12,494 Works

Data from: Reducing complexity and unidentifiability when modelling human atrial cells

Charles Houston, Benjamin Marchand, Lukas Engelbert & Chris Cantwell
Mathematical models of a cellular action potential in cardiac modelling have become increasingly complex, particularly in gating kinetics which control the opening and closing of individual ion channel currents. As cardiac models advance towards use in personalised medicine to inform clinical decision- making, it is critical to understand the uncertainty hidden in parameter estimates from their calibration to experimental data. This study applies approximate Bayesian computation to re-calibrate the gating kinetics of four ion channels...
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Quantifying the structure and dynamics of fish shoals under predation threat in three-dimensions

Maksym Romenskyy, James Herbert-Read, Christol Ioannou, Alex Szorkovszky, Ashley Ward & David Sumpter
Detailed quantifications of how predators and their grouping prey interact in three dimensions (3D) remain rare. Here we record the structure and dynamics of fish shoals (Pseudomugil signifer) in 3D both with and without live predators (Philypnodon grandiceps) under controlled laboratory conditions. Shoals adopted two distinct types of shoal structure; ‘sphere-like’ geometries at depth, and flat ‘carpet-like’ structures at the water’s surface, with shoals becoming more compact in both horizontal and vertical planes in the...
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Data from: Can avian functional traits predict cultural ecosystem services?

Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Robin Naidoo, Joseph Tobias, Jiaying Zhao & Kai Chan
The functional trait diversity of species assemblages can predict the provision of ecosystem services such as pollination and carbon sequestration, but it is unclear whether the same trait-based framework can be applied to identify the factors that underpin cultural ecosystem services and disservices. To explore the relationship between traits and the contribution of species to cultural ecosystem services and disservices, we conducted 404 questionnaire surveys with birdwatchers and local residents in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. We...
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Data from: Barrier bednets target malaria vectors and expand the range of usable insecticides

Gregory Murray, Natalie Lissenden, Jeff Jones, Vitaly Voloshin, Hyacinthe Toé, Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Geraldine Foster, Thomas Churcher, Josephine Parker, Catherine Towers, Sagnon N’Falé, Wamdaogo Guelbeogo, Hilary Ranson, David Towers & Philip McCall
Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites occurs when nocturnal Anopheles mosquito vectors feed on human blood. In Africa, where malaria burden is greatest, bednets treated with pyrethroid insecticide were highly effective in preventing mosquito bites and reducing transmission, and essential to achieving unprecedented reductions in malaria until 2015. Since then, progress has stalled and with insecticidal bednets losing efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles vectors, methods that restore performance are urgently needed to eliminate any risk of...
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Data from: Effect of culling on individual badger Meles meles behaviour: potential implications for bovine tuberculosis transmission

Cally Ham, Christl A. Donnelly, Kelly L. Astley, Seth Y. B. Jackson & Rosie Woodroffe
1. Culling wildlife as a form of disease management can have unexpected and sometimes counterproductive outcomes. In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are culled in efforts to reduce badger-to-cattle transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB). However, culling has previously been associated with both increased and decreased incidence of M. bovis infection in cattle. 2. The adverse effects of culling have been linked to cull-induced changes in badger ranging, but such...
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Data from: Shear-sensitive adhesion enables size-independent adhesive performance in stick insects

David Labonte, Marie-Yon Strücker, Aleksandra Birn-Jeffery & Walter Federle
The ability to climb with adhesive pads conveys significant advantages, and is hence widespread in the animal kingdom. The physics of adhesion predict that attachment is more challenging for large animals, whereas detachment is harder for small animals, due to the difference in surface-to-volume ratios. Here, we use stick insects to show that this problem is solved at both ends of the scale by linking adhesion to the applied shear force. Adhesive forces of individual...
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Data from: Evolution of reduced postcopulatory molecular interactions in Drosophila populations lacking sperm competition

Brian Hollis, David Houle, Tadeusz J. Kawecki, B. Hollis, D. Houle & T. J. Kawecki
In many species with internal fertilization, molecules transferred in the male ejaculate trigger and interact with physiological changes in females. It is controversial to what extent these interactions between the sexes act synergistically to mediate the female switch to a reproductive state or instead reflect sexual antagonism evolved as a byproduct of sexual selection on males. To address this question, we eliminated sexual selection by enforcing monogamy in populations of Drosophila melanogaster for 65 generations...
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Data from: Environmental drivers of crocodyliform extinction across the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition

Jonathan P. Tennant, Philip D. Mannion & Paul Upchurch
Crocodyliforms have a much richer evolutionary history than represented by their extant descendants, including several independent marine and terrestrial radiations during the Mesozoic. However, heterogeneous sampling of their fossil record has obscured their macroevolutionary dynamics, and obfuscated attempts to reconcile external drivers of these patterns. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of crocodyliform biodiversity through the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) transition using subsampling and phylogenetic approaches and apply maximum-likelihood methods to fit models of extrinsic variables to...
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Data from: A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides)

Knud Andreas Jønsson, Pierre-Henri Fabre, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Ben G. Holt, Michael K. Borregaard, Carsten Rahbek & Jon Fjeldså
The Corvides (previously referred to as the core Corvoidea) are a morphologically diverse clade of passerine birds comprising nearly 800 species. The group originated some 30 million years ago in the proto-Papuan archipelago, to the north of Australia, from where lineages have dispersed and colonized all of the world’s major continental and insular landmasses (except Antarctica). During the last decade multiple species-level phylogenies have been generated for individual corvoid families and more recently the inter-familial...
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Data from: Bacterial adaptation to sublethal antibiotic gradients can change the ecological properties of multitrophic microbial communities

Ville-Petri Friman, Laura Melissa Guzman, Daniel C. Reuman, Thomas Bell, T. Bell, V.-P. Friman, L. M. Guzman & D. C. Reuman
Antibiotics leak constantly into environments due to widespread use in agriculture and human therapy. Although sublethal concentrations are well known to select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, little is known about how bacterial evolution cascades through food webs, having indirect effect on species not directly affected by antibiotics (e.g. via population dynamics or pleiotropic effects). Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test how temporal patterns of antibiotic stress, as well as migration within metapopulations, affect...
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Data from: Use of elastic stability analysis to explain the stress-dependent nature of soil strength

Kevin J. Hanley, Catherine O'Sullivan, Mohammad Ahmer Wadee, Xin Huang, K. J. Hanley, X. Huang, C. O'Sullivan & M. A. Wadee
The peak and critical state strengths of sands are linearly related to the stress level, just as the frictional resistance to sliding along an interface is related to the normal force. The analogy with frictional sliding has led to the use of a ‘friction angle’ to describe the relationship between strength and stress for soils. The term ‘friction angle’ implies that the underlying mechanism is frictional resistance at the particle contacts. However, experiments and discrete...
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Data from: Development of the corticospinal and callosal tracts from extremely premature birth up to 2 years of age

Rodrigo M. Braga, Elise Roze, Gareth Ball, Nazakat Merchant, Nora Tusor, Tomoki Arichi, David Edwards, Daniel Rueckert & Serena J. Counsell
White matter tracts mature asymmetrically during development, and this development can be studied using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The aims of this study were i. to generate dynamic population-averaged white matter registration templates covering in detail the period from 25 weeks gestational age to term, and extending to 2 years of age based on DTI and fractional anisotropy, ii. to produce tract-specific probability maps of the corticospinal tracts, forceps major and forceps minor using probabilistic...
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Data from: Sexual antagonism for resistance and tolerance to infection in Drosophila melanogaster

Crystal M. Vincent, Nathaniel P. Sharp, N. P. Sharp & C. M. Vincent
A critical task in evolutionary genetics is to explain the persistence of heritable variation in fitness-related traits such as immunity. Ecological factors can maintain genetic variation in immunity, but less is known about the role of other factors, such as antagonistic pleiotropy, on immunity. Sexually dimorphic immunity—with females often being more immune-competent—may maintain variation in immunity in dioecious populations. Most eco-immunological studies assess host resistance to parasites rather than the host's ability to maintain fitness...
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Data from: A comparative analysis of the mechanisms underlying speciation on Lord Howe Island

Alexander S. T. Papadopulos, Zuzana Price, Celine Devaux, Helen Hipperson, Carole M. Smadja, Ian Hutton, William J. Baker, Roger K. Butlin, Vincent Savolainen, Z. Price, H. Hipperson, R. K. Butlin & W. J. Baker
On Lord Howe Island, speciation is thought to have taken place in situ in a diverse array of distantly related plant taxa (Metrosideros, Howea and Coprosma; Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 2011, 13188). We now investigate whether the speciation processes were driven by divergent natural selection in each genus by examining the extent of ecological and genetic divergence. We present new and extensive, ecological and genetic data for all three genera. Consistent with ecologically...
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Data from: Inferring HIV-1 transmission networks and sources of epidemic spread in Africa with deep-sequence phylogenetic analysis

Oliver Ratmann, M. Kate Grabowski, Matthew Hall, Tanya Golubchik, Chris Wymant, Lucie Abeler-Dörner, David Bonsall, Anne Hoppe, Andrew Leigh Brown, Tulio De Oliveira, Astrid Gall, Paul Kellam, Deenan Pillay, Joseph Kagaayi, Godfrey Kigozi, Thomas C. Quinn, Maria J. Wawer, Oliver Laeyendecker, David Serwadda, Ronald H. Gray, Christophe Fraser, PANGEA Consortium, _ & Rakai Health Sciences Program, _
To prevent new infections with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa, UNAIDS recommends targeting interventions to populations that are at high risk of acquiring and passing on the virus. Yet it is often unclear who and where these ‘source’ populations are. Here we demonstrate how viral deep-sequencing can be used to reconstruct HIV-1 transmission networks and to infer the direction of transmission in these networks. We are able to deep-sequence virus from...
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Data from: Self-limiting population genetic control with sex-linked genome editors

Austin Burt & Anne Deredec
In male heterogametic species the Y chromosome is transmitted solely from fathers to sons, and is selected for based only on its impacts on male fitness. This fact can be exploited to develop efficient pest control strategies that use Y-linked editors to disrupt the fitness of female descendants. With simple population genetic and dynamic models we show that Y-linked editors can be substantially more efficient than other self-limiting strategies and, while not as efficient as...
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Data from: Lead acid battery recycling for the 21st century

Andrew D Ballantyne, Jason P Hallett, D. Jason Riley, Nilay Shah, David J Payne, Andrew D. Ballantyne, Jason P. Hallett & David J. Payne
There is a growing need to develop novel processes to recover lead from end-of-life lead-acid batteries, due to increasing energy costs of pyrometallurgical lead recovery, the resulting CO2 emissions and the catastrophic health implications of lead exposure from lead-to-air emissions. To address these issues, we are developing an iono-metallurgical process, aiming to displace the pyrometallurgical process that has dominated lead production for millennia. The proposed process involves the dissolution of Pb salts into the DES...
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2,2-Dimethyl-3-((E)-3-methyl-5-(((E)-5-phenylpent-2-en-1-yl)oxy)pent-3-en-1-yl)oxirane (9a)

Karim Bahou
(9a)
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2,2-Dimethyl-3-((3E)-3-methyl-5-(prop-1-en-1-yloxy)pent-3-en-1-yl)oxirane (10a)

Karim Bahou
(10a)
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A Relay Strategy Actuates Pre-Existing Trisubstituted Olefins in Monoterpenoids to Form New Trisubstituted Olefins by Cross Metathesis

Karim Bahou
Abstract: A retrosynthetic disconnection-reconnection analysis of epoxypolyenes – substrates that can undergo cyclization to podocarpane-type tricycles – reveals relay-actuated Δ6,7-functionalized monoterpenoid alcohols for ruthenium benzylidene catalyzed olefin cross metathesis with homoprenyl benzenes. Successful implementation of this approach provided several epoxypolyenes as expected (E:Z, ca. 2-3:1). The method is further generalized for the cross metathesis of pre-existing trisubstituted olefins in other relay-actuated Δ6,7-functionalized monoterpenoid alcohols with various other trisubstituted alkenes to form new trisubstituted olefins. Epoxypolyene...
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Errors

Karim Bahou
Errors
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Data from: Elasticity improves handgrip performance and user experience during visuomotor control

Michael Mace, Paul Rinne, Jean-Luc Liardon, Catherine Uhomoibhi, Paul Bentley & Etienne Burdet
Passive rehabilitation devices, providing motivation and feedback, potentially offer an automated and low-cost therapy method, and can be used as simple human–machine interfaces. Here, we ask whether there is any advantage for a hand-training device to be elastic, as opposed to rigid, in terms of performance and preference. To address this question, we have developed a highly sensitive and portable digital handgrip, promoting independent and repetitive rehabilitation of grasp function based around a novel elastic...
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Data from: Evidence for parasite-mediated selection during short-lasting toxic algal blooms

François Blanquart, Myriam Valero, Catharina Alves-De-Souza, Aliou Dia, Frédéric Lepelletier, Estelle Bigeard, Christian Jeanthon, Christophe Destombe & Laure Guillou
Parasites play a role in the control of transient algal blooms, but it is not known whether parasite-mediated selection results in coevolution of the host and the parasites over this short time span. We investigated the presence of coevolution between the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and two naturally occurring endoparasites during blooms lasting a month in two river estuaries, using cross-inoculation experiments across time and space. Higher parasite abundance was associated with a large daily...
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Data from: Quantifying species contributions to ecosystem processes: a global assessment of functional trait and phylogenetic metrics across avian seed-dispersal networks

Alexander L. Pigot, Tom Bregman, Catherine Sheard, Benjamin Daly, Rampal S. Etienne & Joseph A. Tobias
Quantifying the role of biodiversity in ecosystems not only requires understanding the links between species and the ecological functions and services they provide, but also how these factors relate to measurable indices, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity. However, these relationships remain poorly understood, especially for heterotrophic organisms within complex ecological networks. Here, we assemble data on avian traits across a global sample of mutualistic plant–frugivore networks to critically assess how the functional roles...
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Data from: Assessment of available anatomical characters for linking living mammals to fossil taxa in phylogenetic analyses

Thomas Guillerme & Natalie Cooper
Analyses of living and fossil taxa are crucial for understanding biodiversity through time. The total evidence method allows living and fossil taxa to be combined in phylogenies, using molecular data for living taxa and morphological data for living and fossil taxa. With this method, substantial overlap of coded anatomical characters among living and fossil taxa is vital for accurately inferring topology. However, although molecular data for living species are widely available, scientists generating morphological data...
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  • Imperial College London
    12,494
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    3
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    3
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