96 Works

Data from: Social-ecological landscape patterns predict woody encroachment from native tree plantings in a temperate grassland

Victoria M. Donovan, Jessica L. Burnett, Christine H. Bielski, Hannah E. Birge, Rebecca Bevans, Dirac Twidwell & Craig R. Allen
Afforestation is often viewed as the purposeful planting of trees in historically non-forested grasslands, but an unintended consequence is woody encroachment, which should be considered part of the afforestation process. In North America’s temperate grassland biome, Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is a native species used in tree plantings that aggressively invades in the absence of controlling processes. Cedar is a well-studied woody encroacher, but little is known about the degree to which cedar windbreaks,...

Data from: Evolutionary pressures on primate intertemporal choice

Jeffrey R. Stevens & J. R. Stevens
From finding food to choosing mates, animals must make intertemporal choices that involve fitness benefits available at different times. Species vary dramatically in their willingness to wait for delayed rewards. Why does this variation across species exist? An adaptive approach to intertemporal choice suggests that time preferences should reflect the temporal problems faced in a species's environment. Here, I use phylogenetic regression to test whether allometric factors relating to body size, relative brain size and...

Data from: Plumage colouration and social context influence male investment in song

Lindsay J. Henderson, Kathleen R. Brazeal, Thomas P. Hahn & L. J. Henderson
Animals use multiple signals to attract mates, including elaborate song, brightly coloured ornaments and physical displays. Female birds often prefer both elaborate male song, and intense carotenoid-based plumage colouration. This could lead less visually ornamented males to increase song production to maximize their attractiveness to females. We tested this possibility in the highly social and non-territorial house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), in which females discriminate among males based on both song, and on the intensity of...

Data from: Lagged effects of early-season herbivores on valley oak fecundity

Ian S. Pearse, Kyle A. Funk, Thomas S. Kraft & Walter D. Koenig
The seasonal match between folivore and leaf phenology affects the annual success of arboreal folivore populations because many folivores exploit developing leaves, which are an ephemeral resource. One strategy for folivores to exploit early-season leaves is to anticipate their emergence. The consequence of this behavior for trees is that individuals that set leaves earlier may experience greater rates of folivore damage, with potential negative fitness consequences. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed the early-season phenology,...

Data from: Fire legacies in eastern ponderosa pine forests

Caleb P. Roberts, Victoria M. Donovan, Carissa L. Wonkka, Larkin A. Powell, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, David A. Wedin & Dirac Twidwell
1. Disturbance legacies in structures communities and ecological memory, but due to increasing changes in disturbance regimes, it is becoming more difficult to characterize disturbance legacies or determine how long they persist. 2. We sought to quantify the characteristics and persistence of material legacies (e.g., biotic residuals of disturbance) that arise from variation in fire severity in an eastern ponderosa pine forest in North America. We compared forest stand structure and understory woody plant and...

Data from: Voluntary food sharing in pinyon jays: the role of reciprocity and dominance

Juan F. Duque & Jeffrey R. Stevens
Food sharing offers a clear example of prosocial behaviour, in which one individual's actions benefit another. Researchers have proposed a range of hypotheses that explain why food sharing may occur among unrelated individuals. Two such hypotheses, reciprocity and dominance, have been tested in many species, including fish, corvids, rats, bats and primates, showing that (1) recipients sometimes reciprocate sharing back to previous donors and (2) dominant individuals share more than subordinates. Although primates dominate the...

Data from: Metabolic rate is canalized in the face of variable life history and nutritional environment

Rebecca M. Clark, Anthony J. Zera & Spencer T. Behmer
Despite its central importance in organismal physiology, we have poor understanding of how metabolic rate is influenced by two key factors – food nutritional content and an organism's physiological characteristics. We examined how variation in nutrients and physiological aspects of life history affect standard metabolic rate in Gryllus firmus cricket morphs that differ dramatically in flight capability and early-age fecundity. Newly moulted female morphs were fed one of 13 diets that differed in concentrations of...

Data from: Females can solve the problem of low signal reliability by assessing multiple male traits

Abigail K. Wegehaupt, Wagner Jr., William E. & William E. Wagner
Male signals that provide information to females about mating benefits are often of low reliability. It is thus not clear why females often express strong signal preferences. We tested the hypothesis that females can distinguish between males with preferred signals that provide lower and higher quality direct benefits. In the field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females usually prefer higher male chirp rates, but chirp rate is positively correlated with the fecundity benefits females will receive from...

Data from: Competition for hummingbird pollination shapes flower color variation in Andean Solanaceae

Nathan Muchhala, Sönke Johnsen & Stacey Dewitt Smith
One classic explanation for the remarkable diversity of flower colors across angiosperms involves evolutionary shifts among different types of pollinators with different color preferences. However, the pollinator shift model fails to account for the many examples of color variation within clades that share the same pollination system. An alternate explanation is the competition model, which suggests that color divergence evolves in response to interspecific competition for pollinators, as a means to decrease interspecific pollinator movements....

Data from: Local perspectives on environmental insecurity and its influence on illegal biodiversity exploitation

Meredith L. Gore, Michelle Lute, Jonah H. Ratsimbazafy, Andry Rajaonson & Michelle L. Lute
Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88)...

Data from: Nutrient regulation strategies differ between cricket morphs that trade-off dispersal and reproduction

Rebecca M. Clark, Ashley McConnell, Anthony J. Zera & Spencer T. Behmer
1. Nutrient regulation should covary with life history, but actual demonstrations of this connection are rare. 2. Here we use a wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, that trades-off dispersal and reproduction; the long-winged morph with functional flight muscles (LW(f)) is adapted for dispersal at the expense of egg production, while the short-winged (SW) morph is adapted for egg production at the expense of flight. We explore the extent to which these two morphs differentially regulate macronutrient...

Data from: The importance of terrestrial subsidies in stream food webs varies along a stream size gradient

Sarah M. Collins, Tyler J. Kohler, Steven A. Thomas, William W. Fetzer & Alexander S. Flecker
Cross system subsidies of energy and materials can be a substantial fraction of food web fluxes in ecosystems, especially when autochthonous production is strongly limited by light or nutrients. We explored whether assimilation of terrestrial energy varied in specific consumer taxa collected from streams of different sizes and resource availabilities. Since headwater streams are often unproductive, we expected that inputs from surrounding terrestrial systems (i.e. leaf litter, terrestrial invertebrates) would be a more important food...

Data from: Population size-structure dependent fitness and ecosystem consequences in Trinidadian guppies

Ronald D. Bassar, Heatherly II, Thomas, Michael C. Marshall, Steven A. Thomas, Alexander S. Flecker, David N. Reznick & Thomas Heatherly
1. Decades of theory and recent empirical results have shown that evolutionary, population, community and ecosystem properties are the result of feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. The vast majority of theory and empirical research on these eco-evolutionary feedbacks has focused on interactions among population size and mean traits of populations. 2. However, numbers and mean traits represent only a fraction of the possible feedback dimensions. Populations of many organisms consist of different size classes...

Data from: Social contact patterns can buffer costs of forgetting in the evolution of cooperation

Jeffrey R. Stevens, Jan K. Woike, Lael J. Schooler, Stefan Lindner & Thorsten Pachur
Analyses of the evolution of cooperation often rely on two simplifying assumptions: (i) individuals interact equally frequently with all social network members and (ii) they accurately remember each partner's past cooperation or defection. Here, we examine how more realistic, skewed patterns of contact---in which individuals interact primarily with only a subset of their network's members---influence cooperation. In addition, we test whether skewed contact patterns can counteract the decrease in cooperation caused by memory errors (i.e.,...

Data from: Life history traits and functional processes generate multiple pathways to ecological stability

John P. DeLong, Torrance C. Hanley, Jean P. Gibert, Linda M. Puth & David M. Post
Stability contributes to the persistence of ecological communities, yet the interactions among different stabilizing forces are poorly understood. We assembled mesocosms with an algal resource and 1-8 different clones of the consumer Daphnia ambigua and tracked algal and Daphnia abundances through time. We then fitted coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to the consumer-resource time series. We show that variation in different components of stability (local stability and the magnitude of population fluctuations) across mesocosms arises...

Data from: Multiple factors, including arena size, influence the functional responses of ladybird beetles

Stella F. Uiterwaal & John P. DeLong
1. Functional response studies are often used to determine the suitability of predators as biocontrol agents. Ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) often are used for the control of crop pests such as aphids. However, most functional response studies on coccinellids compare a limited number of species at different life stages, temperatures, or sexes. A large-scale comparison of ladybird beetle functional responses is needed to evaluate the utility of these species as potential biocontrol predators and to...

Data from: Intertemporal choice in lemurs

Jeffrey R. Stevens & Nelly Mühlhoff
Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur...

Data from: CO2 enrichment and soil type additively regulate grassland productivity

H. Wayne Polley, Michael J. Aspinwall, Harold P. Collins, Anne E. Gibson, Richard A. Gill, Robert B. Jackson, Virginia L. Jin, Albina R. Khasanova, Lara G. Reichmann & Philip A. Fay
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment usually increases aboveground productivity (ANPP) of grassland vegetation, but the magnitude of the ANPP-CO2 response differs among ecosystems. Soil properties affect ANPP via multiple mechanisms and vary over topographic to geographic gradients, but have received little attention as potential modifiers of the ANPP-CO2 response. We assessed effects of three soil types, sandy loam, silty clay, and clay, on the ANPP response of perennial C3/C4 grassland communities to a subambient to elevated CO2...

Data from: Social network structure in wintering golden-crowned sparrows is not correlated with kinship

Nina N. Arnberg, Bruce E. Lyon, Daizaburo Shizuka & Alexis S. Chaine
Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory, and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. In a previous study, we discovered...

Data from: Does perceived predation risk affect patterns of extra-pair paternity? A field experiment in a passerine bird

Robin N. Abbey-Lee, Yimen Gerardo Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet, Maria Moiron, Erica F. Stuber, Bart Kempenaers, Niels J. Dingemanse & Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy
1. Non-consumptive predator effects have been shown to influence a wide range of behavioural, life history, and morphological traits. Extra-pair reproduction is widespread among socially monogamous birds and may incur predation costs. Consequently, altered rates of extra-pair reproduction are expected in circumstances characterized by increased adult perceived predation risk. 2. Additionally, extra-pair reproduction is expected to be most affected for birds with phenotypes that generally increase predation risk (such as more active individuals). 3. In...

Data from: The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: an experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rustica

Rebecca J. Safran, Yoni Vortman, Brittany R. Jenkins, Joanna K. Hubbard, Matthew R. Wilkins, Rachel J. Bradley & Arnon Lotem
Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we...

Data from: Research design considerations to ensure detection of all species in an avian community

Maggi Sliwinski, Larkin Powell, Nicola Koper, Matthew Giovanni & Walter Schacht
1.Recent advances in the estimation of species richness from count data have allowed avian ecologists to incorporate incomplete detectability of species when comparing richness across space or time. Raw counts from single or repeated visits to sample point(s) are nonetheless still used for assessing community composition, and the failure to account for detectability when making these evaluations may lead to incorrect inferences about the community. 2.We estimated detection probabilities (p) for a suite of bird...

Data from: We'll meet again: revealing distributional and temporal patterns of social contact

Thorsten Pachur, Lael J. Schooler & Jeffrey R. Stevens
What are the dynamics and regularities underlying social contact, and how can contact with the people in one's social network be predicted? In order to characterize distributional and temporal patterns underlying contact probability, we asked 40 participants to keep a diary of their social contacts for 100 consecutive days. Using a memory framework previously used to study environmental regularities, we predicted that the probability of future contact would follow in systematic ways from the frequency,...

Data from: Song recognition and heterospecific associations between two fairy-wren species (Maluridae)

Allison E. Johnson, Christina Masco, Stephen Pruett-Jones & Allison E Johnson
Although heterospecific associations beneficial to one or both species involved (e.g. commensalisms or mutualisms) are common, it is generally assumed that interactions between species are transient and not particular to individuals. However, long-term interactions between individuals of different species do occur. In such heterospecific social groups, discrimination between heterospecific individuals may be beneficial, allowing individuals to direct beneficial or aggressive behaviors towards appropriate targets. Here we describe heterospecific groups composed of splendid and variegated fairy-wrens...

Data from: Dynamic changes in display architecture and function across environments revealed by a systems approach to animal communication

Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Matthew R. Wilkins, Daizaburo Shizuka & Eileen A. Hebets
Animal communication is often structurally complex and dynamic, with signaler and receiver behavior varying in response to multiple environmental factors. To date, studies assessing signal dynamics have mostly focused on the relationships between select signaling traits and receiver responses in a single environment. We use the wolf spider Schizocosa floridana to explore the relationships between courtship display form and function across two social contexts (female presence vs. absence) and two light environments (light vs. dark)....

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