Environmental conditions experienced during early growth and development markedly shape phenotypic traits. Consequently, individuals of the same cohort may show similar life-history tactics throughout life. Conditions experienced later in life, however, could fine-tune these initial differences, either increasing (cumulative effect) or decreasing (compensatory effect) the magnitude of cohort variation with increasing age. Our novel comparative analysis that quantifies cohort variation in individual body size trajectories shows that initial cohort variation dissipates throughout life, and that...
Climate changes in the Arctic are predicted to alter distributions of marine species. However, such changes are difficult to quantify because information on present species distribution and the genetic variation within species is lacking or poorly examined. Blue mussels, Mytilus spp. are ecosystem engineers in the coastal zone globally. In order to improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp....
Data from: Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphisms as tools to detect hybridization and population structure in freshwater stingraysVanessa Paes Cruz, Manuel Vera, Belén Gomes Pardo, John Taggart, Paulino Martinez, Claudio Oliveira & Fausto Foresti
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified and validated for two stingrays species, Potamotrygon motoro and Potamotrygon falkneri, using double digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) reads using 454-Roche technology. A total of 226 774 reads (65.5 Mb) were obtained (mean read length 289 ± 183 bp) detecting a total of 5399 contigs (mean contig length: 396 ± 91 bp). Mining this data set, a panel of 143 in silico SNPs was selected. Eighty-two of these...
Data from: Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquacultureZ. Ibarra-Zatarain, Elvira Fatsini, Sonia Rey, Olvido Chereguini, Ignacio Martin, Inmaculada Rasines, Carles Alcaraz, Neil Duncan, S. Rey, O. Chereguini, I. Martin & I. Rasines
The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests,...
Why is sex ubiquitous when asexual reproduction is much less costly? Sex disrupts coadapted gene complexes; it also causes costs associated with mate finding and the production of males who do not themselves bear offspring. Theory predicts parasites select for host sex, because genetically variable offspring can escape infection from parasites adapted to infect the previous generations. We examine this using a facultative sexual crustacean, Daphnia magna, and its sterilizing bacterial parasite, Pasteuria ramosa. We...
Data from: Bergmann's body size rule operates in facultatively endothermic insects: evidence from a complex of cryptic bumblebee speciesJessica J. Scriven, Penelope R. Whitehorn, Dave Goulson & Matthew C. Tinsley
According to Bergmann’s rule we expect species with larger body size to inhabit locations with a cooler climate, where they may be well adapted to conserve heat and resist starvation. This rule is generally applied to endotherms. In contrast, body size in ectothermic invertebrates has been suggested to follow the reverse ecogeographic trend: these converse Bergmann’s patterns may be driven by the ecological constraints of shorter season length and lower food availability in cooler high...
Competition theory states that multiple species should not be able to occupy the same niche indefinitely. Morphologically, similar species are expected to be ecologically alike and exhibit little niche differentiation, which makes it difficult to explain the co-occurrence of cryptic species. Here, we investigated interspecific niche differentiation within a complex of cryptic bumblebee species that co-occur extensively in the United Kingdom. We compared the interspecific variation along different niche dimensions, to determine how they partition...
Data from: Net assimilation rate determines the growth rates of 14 species of subtropical forest treesXuefei Li, Bernhard Schmid, Fei Wang & C. E. Timothy Paine
Growth rates are of fundamental importance for plants, as individual size affects myriad ecological processes. We determined the factors that generate variation in RGR among 14 species of trees and shrubs that are abundant in subtropical Chinese forests. We grew seedlings for two years at four light levels in a shade-house experiment. We monitored the growth of every juvenile plant every two weeks. After one and two years, we destructively harvested individuals and measured their...
Data from: Mating opportunities and energetic constraints drive variation in age-dependent sexual signallingThomas M. Houslay, Kirsty F. Houslay, James Rapkin, John Hunt & Luc F. Bussiere
When males repeatedly produce energetically expensive sexual signals, trade-offs between current and future investment can cause plasticity in age-dependent signalling. Such variation is often interpreted as alternate adaptive strategies: live fast and die young vs. slow and steady. An alternative (yet rarely tested) explanation is that condition-dependent constraints on allocation cause variation in signalling with age (‘late bloomers’ do not have early investment options). Testing this hypothesis is challenging because resource acquisition and allocation are...
Data from: A trait-based trade-off between growth and mortality: evidence from 15 tropical tree species using size-specific RGRsChristopher D. Philipson, Daisy H. Dent, Michael J. O’Brien, Juliette Chamagne, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, Reuben Nilus, Sam Philips, Glen Reynolds, Philippe Saner, Andy Hector & Michael J. O'Brien
A life-history trade-off between low mortality in the dark and rapid growth in the light is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms underlying plant ecological strategies in tropical forests. Differences in plant functional traits are thought to underlie these distinct ecological strategies; however, very few studies have shown relationships between functional traits and demographic rates within a functional group. We present 8 years of growth and mortality data from saplings of 15 species of...
Helicoverpa armigera is a major agricultural pest that is distributed across Europe, Asia, Africa and Australasia. This species is hypothesized to have spread to the Americas 1.5 million years ago, founding a population that is at present, a distinct species, Helicoverpa zea. In 2013, H. armigera was confirmed to have re-entered South America via Brazil and subsequently spread. The source of the recent incursion is unknown and population structure in H. armigera is poorly resolved,...
University of Stirling11
University of Sussex2
The Arctic University of Norway2
University of Zurich2
Spanish Institute of Oceanography1
Université de Sherbrooke1
University of Melbourne1
University of Edinburgh1
University of Lyon System1
University of Girona1
Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage1
University of Santiago de Compostela1
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute1
University Centre in Svalbard1