101 Works

Data from: The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: an experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rustica

Rebecca J. Safran, Yoni Vortman, Brittany R. Jenkins, Joanna K. Hubbard, Matthew R. Wilkins, Rachel J. Bradley & Arnon Lotem
Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we...

Data from: Research design considerations to ensure detection of all species in an avian community

Maggi Sliwinski, Larkin Powell, Nicola Koper, Matthew Giovanni & Walter Schacht
1.Recent advances in the estimation of species richness from count data have allowed avian ecologists to incorporate incomplete detectability of species when comparing richness across space or time. Raw counts from single or repeated visits to sample point(s) are nonetheless still used for assessing community composition, and the failure to account for detectability when making these evaluations may lead to incorrect inferences about the community. 2.We estimated detection probabilities (p) for a suite of bird...

Data from: We'll meet again: revealing distributional and temporal patterns of social contact

Thorsten Pachur, Lael J. Schooler & Jeffrey R. Stevens
What are the dynamics and regularities underlying social contact, and how can contact with the people in one's social network be predicted? In order to characterize distributional and temporal patterns underlying contact probability, we asked 40 participants to keep a diary of their social contacts for 100 consecutive days. Using a memory framework previously used to study environmental regularities, we predicted that the probability of future contact would follow in systematic ways from the frequency,...

Data from: Song recognition and heterospecific associations between two fairy-wren species (Maluridae)

Allison E. Johnson, Christina Masco, Stephen Pruett-Jones & Allison E Johnson
Although heterospecific associations beneficial to one or both species involved (e.g. commensalisms or mutualisms) are common, it is generally assumed that interactions between species are transient and not particular to individuals. However, long-term interactions between individuals of different species do occur. In such heterospecific social groups, discrimination between heterospecific individuals may be beneficial, allowing individuals to direct beneficial or aggressive behaviors towards appropriate targets. Here we describe heterospecific groups composed of splendid and variegated fairy-wrens...

Data from: Dynamic changes in display architecture and function across environments revealed by a systems approach to animal communication

Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Matthew R. Wilkins, Daizaburo Shizuka & Eileen A. Hebets
Animal communication is often structurally complex and dynamic, with signaler and receiver behavior varying in response to multiple environmental factors. To date, studies assessing signal dynamics have mostly focused on the relationships between select signaling traits and receiver responses in a single environment. We use the wolf spider Schizocosa floridana to explore the relationships between courtship display form and function across two social contexts (female presence vs. absence) and two light environments (light vs. dark)....

Data from: Across-year social stability shapes network structure in wintering migrant sparrows

Daizaburo Shizuka, Alexis S. Chaine, Jennifer Anderson, Oscar Johnson, Inger Marie Laursen & Bruce E. Lyon
Migratory birds often form flocks on their wintering grounds, but important details of social structure such as the patterns of association between individuals are virtually unknown. We analysed networks of co-membership in short-term flocks for wintering golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla) across three years and discovered social complexity unsuspected for migratory songbirds. The population was consistently clustered into distinct social communities within a relatively small area (~ 7 ha). Birds returned to the same community across...

Data from: Time-lagged effects of weather on plant demography: drought and Astragalus scaphoides

Brigitte Tenhumberg, Elizabeth E. Crone, Satu Ramula & Andrew J. Tyre
Temperature and precipitation determine the conditions where plant species can occur. Despite their significance, to date, surprisingly few demographic field studies have considered the effects of abiotic drivers. This is problematic because anticipating the effect of global climate change on plant population viability requires understanding how weather variables affect population dynamics. One possible reason for omitting the effect of weather variables in demographic studies is the difficulty in detecting tight associations between vital rates and...

Data from: Phenotypic differentiation is associated with divergent sexual selection among closely related barn swallow populations

Matthew R. Wilkins, Hakan Karaardıç, Yoni Vortman, Thomas L. Parchman, Tomáš Albrecht, Adéla Petrželková, Leyla Özkan, Peter L. Pap, Joanna K. Hubbard, Amanda K. Hund & Rebecca J. Safran
Sexual selection plays a key role in the diversification of numerous animal clades and may accelerate trait divergence during speciation. However, much of our understanding of this process comes from phylogenetic comparative studies, which rely on surrogate measures such as dimorphism that may not represent selection in wild populations. In this study, we assess sexual selection pressures for multiple male visual signals across four barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations. Our sample encompassed 2400 linear km...

Data from: Context-dependent seed dispersal by a scatter-hoarding corvid

Mario B. Pesendorfer, T. Scott Sillett, Scott A. Morrison & Alan C. Kamil
1. Corvids (crows, jays, magpies and nutcrackers) are important dispersers of large-seeded plants. Studies on captive or supplemented birds suggest that they flexibly adjust their scatter-hoarding behaviour to the context of social dynamics and relative seed availability. Because many corvid-dispersed trees show high annual variation in seed production, context-dependent foraging can have strong effects on natural corvid scatter-hoarding behaviour. 2. We investigated how seed availability and social dynamics affected scatter-hoarding in the island scrub jays...

Data from: The domain specificity of intertemporal choice in pinyon jays

Jeffrey R. Stevens, Bryce A. Kennedy, Dina Morales & Marianna Burks
When choosing between a piece of cake now versus a slimmer waistline in the future, many of us have difficulty with self-control. Food-caching species, however, regularly hide food for later recovery, sometimes waiting months before retrieving their caches. It remains unclear whether these long-term choices generalize outside of the caching domain. We hypothesized that the ability to save for the future is a general tendency that cuts across different situations. To test this hypothesis, we...

Data from: Rapid evolution rescues hosts from competition and disease but—despite a dilution effect—increases the density of infected hosts

Alexander T. Strauss, Jessica L. Hite, Marta S. Shocket, Carla E. Cáceres, Meghan A. Duffy & Spencer R. Hall
Virulent parasites can depress the densities of their hosts. Taxa that reduce disease via dilution effects might alleviate this burden. However, ‘diluter’ taxa can also depress host densities through competition for shared resources. The combination of disease and interspecific competition could even drive hosts extinct. Then again, genetically variable host populations can evolve in response to both competitors and parasites. Can rapid evolution rescue host density from the harm caused by these ecological enemies? How...

Data from: Morphological and molecular evolution and their consequences for conservation and taxonomy in the Le Conte's Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei)

Hernán Vázquez-Miranda, Josie A. Griffin, Jay M. Sheppard, Jordan M. Herman, Octavio Rojas-Soto & Robert M. Zink
We evaluated geographic variation and subspecific taxonomy in the Le Conte's Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei) by analyzing DNA sequences from 16 nuclear loci, one mitochondrial DNA locus, and four study skin characters, and compared these data sets with previously published data on plumage coloration and different mtDNA genes. Morphological support for the southernmost taxon, T. l. arenicola, is relatively weak: multivariate analyses of morphometrics or back coloration do not provide diagnostic support, although one color character...

Data from: Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees

Lewis H. Ziska, Jeffery S. Pettis, Joan Edwards, Jillian E. Hancock, Martha B. Tomecek, Andrew Clark, Jeffrey S. Dukes, Irakli Loladze & H. Wayne Polley
At present, there is substantive evidence that the nutritional content of agriculturally important food crops will decrease in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Ca. However, whether Ca-induced declines in nutritional quality are also occurring for pollinator food sources is unknown. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.) pollen is a widely available autumnal food source commonly acknowledged by apiarists to be essential to native bee (e.g. Bombus spp.) and honeybee (Apis...

Data from: Sorghum and groundnut sole and intercrop nutrient response in semi-arid West Africa

N. Maman, M. K. Dicko, A. Gonda, C. S. Wortmann, Idriss Serme, Korodjuma Ouattara & A Bandogo
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)–groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) intercropping is important in the Sahel and Sudan Savanna. Nineteen trials were conducted during 2014 and 2015 in Mali and Niger for determination of: response functions for sorghum sole crop (SSC) and intercrop to N, P, and K; effects of the P×N interaction and of a nutrient package for diagnosis of other deficiencies; and a procedure for estimation of intercrop functions from SSC response functions. Six Niger...

Data from: Copy number polymorphism in the α-globin gene cluster of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

Rita Campos, Jay F. Storz, N. Ferrand & J F Storz
Comparative genomic studies have revealed that mammals typically possess two or more tandemly duplicated copies of the α-globin (HBA) gene. The domestic rabbit represents an exception to this general rule, as this species was found to possess a single HBA gene. Previous electrophoretic surveys of HBA polymorphism in natural populations of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) revealed extensive geographic variation in the frequencies of three main electromorphs. The variation in frequency of two electromorphs is...

Data from: Pearl millet and cowpea intercrop response to applied nutrients in West Africa

Nouri Maman, Mohamed Dicko, Gonda Abdou, Zoumana Kouyate & Charles Wortmann
In the Sahel, crop production is dominated by pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] cropping systems including intercropping with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]. The research objectives were to determine pearl millet sole crop (PMSC) and intercrop nutrient response functions, profit opportunities from fertilizer use, and a means of relating intercrop to PMSC response. Pearl millet–cowpea trials were conducted in Niger and Mali. The treatment structure was an incomplete factorial with five, four, and...

Data from: Ectoparasitism shortens the breeding season in a colonial bird

Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown, M. B. Brown & C. R. Brown
When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host's breeding season—and thus the host's opportunity for multiple brooding—has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively...

Data from: Habitat, latitude, and body mass influence the temperature dependence of metabolic rate

John P. DeLong, Gwendolyn Bachman, Jean P. Gibert, Thomas M. Luhring, Kristi L. Montooth, Abigail Neyer, Ben Reed, K. L. Montooth, G. Bachman, J. P. DeLong, T. M. Luhring, A. Neyer, B. Reed & J. P. Gibert
The sensitivity of metabolic rate to temperature constrains the climate in which ectotherms can function, yet the temperature dependence of metabolic rate may evolve in response to biotic and abiotic factors. We compiled a dataset on the temperature dependence of metabolic rate for heterotrophic ectotherms from studies that show a peak in metabolic rate at an optimal temperature (i.e., that describe the thermal performance curve for metabolic rate). We found that peak metabolic rates were...

Data from: Field evidence challenges the often-presumed relationship between early male maturation and female-biased sexual size dimorphism

Marie-Claire Chelini & Eileen Hebets
Female‐biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often considered an epiphenomenon of selection for the increased mating opportunities provided by early male maturation (i.e., protandry). Empirical evidence of the adaptive significance of protandry remains nonetheless fairly scarce. We use field data collected throughout the reproductive season of an SSD crab spider, Mecaphesa celer, to test two hypotheses: Protandry provides fitness benefits to males, leading to female‐biased SSD, or protandry is an indirect consequence of selection for...

Data from: Pyric herbivory, scales of heterogeneity, and drought

Christine H. Bielski, Dirac Twidwell, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Carissa L. Wonkka, Brady W. Allred, Tyson E. Ochsner, Erik S. Krueger, J. D. Carlson & David M. Engle
1. Understanding how extreme drought alters spatial patterns and temporal stability in grassland biomass will become increasingly important by the end of the century when climate model forecasts suggest drought events will occur more frequently. In grassland landscapes where grazing is driven by fire (termed pyric herbivory), temporal stability in aboveground plant biomass at landscape scales typically coincides with greater spatial variability across local communities (time-since fire patches), whereas variability within local communities is associated...

Data from: Fertilizer application effects on grain and storage root nutrient concentration

Charles S. Wortmann, Mohammed K. Dicko, Nouri Maman, Catherine J. Senkoro & Bitrus Dawi Tarfa
Fertilizer application can affect nutrient concentrations of edible plant products. Data from 70 crop-nutrient response trials conducted in Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Tanzania were used to evaluate nutrient application effects on nutrient concentrations for grain of five pulse and five cereal crops and for storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.). Treatments per trial were ≥12 but this study was limited to: no fertilizer applied; macronutrients applied (NPK or PK); and the macronutrient treatment plus...

Data from: The body size dependence of mutual interference

John P. DeLong & J. P. DeLong
The parameters that drive population dynamics typically show a relationship with body size. By contrast, there is no theoretical or empirical support for a body-size dependence of mutual interference, which links foraging rates to consumer density. Here, I develop a model to predict that interference may be positively or negatively related to body size depending on how resource body size scales with consumer body size. Over a wide range of body sizes, however, the model...

Data from: Intertemporal similarity: discounting as a last resort

Jeffrey R. Stevens
Standard models of intertemporal choice assume that individuals discount future payoffs by integrating reward amounts and time delays to generate a discounted value. Alternative models propose that, rather than integrate across them, individuals compare within attributes (amounts and delays) to determine if differences in one attribute outweigh differences in another attribute. For instance, the similarity model 1) compares the two reward amounts to determine whether they are similar, 2) compares the similarity of the two...

Data from: Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations

James F. Parham, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Christopher J. Bell, Tyler D. Calway, Jason J. Head, Patricia A. Holroyd, Jun G. Inoue, Randall B. Irmis, Walter G. Joyce, Daniel T. Ksepka, José S. L. Patané, Nathan D. Smith, James E. Tarver, Marcel Van Tuinen, Ziheng Yang, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jenny M. Greenwood, Christy A. Hipsley, Jacobs Louis, Peter J. Makovicky, Johannes Müller, Krister T. Smith, Jessica M. Theodor, Rachel C. M. Warnock, Michael J. Benton … & Louis Jacobs
Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record with molecular phylogenetics represents an exciting synthetic approach to this challenge. The first molecular divergence dating analysis (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962) was based on a measure of the amino acid differences in the hemoglobin molecule; with replacement rates established (calibrated) using inaccurate paleontological age estimates...

Data from: Convergent evolution in social swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae)

Allison E. Johnson, Jonathan S. Mitchell & Mary Bomberger Brown
Behavioral shifts can initiate morphological evolution by pushing lineages into new adaptive zones. This has primarily been examined in ecological behaviors, such as foraging, but social behaviors may also alter morphology. Swallows and martins (Hirundinidae) are aerial insectivores that exhibit a range of social behaviors, from solitary to colonial breeding and foraging. Using a well-resolved phylogenetic tree, a database of social behaviors, and morphological measurements, we ask how shifts from solitary to social breeding and...

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