70 Works

Data from: Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

Sofie S. Mathiesen, Jakob Thyrring, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Jørgen Berge, Alexey Sukhotin, Peter Leopold, Michaël Bekaert, Mikael K. Sejr, Einar E. Nielsen, Sofie Smedegaard Mathiesen, Mikael Kristian Sejr & Einar Eg Nielsen
Climate changes in the Arctic are predicted to alter distributions of marine species. However, such changes are difficult to quantify because information on present species distribution and the genetic variation within species is lacking or poorly examined. Blue mussels, Mytilus spp. are ecosystem engineers in the coastal zone globally. In order to improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp....

Data from: Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphisms as tools to detect hybridization and population structure in freshwater stingrays

Vanessa Paes Cruz, Manuel Vera, Belén Gomes Pardo, John Taggart, Paulino Martinez, Claudio Oliveira & Fausto Foresti
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified and validated for two stingrays species, Potamotrygon motoro and Potamotrygon falkneri, using double digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) reads using 454-Roche technology. A total of 226 774 reads (65.5 Mb) were obtained (mean read length 289 ± 183 bp) detecting a total of 5399 contigs (mean contig length: 396 ± 91 bp). Mining this data set, a panel of 143 in silico SNPs was selected. Eighty-two of these...

Data from: Litter conversion into detritivore faeces reshuffles the quality control over C and N dynamics during decomposition

François-Xavier Joly, Sylvain Coq, Mathieu Coulis, Johanne Nahmani & Stephan Hattenschwiler
1. In many terrestrial ecosystems, detritivorous soil organisms ingest large amounts of leaf litter returning most of it to the soil as faeces. Such conversion of leaf litter into faeces may stimulate decomposition by increasing the surface area available for microbial colonization. Yet, experimental support for either the outcome or the mechanism of these conversion effects is lacking. 2. Based on the hypothesis that the identity of plant species from which leaf litter is transformed...

Data from: Context-dependent colonisation of terrestrial habitat 'islands' by a long-distance migrant bird

Robin C. Whytock, Elisa Fuentes-Montemayor, Kevin Watts, Nicholas A. Macgregor, Lefora Williams & Kirsty J. Park
Landscape context can affect how individuals perceive patch quality during colonisation. However, although context-dependent colonisation has been observed in aquatic environments it has rarely been studied in terrestrial environments or at large spatial scales. Here, we assessed how landscape context influenced colonisation rates in a large-scale (c.7000 km2) terrestrial system where colonisers (Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus) are capable of rapid, long-distance movements. Bioacoustic recorders were used to detect first song dates (an indicator of colonisation...

Data from: Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumblebee colony growth and queen production

Penelope R. Whitehorn, Stephanie O'Connor, Felix L. Wackers, Dave Goulson, P. R. Whitehorn, S. O'Connor, D. Goulson & F. L. Wackers
Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced...

Data from: Dietary changes in predators and scavengers in a nocturnally illuminated riparian ecosystem

Alessandro Manfrin, David Lehmann, Roy H.A. Van Grunsven, Stefano Larsen, Jari Syväranta, Geraldene Wharton, Christian C. Voigt, Michael T. Monaghan, Franz Hölker & Roy H. A. Van Grunsven
Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are linked by fluxes of carbon and nutrients in riparian areas. Processes that alter these fluxes may therefore change the diet and composition of consumer communities. We used stable carbon isotope (δ13C) analyses to test whether the increased abundance of aquatic prey observed in another study led to a dietary shift in riparian consumers in areas illuminated by artificial light at night (ALAN). We measured the contribution of aquatic-derived carbon to...

Data from: Sex allocation theory reveals a hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in a parasitoid wasp

Penelope R. Whitehorn, Nicola Cook, Charlotte V. Blackburn, Sophie M. Gill, Jade Green, Shuker M. David, C. V. Blackburn, N. Cook, S. M. Gill, J. Green, D. M. Shuker & P. R. Whitehorn
Sex allocation theory has proved to be one the most successful theories in evolutionary ecology. However, its role in more applied aspects of ecology has been limited. Here we show how sex allocation theory helps uncover an otherwise hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Female N. vitripennis allocate the sex of their offspring in line with Local Mate Competition (LMC) theory. Neonicotinoids are an economically important class of insecticides, but...

Data from: Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture

Z. Ibarra-Zatarain, Elvira Fatsini, Sonia Rey, Olvido Chereguini, Ignacio Martin, Inmaculada Rasines, Carles Alcaraz, Neil Duncan, S. Rey, O. Chereguini, I. Martin & I. Rasines
The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests,...

Data from: Range-wide population genetics and variation in morph ratio in style-dimorphic Narcissus papyraceus (Amaryllidaceae)

Violeta I. Simón-Porcar, F. Xavier Picó & Juan Arroyo
Premise of the study: Theoretical models state that natural selection and mating patterns account for floral morph ratio in style- polymorphic plants. However, the demographic history of populations can also influence variation in morph ratios. If so, we hypothesize an association between the morph ratios and the genetic structure across populations. Methods: We used nuclear microsatellites to assess genetic variation and structure in populations of Narcissus papyraceus, a style-dimorphic plant whose floral morph ratios (L-morph...

Data from: Association between inbreeding depression and floral traits in a generalist-pollinated plant

Mohamed Abdelaziz, Antonio Jesús Muñoz-Pajares, Modesto Berbel, Francisco Perfectti & José María Gómez
Individual variation in the magnitude of inbreeding depression (ID) in plants and its association with phenotypic traits may have important consequences for mating system evolution. This association has been investigated only scarcely, and always considering traits functionally related to autogamy. Here, we explore the association between individual variation in ID and plant traits associated with pollinator attractiveness (related to plant size, corolla size and corolla shape) in two populations of Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae). ID was...

Data from: Evolution of pre-copulatory and post-copulatory strategies of inbreeding avoidance and associated polyandry

A. Bradley Duthie, Greta Bocedi, Ryan R. Germain, Jane M. Reid, A. B. Duthie, G. Bocedi, R. R. Germain & J. M. Reid
Inbreeding depression is widely hypothesised to drive adaptive evolution of pre-copulatory and post-copulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance, which in turn are hypothesised to affect evolution of polyandry (i.e., female multiple mating). However, surprisingly little theory or modelling critically examines selection for pre-copulatory or post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, or both strategies, given evolutionary constraints and direct costs, or examines how evolution of inbreeding avoidance strategies might feed back to affect evolution of polyandry. Selection for post-copulatory inbreeding...

Data from: Fuels and fires influence vegetation via above- and below-ground pathways in a high-diversity plant community

Paul R. Gagnon, Heather A. Passmore, Matthew Slocum, Jonathan A. Myers, Kyle E. Harms, William J. Platt & C. E. Timothy Paine
1. Fire strongly influences plant populations and communities around the world, making it an important agent of plant evolution. Fire influences vegetation through multiple pathways, both above- and belowground. Few studies have yet attempted to tie these pathways together in a mechanistic way through soil heating even though the importance of soil heating for plants in fire-prone ecosystems is increasingly recognized. 2. Here we combine an experimental approach with structural equation modelling (SEM) to simultaneously...

Data from: Sex as a strategy against rapidly evolving parasites

Stuart K. J. R. Auld, Shona K. Tinkler & Matthew C. Tinsley
Why is sex ubiquitous when asexual reproduction is much less costly? Sex disrupts coadapted gene complexes; it also causes costs associated with mate finding and the production of males who do not themselves bear offspring. Theory predicts parasites select for host sex, because genetically variable offspring can escape infection from parasites adapted to infect the previous generations. We examine this using a facultative sexual crustacean, Daphnia magna, and its sterilizing bacterial parasite, Pasteuria ramosa. We...

Data from: Personality links with lifespan in chimpanzees

Drew M Altschul, W Donald Hopkins, Elizabeth S Herrelko, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, James E King, Stephen R Ross, Alexander Weiss & William D Hopkins
Life-history strategies for optimizing individual fitness fall on a spectrum between maximizing reproductive efforts and maintaining physical health over time. Strategies across this spectrum are viable and different suites of personality traits have evolved to support these strategies. Using personality and survival data from 538 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) we tested whether any of the dimensions of chimpanzee personality - agreeableness, conscientiousness, dominance, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness - were associated with longevity, an attribute of...

Data from: Population structure and genetic diversity of native and invasive populations of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae)

Jiali Zhao, Lislie Solís-Montero, Anru Lou & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Aims: We investigate native and introduced populations of Solanum rostratum, an annual, self-compatible plant that has been introduced around the globe. This study is the first to compare the genetic diversity of Solanum rostratum between native and introduced populations. We aim to (1) determine the level of genetic diversity across the studied regions; (2) explore the likely origins of invasive populations in China; and (3) investigate whether there is the evidence of multiple introductions into...

Data from: Morphometric discrimination of two allozymically diagnosed sibling species of the Echinorhynchus gadi Zoega in Muller complex (Acanthocephala) in the North Sea.

Matthew T. Wayland, David I. Gibson & Christina Sommerville
Allozyme electrophoresis was used to detect biological species of the E. gadi complex from gadids from the northern North Sea. A fixed difference at one of nine enzyme loci surveyed confirmed the existence of two reproductively isolated, sympatric species. Mixed infections of two E. gadi spp. (termed A and B) were observed in Gadus morhua and Pollachius virens. E. gadi sp. B was also found in Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Merlangius merlangus. The presence of gravid...

Data from: Genetic inactivation of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) eggs using UV-irradiation: observations and perspectives

Julie Colleter, David J. Penman, Stephane Lallement, Christian Fauvel, Tanja Hanebrekke, Renate D. Osvik, Hans C. Eilertsen, Helena D'Cotta, Beatrice Chatain & Stefano Peruzzi
Androgenesis is a form of uniparental reproduction leading to progenies inheriting only the paternal set of chromosomes. It has been achieved with variable success in a number of freshwater species and can be attained by artificial fertilization of genetically inactivated eggs following exposure to gamma (γ), X-ray or UV irradiation (haploid androgenesis) and by restoration of diploidy by suppression of mitosis using a pressure or thermal shock. The conditions for the genetic inactivation of the...

Data from: City life makes females fussy: sex differences in habitat use of temperate bats in urban areas

Paul R. Lintott, Nils Bunnefeld, Elisa Fuentes-Montemayor, Jeroen Minderman, Rebekah J. Mayhew, Lena Olley, Kirsty J. Park, P. R. Lintott, N. Bunnefeld, E. Fuentes-Montemayor, R. J. Mayhew, J. Minderman, L. Olley & K. J. Park
Urbanization is a major driver of the global loss of biodiversity; to mitigate its adverse effects, it is essential to understand what drives species' patterns of habitat use within the urban matrix. While many animal species are known to exhibit sex differences in habitat use, adaptability to the urban landscape is commonly examined at the species level, without consideration of intraspecific differences. The high energetic demands of pregnancy and lactation in female mammals can lead...

Data from: Environmental variation causes different (co) evolutionary routes to the same adaptive destination across parasite populations

Stuart K.J.R. Auld, June Brand & Stuart K. J. R. Auld
Epidemics are engines for host-parasite coevolution, where parasite adaptation to hosts drives reciprocal adaptation in host populations. A key challenge is to understand whether parasite adaptation and any underlying evolution and coevolution is repeatable across ecologically realistic populations that experience different environmental conditions, or if each population follows a completely unique evolutionary path. We established twenty replicate pond populations comprising an identical suite of genotypes of crustacean host, Daphnia magna, and inoculum of their parasite,...

Data from: The influence of topography and soil phosphorus on the vegetation of Korup Forest Reserve, Cameroun

Duncan W. Thomas, David M. Newbery, D. McC. Newbery, P. G. Waterman & J. S. Gartlan
All living trees (≥ 30 cm gbh) were enumerated in 135 80×80 m plots, each subdivided into four 40×40 m subplots, and arranged along four 5 km transect lines in the Korup Forest Reserve, Cameroun. For each plot altitude, slope and the extent of permanent and seasonal swamps were recorded. Four hundred and eleven taxa were recognized of which 66% were identified to species. Mean tree density was 471 ha−1, basal area 27.6 m2 ha−1...

Data from: Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort

Thomas M. Houslay, John Hunt, Matthew C. Tinsley & Luc F. Bussière
Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade-off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent...

Data from: High genetic diversity and distinctiveness of rear-edge climate relicts maintained by ancient tetraploidisation for Alnus glutinosa

Olivier Lepais, Serge D. Muller, Samia Ben Saad-Limam, Mohamed Benslama, Laila Rhazi, Djamila Belouahem-Abed, Amina Daoud-Bouattour, Amor Mokhtar Gammar, Zeineb Ghrabi-Gammar & Cécile Fanny Emilie Bacles
Populations located at the rear-edge of a species’ distribution may have disproportionate ecological and evolutionary importance for biodiversity conservation in a changing global environment. Yet genetic studies of such populations remain rare. This study investigates the evolutionary history of North-African low latitude marginal populations of Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., a European tree species that plays a significant ecological role as a keystone of riparian ecosystems. We genotyped 551 adults from 19 populations located across North Africa...

Data from: Bergmann's body size rule operates in facultatively endothermic insects: evidence from a complex of cryptic bumblebee species

Jessica J. Scriven, Penelope R. Whitehorn, Dave Goulson & Matthew C. Tinsley
According to Bergmann’s rule we expect species with larger body size to inhabit locations with a cooler climate, where they may be well adapted to conserve heat and resist starvation. This rule is generally applied to endotherms. In contrast, body size in ectothermic invertebrates has been suggested to follow the reverse ecogeographic trend: these converse Bergmann’s patterns may be driven by the ecological constraints of shorter season length and lower food availability in cooler high...

Data from: Niche partitioning in a sympatric cryptic species complex

Jessica J. Scriven, Penelope R. Whitehorn, David Goulson, Matthew C. Tinsley, Dave Goulson & Matthew. C. Tinsley
Competition theory states that multiple species should not be able to occupy the same niche indefinitely. Morphologically, similar species are expected to be ecologically alike and exhibit little niche differentiation, which makes it difficult to explain the co-occurrence of cryptic species. Here, we investigated interspecific niche differentiation within a complex of cryptic bumblebee species that co-occur extensively in the United Kingdom. We compared the interspecific variation along different niche dimensions, to determine how they partition...

Data from: Genetic variation and clonal diversity in introduced populations of Mimulus guttatus assessed by genotyping at 62 single nucleotide polymorphism loci

Pauline O. Pantoja, Violeta I. Simon-Porcar, Joshua R. Puzey & Mario Vallejo-Marin
Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are increasingly being used to study non-native populations. SNPs are relatively information poor on a per locus basis, but allow genotyping more loci than others markers (e.g., microsatellites) and have the advantage of consistent allele calls between studies. Aims: We investigated the utility of a newly developed set of SNP markers, suitable for high throughput genotyping to characterise genotypic variation and population structure in non-native populations of the facultative clonal...

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