14,460 Works

Michael 1,4 addition, reactant imino, G = -994.542196

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

A longitudinal cohort study of maternal cardiovascular and biomarker changes in fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia

Jasmine Wan Ying Tay
Pre eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are perceived as placenta mediated disorders. However, large epidemiological studies has shown that women diagnosed with PE have significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Hence, the pathophysiology of PE and FGR might be more closely linked to the maternal heart than previously thought. Maladaptation to haemodynamic changes in pregnancy could herald the manifestation of PE and FGR. Traditionally, PE is classified into “early”, onset...

Dense pose estimation of deformable objects

Yuxiang Zhou
Statistical Deformable Models (SDMs) represent a widely used collection of computer vision techniques. SDMs serve the purpose of modeling the deformation and variability of a specific class of objects, e.g. faces, ears, hands, human poses, etc. SDMs have shown success in many areas of visual image analysis. For example, in biometrics, SDMs are commonly used for recognition, classification, detection, and alignment. During the past few years, we have witnessed the development of many methodologies for...

Solitons in cyclic and symmetric structures

Filipe Fontanela
The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the emergence of localised vibrations in cyclic and perfectly symmetric structures due to the effect of nonlinearity. The application is on vibrations of bladed disks of aircraft engines, i.e. mechanical structures composed of ideally symmetric sectors assembled in a cyclic configuration. Firstly, a minimal model of a bladed disk vibrating under the effect of geometric nonlinearities is introduced. The system is composed of a chain of...

Chemiluminescence and CO pollutant formation in premixed counterflow flames

Yushuai Liu
In order to reduce pollutant emissions and increase efficiency, modern combustion systems, for example gas turbines or automotive engines, are operated in lean premixed mode. Combustion under premixed fuel lean conditions reduces the combustion temperature and, therefore, reduces NOx formation. However, low combustion temperature and shorter residence time of fuel mixture in the reacting zone lead to higher level of CO emissions and increased tendency for unstable combustion, which can lead to high amplitude combustion...

Michael 1,4 addition, Imino, zwitterionic intermediate, G = -994.537700 DG = 2.8

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

C2 CCSD(T)/Def2-TZVPP G = -75.798722

Henry Rzepa
Gaussian Calculation

Studies of ion exchange membranes with particular focus on synthesis of cation exchange membranes

Shanxue Jiang
A series of studies on ion exchange membranes (IEMs), with a particular focus on synthesis of cation exchange membranes (CEMs), were carried out in this thesis. Firstly, a comprehensive statistical study was carried out on the research of IEMs via a scientometric approach. It was found that, from 2001 to 2016, over 18000 articles were published on IEMs. Also, these articles were spread across over 1000 different journals, nearly 100 countries/regions and over 5000 research...

Interrelationships between Natural Killer cells and neutrophils in the pulmonary vasculature

Judith Secklehner
The lung comprises a vast surface area where the blood and intravascular immune cells are in direct contact with the outside environment and the air that we breathe. Immune cells in the lungs defend against invading pathogens and help to maintain physiological conditions. Innate immune cells can respond quickly to inflammatory stimuli, however, excessive pulmonary inflammation must be limited to preserve the thin barrier between the air and blood, required for oxygen diffusion. Neutrophils are...

Methods for assessing sleep and sleepiness in healthy adults and patients with respiratory sleep disorders

Yousef Dhefullah Alqurashi
Scalp electroencephalography (scalp EEG) is an accurate method for measuring sleep. However, this procedure is cumbersome, costly, and cannot be conducted over an extended period. Recently, wearable pieces of equipment to monitor sleep have been developed, one of which is the in-ear EEG. Therefore, the first two aims of this thesis were to investigate whether a novel in-ear EEG could measure sleep accurately during daytime naps, and then during overnight sleep. Clinically, excessive daytime sleepiness...

Crack growth monitoring using shear guided waves

Chien An Chua
Crack monitoring in critical sections of steel structures is a subject of growing interest. High frequency ultrasonic techniques have good detection sensitivities but poor inspection coverage per transducer that makes it impractical to monitor large areas. Corrosion detection and monitoring of pipelines can be performed by using low frequency guided waves, but are insufficiently sensitive for the detection of small cracks. This study evaluates the crack monitoring performance of a fundamental shear horizontal mode (SH0)...

Transient optical studies of metal oxides for water oxidation

Sacha Corby
As the next energy crisis looms threateningly before us and we teeter on the edge of the irreparable and undeniably catastrophic loss of global ecosystems as a result of man-made climate change, the quest for alternative fuels is of paramount importance. Solar water splitting is an active area of research which seeks to produce renewable hydrogen fuel from two abundant resources: water and sunlight. However, it is the formation molecular oxygen, the necessary by-product of...

Report 15: Strengthening hospital capacity for the COVID-19 pandemic

P Christen, J D'Aeth, A Lochen, R McCabe, D Rizmie, N Schmit, AS Nayagam, M Miraldo, P White, P Aylin, R Bottle, PN Perez Guzman, C Donnelly, A Ghani, N Ferguson & K Hauck
Planning for extreme surges in demand for hospital care of patients requiring urgent life-saving treatment for COVID-19, and other conditions, is one of the most challenging tasks facing healthcare commissioners and care providers during the pandemic. Due to uncertainty in expected patient numbers requiring care, as well as evolving needs day by day, planning hospital capacity is challenging. Health systems that are well prepared for the pandemic can better cope with large and sudden changes...

Behaviour of reinforced concrete members incorporating recycled rubber materials

Bowen Xu
This thesis deals with the behaviour of concrete materials and reinforced concrete members incorporating recycled rubber particles, as a partial replacement for mineral aggregates. The research involves several experimental investigations on materials and members, coupled with detailed numerical simulations and parametric assessments. Tests on cylindrical material specimens focus on examining the uniaxial behaviour of rubberised concrete. The experimental investigation, combined with the detailed assessment of data from previous tests, show that the rubber particles influence...

(Z)-2-methoxy-4-(prop-1-en-1-yl)phenyl pentadecanoate

David Houldsworth
Ester synthesized through reaction of isoeugenol and pentadecanoic acid.

Palaeomagnetic studies of Eyjafjardardalur, northern Iceland: does the geocentric axial dipole exist during 3-7 Ma?

Radchagrit Supakulopas
The geocentric axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis states that when we average the geomagnetic field over sufficient geological time intervals, the time-averaged field (TAF) behaves like a dipole aligned along the Earth’s spin axis and positioned at the Earth’s centre. This hypothesis is crucial in palaeomagnetic research, e.g., it is a key to tectonic reconstructions. However, there is some evidence for the persistence of long-term hemispheric asymmetry on time scales of 10^5-10^6 yrs, particularly at high-latitudes....

The visceral response to underbody blast

Andrew Phillip Pearce
Blast is the most common cause of injury and death in contemporary warfare. Blast injuries may be categorised based upon their mechanism with underbody blast describing the effect of an explosive device detonating underneath a vehicle. Torso injuries are highly lethal within this environment and yet their mechanism in response to underbody blast is poorly understood. This work seeks to understand the pattern and mechanism of these injuries and to link them to physical underbody...

Evaluation of In vitro systems and development of quantitative structure-activity relationships for the prediction of adverse xenobiotic metabolic events

Peter Robert Bradshaw
Reactive metabolites of xenobiotics pose a risk in pharmaceutical development. Many reactive metabolites are capable of forming adducts with cellular macromolecules which can result in toxicity. For example, aromatic amines have been demonstrated to form adducts with DNA leading to genotoxicity. Hydrolysis of amide and cleavage of sulphonamide bonds can act as a source of aromatic amine metabolites which can undergo further bioactivation. It has also been suggested that acyl glucuronide conjugates of carboxylic acid-containing...

Climate change mitigation potential of lignocellulosic succinic acid: assessing feedstock supply and integrated land use options in a UK Wheat-Miscanthus bio-succinic acid-based bioplastics production system

Yuanzhi Ni
This research addresses emergent societal concerns driving national policies that seek to replace or reduce the use of petro-based plastics. Whilst environmental pollution by plastics is the dominant contemporary driver, alternatives will also need to demonstrate wider environmental and social benefits, not least the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Biodegradable plastics produced from bio-based Succinic Acid (SA) are evaluated as an alternative to petro-based plastics in the context of the transition to a post-petroleum...

Double network hydrogels for cartilage repair and their nanocomposite structure

Ali Mohammed
Strong focus has been directed at cartilage tissue engineered biomaterials in the last decade. Cartilage defects affect a large global population with current treatments lacking the ability to provide a route to healthy hyaline cartilage, or a road to full recovery and normal mobility. Synthetic materials such as scaffolds and hydrogels are making breakthroughs as advanced biomaterials and have gathered momentum in providing a solution. In particular, double network hydrogels (DNHG) have become a standard...

Cartilage mimicking materials for orthopaedic applications

Piers Milner
A treatment gap exists in the orthopaedic market. Partial joint repair, where an artificial material replaces localised chondral damage, has been proposed as a solution to fill this gap. Current options are, however, lacking. This work aimed to synthesise partial joint replacement materials that mimic the lubrication mechanisms of cartilage: biphasic and boundary lubrication. In this work, materials that mimic the lubrication mechanisms of cartilage have been synthesised. Boundary lubrication: poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) modified ultra-high...

Accessible biomarkers of inflammatory lung pathophysiology arising from exposure to traffic related particulate matter

Liza Selley
Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (TRPM) is a major cause of pulmonary inflammation, inducing symptoms that range from mild coughing or sore throat to life-threatening asthma attacks or exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. At present, the molecular mechanisms that underlie pulmonary responses to TRPM in vivo require further characterisation (particularly for those that are stimulated by non-exhaust particulates) but cohort recruitment is hindered by the invasive and uncomfortable nature of sampling via biopsy or...

Screening for regulators of methotrexate resistance in gestational trophoblastic disease

William Bernard Stokes
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) comprises a heterogeneous spectrum of pregnancy related conditions that arise from rapidly proliferating trophoblasts including the pre-malignant hydatidiform moles and the malignant disorders of invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumour. GTD patients are categorised as low or high risk and in the case of the former are treated with methotrexate (MTX). However, one third of patients treated with MTX develop resistance. To facilitate better understanding of development of MTX...

Synthesis and applications of derivatives of 1,7-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane

Joshua Almond-Thynne
Spiroaminals are an understudied class of heterocycle. Recently, the Barrett group reported a relatively mild approach to the most simple form of spiroaminal; 1,7-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane (I). This thesis consists of the development of novel synthetic methodologies towards the spiroaminal moiety. The first part of this thesis focuses on the synthesis of aliphatic derivatives of I through a variety of methods from the classic Barrett approach which utilises lactam II, through to de novo bidirectional approaches which...

Stationary and travelling crossflow vortices in three-dimensional boundary layers: nonlinear interactions within a common critical layer

Alex John Amos
Three-dimensional boundary layers, such as that over a swept wing, are known to exhibit a crossflow instability, which manifests itself in the form of stationary vortices and travelling-wave vortices. Despite their smaller linear growth rates, the former tend to be the dominant cause of transition to turbulence when free-stream turbulence is relatively low. Travelling-wave vortices, which have higher growth rates, dominate at elevated levels of free-stream turbulence. Recent experiments found that the development of stationary...

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