In male heterogametic species the Y chromosome is transmitted solely from fathers to sons, and is selected for based only on its impacts on male fitness. This fact can be exploited to develop efficient pest control strategies that use Y-linked editors to disrupt the fitness of female descendants. With simple population genetic and dynamic models we show that Y-linked editors can be substantially more efficient than other self-limiting strategies and, while not as efficient as...
There is a growing need to develop novel processes to recover lead from end-of-life lead-acid batteries, due to increasing energy costs of pyrometallurgical lead recovery, the resulting CO2 emissions and the catastrophic health implications of lead exposure from lead-to-air emissions. To address these issues, we are developing an iono-metallurgical process, aiming to displace the pyrometallurgical process that has dominated lead production for millennia. The proposed process involves the dissolution of Pb salts into the DES...
Bitcoin is the first implementation of a technology that has become known as a 'public permissionless' blockchain. Such systems allow public read/write access to an append-only blockchain database without the need for any mediating central authority. Instead they guarantee access, security and protocol conformity through an elegant combination of cryptographic assurances and game theoretic economic incentives. Not until the advent of the Bitcoin blockchain has such a trusted, transparent, comprehensive and granular data set of...
Data from: Committing to quantum resistance: a slow defence for Bitcoin against a fast quantum computing attackIain Stewart, Dragos Ilie, Alexei Zamyatin, Sam Werner, Maryam F. Torshizi, William J. Knottenbelt, D. Ilie, W. J. Knottenbelt, I. Stewart, M. F. Torshizi, S. Werner & A. Zamyatin
Quantum computers are expected to have a dramatic impact on numerous fields, due to their anticipated ability to solve classes of mathematical problems much more efficiently than their classical counterparts. This particularly applies to domains involving integer factorisation and discrete logarithms, such as public key cryptography. In this paper we consider the threats a quantum-capable adversary could impose on Bitcoin, which currently uses the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to sign transactions. We then...
Data from: Climate structuring of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in the threatened amphibians of the northern Western Ghats, IndiaChristopher J. Thorpe, Todd R. Lewis, Matthew C. Fisher, Claudia J. Wierzbicki, Siddharth Kulkarni, David Pryce, Lewis Davies, Aparna Watve & Mairi E. Knight
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a pathogen killing amphibians worldwide. Its impact across much of Asia is poorly characterised. This study systematically surveyed amphibians for Bd across rocky plateaus in the northern section of the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot, India, including for the first surveys of the plateaus in the coastal region. These ecosystems offer an epidemiological model system since they are characterised by differing levels of connectivity, edaphic and climatic conditions, and anthropogenic stressors. One...
Data from: Pathogeography: leveraging the biogeography of human infectious diseases for global health managementKris A. Murray, Jesús Olivero, Benjamin Roche, Sonia Tiedt & Jean-François Guégan
Biogeography is an implicit and fundamental component of almost every dimension of modern biology, from natural selection and speciation to invasive species and biodiversity management. However, biogeography has rarely been integrated into human or veterinary medicine nor routinely leveraged for global health management. Here we review the theory and application of biogeography to the research and management of human infectious diseases, an integration we refer to as ‘pathogeography’. Pathogeography represents a promising framework for understanding...
Data from: Cough frequency during treatment associated with baseline cavitary volume and proximity to the airway in pulmonary TBAlvaro Proaño, David P. Bui, José W. López, Nancy M. Vu, Marjory A. Bravard, Gwenyth O. Lee, Brian H. Tracey, Ziyue Xu, Germán Comina, Eduardo Ticona, Daniel J. Mollura, Jon S. Friedland, David A. J. Moore, Carlton A. Evans, Philip Caligiuri, Robert H. Gilman & Tuberculosis Working Group In Peru
Background: Cough frequency, and its duration, is a lab-free biomarker that can be used in low-resource settings and has been associated with transmission and treatment response. Radiological characteristics associated with increased cough frequency may be important in understanding transmission. The relationship between cough frequency and cavitary lung disease has never been studied. Methods: We analyzed 41 human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults with culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis throughout treatment. Cough recordings were based on the Cayetano Cough...
Data from: Foraging bumblebees acquire a preference for neonicotinoid-treated food with prolonged exposureAndres N. Arce, Ana Ramos Rodrigues, Jiajun Yu, Thomas J. Colgan, Yannick Wurm & Richard J. Gill
Social bees represent an important group of pollinating insects but can be exposed to potentially harmful pesticides when foraging on treated or contaminated flowering plants. To investigate if such exposure is detrimental to bees, many studies have exclusively fed individuals with pesticide spiked food, informing us about the hazard but not necessarily the risk of exposure. Whilst such studies are important to establish the physiological and behavioural effects on individuals they do not consider the...
Data from: Ancient plants with ancient fungi: liverworts associate with early-diverging arbuscular mycorrhizal fungiWilliam R. Rimington, Silvia Pressel, Jeffrey G. Duckett, Katie J. Field, David J. Read & Martin I. Bidartondo
Arbuscular mycorrhizas are widespread in land plants including liverworts, some of the closest living relatives of the first plants to colonise land 500 MYA. Previous investigations reported near-exclusive colonisation of liverworts by the most recently evolved arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the Glomeraceae, indicating a recent acquisition from flowering plants at odds with the widely-held notion that arbuscular mycorrhizal-like associations in liverworts represent the ancestral symbiotic condition in land plants. We performed an analysis of symbiotic fungi...
Data from: Machine learning methods for locating re-entrant drivers from electrograms in a model of atrial fibrillationMax F. McGillivray, William Cheng, Nicholas S. Peters, Kim Christensen & Max Falkenberg McGillivray
Mapping resolution has recently been identi ed as a key limitation in successfully locating the drivers of atrial brillation. Using a simple cellular automata model of atrial fibrillation, we demonstrate a method by which re-entrant drivers can be located quickly and accurately using a collection of indirect electrogram measurements. The method proposed employs simple, out of the box machine learning algorithms to correlate characteristic electrogram gradients with the displacement of an electrogram recording from a...
Data from: Inter-annual dynamics and persistence of small mammal communities in a selectively logged tropical forest in BorneoPhilip M. Chapman, Oliver R. Wearn, Terhi Riutta, Chris Carbone, J. Marcus Rowcliffe, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers & Robert. M. Ewers
Understanding temporal change and long-term persistence of species and communities is vital if we are to accurately assess the relative values of human-modified habitats for biodiversity. Despite a large literature and emerging consensus demonstrating a high conservation value of selectively logged tropical rainforests, few studies have taken a long-term perspective. We resampled small mammals (≤1kg) in a heavily logged landscape in Sabah, Borneo between 2011 and 2016 to investigate temporal patterns of species-level changes in...
Data from: Lower bumblebee colony reproductive success in agricultural compared to urban environmentsAsh E. Samuelson, Richard J. Gill, Mark J.F. Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater & Mark J. F. Brown
Urbanisation represents a rapidly growing driver of land-use change. While it is clear that urbanisation impacts species abundance and diversity, direct effects of urban land-use on animal reproductive success are rarely documented. Here we show that urban land-use is linked to long-term colony reproductive output in a key pollinator. We reared colonies from wild-caught bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) queens, placed them at sites characterised by varying degrees of urbanisation from inner city to rural farmland, and...
Data from: Evaluating the ability of community‐protected forests in Cambodia to prevent deforestation and degradation using temporal remote sensing dataMinerva Singh, Damian Evans, Jean-Baptise Chevance, Boun Suy Tan, Nicholas Wiggins, Leaksmy Kong & Sakada Sakhoeun
Community forests are known to play an important role in preserving forests in Cambodia, a country that has seen rapid deforestation in recent decades. The detailed evaluation of the ability of community‐protected forests to retain forest cover and prevent degradation in Cambodia will help to guide future conservation management. In this study, a combination of remotely sensing data was used to compare the temporal variation in forest structure for six different community forests located in...
Crystallographic data for triazoline 3kd'
Crystallographic data for enaminone E-8kd
NMR data for pyrazoline 6ic
NMR data for 11f
NMR data for triazole 10kf
NMR data for pyrazoline 6hc
NMR data for aziridine 4hc
NMR data for pyrazoline 6dc
NMR data for pyrazoline 6bc
NMR data for aziridine 4bc
NMR data for pyrazoline 6ac
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