Data from: Genome-wide differentiation in closely related populations: the roles of selection and geographic isolationRebecca J. Safran, Elizabeth S. C. Scordato, Matthew R. Wilkins, Joanna K. Hubbard, Brittany R. Jenkins, Tomas Albrecht, Samuel M. Flaxman, Hakan Karaardic, Yoni Vortman, Arnon Lotem, Patrik Nosil, Péter Pap, Sheng-Feng Shen, Shih-Fan Chan, Thomas L. Parchman, Nolan C. Kane, M. R. Wilkins, J. K. Hubbard, S. Shen, S.-F. Chan, P. Nosil, T.L. Parchman, R. J. Safran, E. S. C. Scordato, B. R. Jenkins … & T. Albrecht
Population divergence in geographic isolation is due to a combination of factors. Natural and sexual selection may be important in shaping patterns of population differentiation, a pattern referred to as ‘isolation by adaptation’ (IBA). IBA can be complementary to the well-known pattern of ‘isolation by distance’ (IBD), in which the divergence of closely related populations (via any evolutionary process) is associated with geographic isolation. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica complex comprises six closely related subspecies,...
Data from: Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humansJeffrey R. Stevens, Julian N. Marewski, Lael J. Schooler & Ian C. Gilby
In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study...
Data from: Individual resource limitation combined with population-wide pollen availability drives masting in the valley oak (Quercus lobata)Walter D. Koenig, Mario B. Pesendorfer, Ian S. Pearse, Johannes M. H. Knops & Kyle A. Funk
1. Masting, the synchronized production of variable seed crops, is widespread among woody plants, but there is no consensus about the underlying proximate mechanisms. To understand this population-level behavior, it is necessary to dissect the behavior of individual trees as well as the interactions that synchronize them. 2. Here we test a model of masting in which variability in seed set is driven by resource limitation within trees and synchrony is driven by pollen limitation...
Food sharing offers a clear example of prosocial behaviour, in which one individual's actions benefit another. Researchers have proposed a range of hypotheses that explain why food sharing may occur among unrelated individuals. Two such hypotheses, reciprocity and dominance, have been tested in many species, including fish, corvids, rats, bats and primates, showing that (1) recipients sometimes reciprocate sharing back to previous donors and (2) dominant individuals share more than subordinates. Although primates dominate the...
Data from: Local perspectives on environmental insecurity and its influence on illegal biodiversity exploitationMeredith L. Gore, Michelle Lute, Jonah H. Ratsimbazafy, Andry Rajaonson & Michelle L. Lute
Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88)...
Data from: The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: an experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rusticaRebecca J. Safran, Yoni Vortman, Brittany R. Jenkins, Joanna K. Hubbard, Matthew R. Wilkins, Rachel J. Bradley & Arnon Lotem
Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we...
Data from: Phenotypic differentiation is associated with divergent sexual selection among closely related barn swallow populationsMatthew R. Wilkins, Hakan Karaardıç, Yoni Vortman, Thomas L. Parchman, Tomáš Albrecht, Adéla Petrželková, Leyla Özkan, Peter L. Pap, Joanna K. Hubbard, Amanda K. Hund & Rebecca J. Safran
Sexual selection plays a key role in the diversification of numerous animal clades and may accelerate trait divergence during speciation. However, much of our understanding of this process comes from phylogenetic comparative studies, which rely on surrogate measures such as dimorphism that may not represent selection in wild populations. In this study, we assess sexual selection pressures for multiple male visual signals across four barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations. Our sample encompassed 2400 linear km...
1. Corvids (crows, jays, magpies and nutcrackers) are important dispersers of large-seeded plants. Studies on captive or supplemented birds suggest that they flexibly adjust their scatter-hoarding behaviour to the context of social dynamics and relative seed availability. Because many corvid-dispersed trees show high annual variation in seed production, context-dependent foraging can have strong effects on natural corvid scatter-hoarding behaviour. 2. We investigated how seed availability and social dynamics affected scatter-hoarding in the island scrub jays...
Data from: Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American beesLewis H. Ziska, Jeffery S. Pettis, Joan Edwards, Jillian E. Hancock, Martha B. Tomecek, Andrew Clark, Jeffrey S. Dukes, Irakli Loladze & H. Wayne Polley
At present, there is substantive evidence that the nutritional content of agriculturally important food crops will decrease in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Ca. However, whether Ca-induced declines in nutritional quality are also occurring for pollinator food sources is unknown. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.) pollen is a widely available autumnal food source commonly acknowledged by apiarists to be essential to native bee (e.g. Bombus spp.) and honeybee (Apis...
Behavioral shifts can initiate morphological evolution by pushing lineages into new adaptive zones. This has primarily been examined in ecological behaviors, such as foraging, but social behaviors may also alter morphology. Swallows and martins (Hirundinidae) are aerial insectivores that exhibit a range of social behaviors, from solitary to colonial breeding and foraging. Using a well-resolved phylogenetic tree, a database of social behaviors, and morphological measurements, we ask how shifts from solitary to social breeding and...
MYB transcription factors play an important role in regulating key plant developmental processes involving defense, cell shape, pigmentation, and root formation. Within this gene family, sequences containing an R2R3 MYB domain are the most abundant type and exhibit a wide diversity of functions. In this study, we identify 559 R2R3 MYB genes using whole genome data from four species of Solanaceae and reconstruct their evolutionary relationships. We compare the Solanaceae R2R3 MYBs to the well-characterized...
Management intervention in ecosystems with degraded environmental services requires innovative resource management strategies that go beyond conventional restoration and conservation practices. We established a unique study that experimentally targeted extreme fire conditions during drought in humid subtropical and semiarid ecoregions. In the southern Great Plains of North America, conventional restoration and conservation practices have been either historically ineffective or economically cost prohibitive at restoring grass-dominated ecosystems following conversion to resprouting shrublands. Our aim was to...
Data from: Cryptic species diversity reveals biogeographic support for the ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ hypothesisBrian A. Gill, B. C. Kondratieff, K. L. Casner, A. C. Encalada, A. S. Flecker, D. G. Gannon, C. K. Ghalambor, J. M. Guayasamin, N. L. Poff, M. P. Simmons, S. A. Thomas, K. R. Zamudio, W. C. Funk & B. A. Gill
The ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ (MPHT) hypothesis posits that reduced climate variability at low latitudes should select for narrower thermal tolerances, lower dispersal and smaller elevational ranges compared with higher latitudes. These latitudinal differences could increase species richness at low latitudes, but that increase may be largely cryptic, because physiological and dispersal traits isolating populations might not correspond to morphological differences. Yet previous tests of the MPHT hypothesis have not addressed cryptic...
University of Nebraska–Lincoln13
University of Colorado Boulder4
Tel Aviv University3
University of Nevada Reno2
Institute of Vertebrate Biology2
University of Michigan–Ann Arbor1
University of Lausanne1
Texas A&M University1
Universidad San Francisco de Quito1
University of Chicago1
Purdue University West Lafayette1