oceguera, Didiher Chacón, Luis Fonseca, Marino Abrego, Jeffrey A. Seminoff, Eric E. Flores, Israel Llamas, Rodrigo Donadi, Bernardo Peña … & Daniela Alarcón Ruales
The complex processes involved with animal migration have long been a subject of biological interest and broad-scale movement patterns of many marine turtle populations still remain unresolved. While it is widely accepted that once marine turtles reach sexual maturity they home to natal areas for nesting or reproduction, the role of philopatry to natal areas during other life stages has received less scrutiny, despite widespread evidence across the taxa. Here we report on genetic research...

Data from: Testing social learning of anti-predator responses in juvenile jackdaws: the importance of accounting for levels of agitation

Guillam E. McIvor, Victoria E. Lee & Alex Thornton
Social learning is often assumed to help young animals respond appropriately to potential threats in the environment. We brought wild, juvenile jackdaws briefly into captivity to test whether short exposures to conspecific vocalisations are sufficient to promote anti-predator learning. Individuals were presented with one of two models – a stuffed fox representing a genuine threat, or a toy elephant simulating a novel predator. Following an initial baseline presentation, juveniles were trained by pairing models with...

Data from: In situ measurements of animal morphological features; a non-invasive method

Mylswamy Mahendiran, Mylswamy Parthiban, Parappurath Abdul Azeez, Rajaratinavelu Nagarajan & Rajarathinavelu Nagarajan
1) Measurements of morphological features are important for ecological studies, especially on free-ranging wild animal species. Conventionally, specimens either dead or in captivity are used for morphometric studies, which is difficult in the case of wild species for several reasons. Capturing would be even futile when research questions are relating to issues such as prey size selection or estimation of intake rate in under field conditions, where in situ morphometric measurements are inevitable. Remotely estimating...

Data from: Optimal foraging by herbivores maintains polymorphism in defence in a natural plant population

Yasuhiro Sato, Koichi Ito & Hiroshi Kudoh
1. Many species of plants and animals exhibit polymorphism for defensive traits. Adaptive foraging by natural enemies has long been hypothesized to maintain such polymorphism, but this has not been clearly demonstrated in a natural prey or host population. 2. The purpose of this study was to address whether the brassica leaf beetle Phaedon brassicae promotes the maintenance of defence polymorphism in the trichome-producing (hairy) and trichomeless (glabrous) morphs of Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera. Here,...

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence II. divergence in different sexual traits and signal modalities in field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)

Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt & Nathan W. Bailey
Sexual selection can target many different types of traits. However, the relative influence of different sexually-selected traits during evolutionary divergence is poorly understood. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to quantify and compare how five traits from each of three sexual signal modalities and components diverge among allopatric populations: male advertisement song, cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles and forewing morphology. Population divergence was unexpectedly consistent: we estimated the among-population (genetic) variance-covariance matrix, D, for all...

Data from: SIDER: an R package for predicting trophic discrimination factors of consumers based on their ecology and phylogenetic relatedness

Kevin Healy, Thomas Guillerme, Seán B. A. Kelly, Richard Inger, Stuart Bearhop & Andrew L. Jackson
Stable isotope mixing models (SIMMs) are an important tool used to study species’ trophic ecology. These models are dependent on, and sensitive to, the choice of trophic discrimination factors (TDF) representing the offset in stable isotope delta values between a consumer and their food source when they are at equilibrium. Ideally, controlled feeding trials should be conducted to determine the appropriate TDF for each consumer, tissue type, food source, and isotope combination used in a...

Data from: Evolutionary associations between host traits and parasite load: insights from Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Alexander Hayward, Masahito Tsuboi, Christian Owusu, Kotrschal Alexander, Severine D. Buechel, Josefina Zidar, Charlie K. Cornwallis, Hanne Lovlie, Niclas Kolm & A. Kotrschal
Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    51

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    51

Affiliations

  • University of Exeter
    51
  • Western Sydney University
    4
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    3
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • University of Bristol
    3
  • University of Oxford
    3
  • Bangor University
    2
  • Plymouth University
    2
  • University of California System
    2
  • University of Glasgow
    2
  • University of Jaén
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • Australian National University
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • University of Leeds
    2