132 Works

Data from: Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function

Jason J. Head
Hox genes regulate regionalization of the axial skeleton in vertebrates, and changes in their expression have been proposed to be a fundamental mechanism driving the evolution of new body forms. The origin of the snake-like body form, with its deregionalized pre-cloacal axial skeleton, has been explained as either homogenization of Hox gene expression domains9, or retention of standard vertebrate Hox domains with alteration of downstream expression that suppresses development of distinct regions. Both models assume...

Data from: Population size-structure dependent fitness and ecosystem consequences in Trinidadian guppies

Ronald D. Bassar, , Michael C. Marshall, Steven A. Thomas, Alexander S. Flecker, David N. Reznick & Thomas Heatherly
1. Decades of theory and recent empirical results have shown that evolutionary, population, community and ecosystem properties are the result of feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. The vast majority of theory and empirical research on these eco-evolutionary feedbacks has focused on interactions among population size and mean traits of populations. 2. However, numbers and mean traits represent only a fraction of the possible feedback dimensions. Populations of many organisms consist of different size classes...

Data from: Lagged effects of early-season herbivores on valley oak fecundity

Ian S. Pearse, Kyle A. Funk, Thomas S. Kraft & Walter D. Koenig
The seasonal match between folivore and leaf phenology affects the annual success of arboreal folivore populations because many folivores exploit developing leaves, which are an ephemeral resource. One strategy for folivores to exploit early-season leaves is to anticipate their emergence. The consequence of this behavior for trees is that individuals that set leaves earlier may experience greater rates of folivore damage, with potential negative fitness consequences. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed the early-season phenology,...

Data from: Comparative population genomics of latitudinal variation in D. simulans and D. melanogaster

Heather E. Machado, Alan O. Bergland, Emily L. Behrman, Katherine R. O'Brien, Paul S. Schmidt & Dmitri A. Petrov
Examples of clinal variation in phenotypes and genotypes across latitudinal transects have served as important models for understanding how spatially varying selection and demographic forces shape variation within species. Here we examine the selective and demographic contributions to latitudinal variation through the largest comparative genomic study to date of Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster, with genomic sequence data from 382 individual fruit flies, collected across a spatial transect of 19 degrees latitude and at multiple...

Data from: The roles of ecology, behavior and effective population size in the evolution of a community

Chih-Ming Hung, Sergei V. Drovetski & Robert M. Zink
Organismal traits such as ecological specialization and migratory behavior may affect colonization potential, population persistence, and degree of isolation, factors that determine the composition and genetic structure of communities. However, studies focusing on community assembly rarely consider these factors jointly. We sequenced 16 nuclear and one mitochondrial genes from Caucasian and European populations of 30 forest-dwelling avian species that represent diverse ecological (specialist-generalist) and behavioral (migratory-resident) backgrounds. We tested the effects of organismal traits on...

Data from: Climate variability predicts thermal limits of aquatic insects across elevation and latitude

Alisha A. Shah, Brian A. Gill, Andrea C. Encalada, Alexander S. Flecker, W. Chris Funk, Juan M. Guayasamin, Boris C. Kondratieff, N. LeRoy Poff, Steven A. Thomas, Kelly R. Zamudio & Cameron K. Ghalambor
Janzen's extension of the climate variability hypothesis posits that increased seasonal variation at high latitudes should result in greater temperature overlap across elevations, and favor wider thermal breadths in temperate organisms compared to their tropical counterparts. We tested these predictions by measuring stream temperatures and thermal breadths (i.e. the difference between the critical thermal maximum and minimum) of 62 aquatic insect species from temperate (Colorado, USA) and tropical (Papallacta, Ecuador) streams spanning an elevation gradient...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from amphibian embryos

Rick Relyea, Patrick R. Stephens, Lisa N. Barrow, Andrew Blaustein, Paul Bradley, Julia Buck, Ann Chang, Brian I Crother, James Collins, Julia Earl, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Jason T. Hoverman, Olliver Hyman, Emily Claire Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas Luhring, Moses Michelsohn, Christopher M. Murray, Steven Price, Raymond Semlitsch, Andy Sih, Aaron Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John Hammond … & Aaron B. Stoler
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues,...

Data from: Maternal loading of a small heat shock protein increases embryo thermal tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

Brent L. Lockwood, Cole R. Julick & Kristi L. Montooth
Maternal investment is likely to have direct effects on offspring survival. In oviparous animals whose embryos are exposed to the external environment, maternal provisioning of molecular factors like mRNAs and proteins may help embryos cope with sudden changes in the environment. Here we sought to modify the maternal mRNA contribution to offspring embryos and test for maternal effects on acute thermal tolerance in early embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. We drove in vivo overexpression of a...

Data from: Extreme prescribed fire during drought reduces survival and density of woody resprouters

Dirac Twidwell, William E. Rogers, Carissa L. Wonkka, , Urs P. Kreuter & Charles A. Taylor
Management intervention in ecosystems with degraded environmental services requires innovative resource management strategies that go beyond conventional restoration and conservation practices. We established a unique study that experimentally targeted extreme fire conditions during drought in humid subtropical and semiarid ecoregions. In the southern Great Plains of North America, conventional restoration and conservation practices have been either historically ineffective or economically cost prohibitive at restoring grass-dominated ecosystems following conversion to resprouting shrublands. Our aim was to...

Data from: Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans

Jeffrey R. Stevens, Julian N. Marewski, Lael J. Schooler & Ian C. Gilby
In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study...

Data from: Across-year social stability shapes network structure in wintering migrant sparrows

Daizaburo Shizuka, Alexis S. Chaine, Jennifer Anderson, Oscar Johnson, Inger Marie Laursen & Bruce E. Lyon
Migratory birds often form flocks on their wintering grounds, but important details of social structure such as the patterns of association between individuals are virtually unknown. We analysed networks of co-membership in short-term flocks for wintering golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla) across three years and discovered social complexity unsuspected for migratory songbirds. The population was consistently clustered into distinct social communities within a relatively small area (~ 7 ha). Birds returned to the same community across...

Data from: Modification of wheat gluten for improvement of binding capacity with keratin in hair

Shukun Wang, Danyang Meng, Sisi Wang, Zhong Zhang, Ruijin Yang & Wei Zhao
In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis and cationization with epoxypropyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride of wheat protein, an economic protein complex containing great amount of disulfide bonds, were conducted to improve properties such as solubility and disassociation behaviour for recovery of damaged hair when used in shampoo. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were pH 8.2, 55°C with Alcalase for 60 min. After the selected hydrolysis, the degree of hydrolysis, nitrogen solubility index, foaming capacity index, foam stability index,...

Data from: Lake regionalization and diatom metacommunity structuring in tropical South America

Xavier Benito, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Miriam Steinitz-Kannan, Maria I. Vélez & Michael M. McGlue
Lakes and their topological distribution across Earth’s surface impose ecological and evolutionary constraints on aquatic metacommunities. In this study, we group similar lake ecosystems as metacommunity units influencing diatom community structure. We assembled a database of 195 lakes from the tropical Andes and adjacent lowlands (8ºN–30ºS and 58–79ºW) with associated environmental predictors to examine diatom metacommunity patterns at two different levels: taxon and functional (deconstructed species matrix by ecological guilds). We also derived spatial variables...

Data from: Modeled and measured ecosystem respiration in maize–soybean systems over 10 years

Ming Zhan, Adam J. Liska, Anthony L. Nguy-Robertson, Andrew E. Suyker, Matthew P. Pelton & Haishun Yang
Crop residue is an abundant resource for the potential production of biofuels, but a better understanding of its use on net carbon emissions must be developed to mitigate climate change. This analysis combines two established crop growth models (Hybrid-Maize and Soysim) with a simple soil and crop residue respiration model to estimate daily ecosystem respiration (ERe) from maize and soybean; ERe was estimated to be the sum of CO2 emissions from the oxidation of the...

Data from: Copy number polymorphism in the α-globin gene cluster of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

Rita Campos, Jay F. Storz & N. Ferrand
Comparative genomic studies have revealed that mammals typically possess two or more tandemly duplicated copies of the α-globin (HBA) gene. The domestic rabbit represents an exception to this general rule, as this species was found to possess a single HBA gene. Previous electrophoretic surveys of HBA polymorphism in natural populations of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) revealed extensive geographic variation in the frequencies of three main electromorphs. The variation in frequency of two electromorphs is...

Data from: Maize-nutrient response information applied across Sub-Saharan Africa

Charles S. Wortmann, Maribeth Milner, Kayuki C. Kaizzi, Maman Nouri, Athanase R. Cyamweshi, Mohammed K. Dicko, Catherine N. Kibunja, Martin Macharia, Ricardo Maria, Patson C. Nalivata, Negash Demissie, Davy Nkonde, Korodjouma Ouattara, Catherine J. Senkoro, Bitrus Dawi Tarfa & Francis M. Tetteh
The profit potential for a given investment in fertilizer use can be estimated using representative crop nutrient response functions. Where response data is scarce, determination of representative response functions can be strengthened by using results from homologous crop growing conditions. Maize (Zea mays L.) nutrient response functions were selected from the Optimization of Fertilizer Recommendations in Africa (OFRA) database of 5500 georeferenced response functions determined from field research conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa. Three methods for...

Data from: Maize-nutrient response functions for Eastern and Southern Africa

Charles S. Wortmann, Catherine Senkoro, Athanase R. Cyamweshi, Catherine Kibunja, Davy Nkonde, Moses Munthali, Patson Nalivata, Léon N. Nabahungu, Kayuki Kaizzi & Charles Wortmann
Information is scarce for maize (Zea mays L.) response to nutrient application for many production areas in tropical Africa. Research was conducted to determine macronutrient response functions and to diagnose Mg–S–Zn–B deficiencies. Site–year × N-rate interactions within countries often accounted for little variation in yield relative to the N-rate effect. Country mean grain yield responses to N-rate were curvilinear to plateau, but linear in Malawi. Although mean yields differed, the response to N was similar...

Data from: Sorghum and groundnut sole and intercrop nutrient response in semi-arid West Africa

N. Maman, M. K. Dicko, A. Gonda, C. S. Wortmann, Idriss Serme, Korodjuma Ouattara & A Bandogo
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)–groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) intercropping is important in the Sahel and Sudan Savanna. Nineteen trials were conducted during 2014 and 2015 in Mali and Niger for determination of: response functions for sorghum sole crop (SSC) and intercrop to N, P, and K; effects of the P×N interaction and of a nutrient package for diagnosis of other deficiencies; and a procedure for estimation of intercrop functions from SSC response functions. Six Niger...

Data from: High soil test phosphorus effect on corn yield

Charles Wortmann, Charles Shapiro, Tim Shaver & Michael Mainz Retired
Phosphorus removal in crop harvest has increased as yields have increased. Fertilizer P use guidelines are based on calibrations often developed for much lower yield levels and may need recalibration. Corn yields may be greater with higher than recommended soil test P when springs are relatively wet and cool. Research was conducted across 12 irrigated and five rainfed siteyr in Nebraska with initial Bray-1 P ≤ 11 mg kg–1 to evaluate P application strategies for...

Data from: Field evidence challenges the often-presumed relationship between early male maturation and female-biased sexual size dimorphism

Marie-Claire Chelini & Eileen Hebets
Female‐biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often considered an epiphenomenon of selection for the increased mating opportunities provided by early male maturation (i.e., protandry). Empirical evidence of the adaptive significance of protandry remains nonetheless fairly scarce. We use field data collected throughout the reproductive season of an SSD crab spider, Mecaphesa celer, to test two hypotheses: Protandry provides fitness benefits to males, leading to female‐biased SSD, or protandry is an indirect consequence of selection for...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Trade-offs between morphology and thermal niches mediate adaptation in response to competing selective pressures

Stella Uiterwaal, Ian Lagerstrom, Thomas Luhring, Miranda Salsbery & John DeLong
The effects of climate change - such as increased temperature variability and novel predators – rarely happen in isolation, but it is unclear how organisms cope with multiple stressors simultaneously. To explore this, we grew replicate Paramecium caudatum populations in either constant or variable temperatures and exposed half to predation. We then fit thermal performance curves (TPCs) of intrinsic growth rate (rmax) for each replicate population (N = 12) across seven temperatures (10°C - 38°C)....

Data from: Cascading effects of changes in land use on the invasion of the walnut Juglans regia in forest ecosystems

Magdalena Lenda, Johannes H. Knops, Piotr Skórka, Dawid Moroń & Michał Woyciechowski
1. Plant invasions are affected by many factors that must be favourable in order for invasions to occur. Factors can be grouped into three major categories: propagule pressure, biotic factors and abiotic characteristics; all may be moderated by human activity. However, studies examining all factors simultaneously are rare, and most are limited to a single factor. This hampers our understanding of the mechanisms driving invasions. 2. In recent decades, an alien walnut (Juglans regia) has...

Data from: Bean yield and economic response to fertilizer in eastern and southern Africa

K. C. Kaizzi, A. R. Cyamweshi, C. N. Kibunja, C. Senkoro, D. Nkonde, R. Maria, C. S. Wortmann, L Nabahungu & Charles Wortmann
Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is important in sub-Saharan Africa for human dietary protein. Low yields are attributed to biotic and abiotic constraints including inadequate nutrient availability. Research was conducted to determine nutrient response functions for bean production areas of Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. Mean trial yields ranged from 0.32 to 2.60 and 1.72 to 2.89 Mg ha-1 for bush and climbing bean, respectively. Response to N was common except in Kenya and Mozambique....

Data from: Mitochondrial dysfunction and infection generate immunity-fecundity tradeoffs in Drosophila

Justin L. Buchanan, Colin D. Meiklejohn & Kristi L. Montooth
Physiological responses to short-term environmental stressors, such as infection, can have long-term consequences for fitness, particularly if the responses are inappropriate or nutrient resources are limited. Genetic variation affecting energy acquisition, storage, and usage can limit cellular energy availability and may influence resource-allocation tradeoffs even when environmental nutrients are plentiful. Here, we utilized Drosophila mitochondrial-nuclear genotypes to test whether disrupted mitochondrial function interferes with nutrient-sensing pathways, and whether this disruption has consequences for tradeoffs between...

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