438 Works

Antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers in the Thames catchment

A.C. Singer, Järhult, R. Grabic, G.A. Khan, R.H. Lindberg, G. Fedorova, J. Fick, M.J. Bowes, B. Olsen & H. Söderström
This dataset contains the concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate, measured at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England. The measurements were taken weekly during November 2009, once in March 2010 and once in May 2011, with the aim to quantify pharmaceutical usage during the influenza pandemic of 2009 and...

Cortical microstructural correlates of astrocytosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

Eduard Vilaplana, Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez, Daniel Ferreira, Victor Montal, Ove Almkvist, Anders Wall, Alberto Lleo, Eric Westman, Caroline Graff, Juan Fortea & Agneta Nordberg
Objective To study the macrostructural and microstructural MRI correlates of brain astrocytosis, measured with 11C-deuterium-L-deprenyl (11C-DED)–PET, in familial autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). Methods The total sample (n = 31) comprised ADAD mutation carriers (n = 10 presymptomatic, 39.2 ± 10.6 years old; n = 3 symptomatic, 55.5 ± 2.0 years old) and noncarriers (n = 18, 44.0 ± 13.7 years old) belonging to families with mutations in either the presenilin-1 or amyloid precursor protein...

Data from: Postglacial colonization routes coincide with a life history breakpoint along a latitudinal gradient

Emilien Luquet, Patrik Rödin-Mörch, Maria Cortazar-Chinarro, Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Jacob Höglund & Anssi Laurila
While adaptive divergence along environmental gradients has repeatedly been demonstrated, the role of postglacial colonization routes in determining phenotypic variation along gradients has received little attention. Here we used a hierarchical QST-FST approach to separate the roles of adaptive and neutral processes in shaping phenotypic variation in moor frog (Rana arvalis) larval life-histories along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient across northern Europe. This species has colonized Scandinavia via two routes with a contact zone in...

Data from: Broad-scale patterns of the Afro-Palearctic landbird migration

Martins Briedis, Silke Bauer, Peter Adamík, José Alves, Joana Costa, Tamara Emmenegger, Lars Gustafsson, Jaroslav Koleček, Miloš Krist, Felix Liechti, Simeon Lisovski, Christoph Meier, Petr Procházka & Steffen Hahn
Aim: Animal migration strategies balance trade-offs between mortality and reproduction in seasonal environments. Knowledge of broad-scale biogeographical patterns of animal migration is important for understanding ecological drivers of migratory behaviours. Here we present a flyway-scale assessment of the spatial structure and seasonal dynamics of the Afro-Palearctic bird migration system and explore how phenology of the environment guides long-distance migration. Location: Europe and Africa. Time period: 2009–2017. Major taxa studied: Birds. Methods: We compiled an individual-based...

Dietary Restriction Improves Fitness of Aging Parents But Reduces Fitness of Their Offspring in Nematodes

Brian Mautz, Martin I Lind & Alexei A Maklakov
Abstract Dietary restriction (DR) is a well-established intervention to extend lifespan across taxa. Recent studies suggest that DR-driven lifespan extension can be cost-free, calling into question a central tenant of the evolutionary theory of aging. Nevertheless, boosting parental longevity can reduce offspring fitness. Such intergenerational trade-offs are often ignored but can account for the “missing costs” of longevity. Here, we use the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei to test for effects of DR by fasting on fitness...

Data from: Trade-off between somatic and germline repair in a vertebrate supports the expensive germ line hypothesis

Simone Immler, Hwei-Yen Chen, Kasparas Bublys, Cecile Jolly & Daniel Marcu
The disposable soma theory is a central tenet of the biology of aging where germline immortality comes at the cost of an aging soma [T. B. L. Kirkwood, Nature 270, 301–304 (1977); T. B. L. Kirkwood, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 205, 531–546 (1979); T. B. L. Kirkwood, S. N. Austad, Nature 408, 233–238 (2000)]. Limited resources and a possible trade-off between the repair and maintenance of the germ cells and growth and...

High variation in last male sperm precedence and genital morphology in the emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa

Frank Johansson, David Berger, Jacob Höglund, Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Patrik Rödin-Mörch, Szymon Sniegula & Phillip Watts
In organisms where individuals mate multiply, knowledge on the proportion of offspring sired by the last male to mate (P2) under field conditions is important for a thorough understanding of how sexual selection works in nature. In many insect groups, pronounced intraspecific variation in P2 is commonplace. Interestingly, however, in stark contrast to these observations, compilation of P2 data in dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) indicate that a high P2, seldom below 0.95, is a feature...

Data from: Algal affinity and possible life cycle of the early Cambrian acritarch Yurtusia uniformis from South China

Xiaodong Shang, Pengju Liu, Małgorzata Moczydłowska & Ben Yang
Abundant, well-preserved specimens of spheroidal organic-walled microfossil Yurtusia uniformis are reported from the basal Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Changyang area of Hubei Province, South China. Thin and hollow processes extend between the double walls of the vesicle. The single to multiple internal bodies within the vesicle cavity are observed in the genus for the first time, representing reproductive structures (dividing daughter cells). A small circular perforation may occur on the vesicle wall to release...

Data from: Ontogenetic changes in genetic variances of age-dependent plasticity along a latitudinal gradient

Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, Bjorn Rogell, Robby Stoks & Frank Johansson
The expression of phenotypic plasticity may differ among life stages of the same organism. Age-dependent plasticity can be important for adaptation to heterogeneous environments, but this has only recently been recognized. Whether age-dependent plasticity is a common outcome of local adaptation and whether populations harbor genetic variation in this respect remains largely unknown. To answer these questions, we estimated levels of additive genetic variation in age-dependent plasticity in six species of damselflies sampled from 18...

Data from: The effects of male social environment on sperm phenotype and genome integrity

Willian T.A.F. Silva, Paula Saez-Espinosa, Stephanie Torijo Boix, Alejandro Romero, Caroline Devaux, Mathilde Durieux, Maria Jose Gomez Torres & Simone Immler
Sperm function and quality are primary determinants of male reproductive performance and hence fitness. The presence of rival males has been shown to affect ejaculate and sperm traits in a wide range of taxa. However, male physiological conditions may not only affect sperm phenotypic traits but also their genetic and epigenetic signatures, affecting the fitness of the resulting offspring. We investigated the effects of male-male competition on sperm quality using TUNEL assays and geometric morphometrics...

Data from: Scented nectar and the challenge of measuring honest signals in pollination

Amy Parachnowitsch, Rosalie Burdon, Rob Raguso, Robert Gegear, Ellen Pierce & André Kessler
1. Nectar scents are thought to function as honest signals of reward used by pollinators, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. 2. Using Penstemon digitalis, we examined honest signalling of the nectar volatile (S)-(+)-linalool and pollinator responses to linalool in both field and laboratory settings. Because our previous work showed that linalool emission was associated with higher female fitness and that nectar is scented with linalool, we hypothesized that linalool was an honest signal...

Supplemental materials of: Ignored biodiversity in acid soil islands in karst areas, South China: Impatiens longlinensis (Balsaminaceae), a new critically endangered species

Tian-Tian Xue, Chang-Ying Xia, Magnus Lidén, Wei-Bin Xu, Zhao-Cen Lu, Hai-Ling Chen, Shu-Wan Li & Sheng-Xiang Yu
The karst area in South China is notable for its fragile vegetation and unique flora with many narrow endemics, and is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, the biodiversity of acid soil areas scattered in the karst area have previously been underestimated. With a recent increase of new discoveries of plants and animals, the conservation of biodiversity in these acid soil areas has become urgent. This study deals with a...

Data from: Regulation of fatty acid composition related to ontogenetic changes and niche differentiation of a common aquatic consumer

Fernando Chaguaceda, Scharnweber Kristin & Peter Eklöv
Fatty acids (FAs) are key nutrients for fitness which take part in multiple physiological processes over the ontogeny of organisms. Yet, we lack evidence on how FA nutrition mediates life-history trade-offs and ontogenetic niche shifts in natural populations. In a field study, we analyzed ontogenetic changes in the FAs of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), a widespread fish that goes through ontogenetic niche shifts and can have high individual niche specialization. Diet explained most of...

Data from: The dipnoan buccal pump reconstructed in 3D and implications for air breathing in Devonian lungfishes

Alice M. Clement, John A. Long, Paul Tafforeau & Per E. Ahlberg
Lungfishes are known for, and indeed take their name from, their bimodal respiratory abilities. All three extant genera can use their lungs to extract oxygen from the atmosphere, although their reliance upon this capability differs among taxa. Lungs are considered primitive for the Osteichthyes, however the distinctive buccal pump mode of air gulping exhibited by extant lungfishes appears to be a specialization. It is associated with a number of derived skeletal characters (cranial ribs, long...

Data from: Disruption of memory reconsolidation erases a fear memory trace in the human amygdala: An 18-month follow-up

Johannes Björkstrand, Thomas Agren, Andreas Frick, Jonas Engman, Elna-Marie Larsson, Tomas Furmark & Mats Fredrikson
Fear memories can be attenuated by reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we recently showed that reactivation and reconsolidation of a conditioned fear memory trace in the basolateral amygdala predicts subsequent fear expression over two days, while reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation abolishes the memory trace and suppresses fear. In this follow-up study we demonstrate that the behavioral effect persists over 18 months reflected in superior reacquisition after undisrupted, as compared...

Data from: The consequences of sexual selection in well-adapted and maladapted populations of bean beetles

Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Uroš Savković, Mirko Đorđević, Göran Arnqvist, Biljana Stojkovic & David Berger
Whether sexual selection generally promotes or impedes population persistence remains an open question. Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) can render sexual selection in males detrimental to the population by increasing the frequency of alleles with positive effects on male reproductive success but negative effects on female fecundity. Recent modelling based on fitness landscape theory, however, indicates that the relative impact of IaSC may be reduced in maladapted populations and that sexual selection therefore might promote adaptation...

Data from: Identification of Swedish mosquitoes based on molecular barcoding of the COI gene and SNP analysis

Cecilia Engdahl, Pär Larsson, Jonas Näslund, Mayra Bravo, Magnus Evander, Jan O. Lundstrom, Clas Ahlm & Göran Bucht
Mosquito-borne infectious diseases are emerging in many regions of the world. Consequently, surveillance of mosquitoes and concomitant infectious agents is of great importance for prediction and prevention of mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Currently, morphological identification of mosquitoes is the traditional procedure. However, sequencing of specified genes or standard genomic regions, DNA barcoding, has recently been suggested as a global standard for identification and classification of many different species. Our aim was to develop a genetic method...

Data from: Spatio-temporal dynamics of impulse responses to figure motion in optic flow neurons

Yu-Jen Lee, Olof H. Jönsson & Karin Nordström
White noise techniques have been used widely to investigate sensory systems in both vertebrates and invertebrates. White noise stimuli are powerful in their ability to rapidly generate data that help the experimenter decipher the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural and behavioral responses. One type of white noise stimuli, maximal length shift register sequences (m-sequences), have recently become particularly popular for extracting response kernels in insect motion vision. We here use such m-sequences to extract the impulse...

Data from: Temporal variation of Bistorta vivipara-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the High Arctic

Sunil Mundra, Mohammad Bahram, Leho Tedersoo, Håvard Kauserud, Rune Halvorsen, Pernille Eidesen & Pernille Bronken Eidesen
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important for efficient nutrient uptake of several widespread arctic plant species. Knowledge of temporal variation of ECM fungi, and the relationship of these patterns to environmental variables, is essential to understand energy and nutrient cycling in Arctic ecosystems. We sampled roots of Bistorta vivipara ten times over two years; three times during the growing-season (June, July and September) and twice during winter (November and April) of both years. We found 668...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: The influence of habitat accessibility on the dietary and morphological specialisation of an aquatic predator

Maria H.K. Marklund, Richard Svanbäck, Yinghua Zha, Kristin Scharnweber, Peter Eklov & Maria H. K. Marklund
Individual diet and habitat specialisation are widespread in animal taxa and often related to levels of predation and competition. Mobile consumers such as predatory fish can stabilise lake food webs by ranging over a larger area than their prey, thereby switching between habitats. Although, this switching assumes that the predator has equal preference for the available prey, individual diet specialisation and morphological adaptations to different habitats could potentially prevent individuals from switching between habitats. In...

Data from: Rapid and unpredictable changes of the G-matrix in a natural bird population over 25 years

Mats Björklund, Arild Husby & Lars Gustafsson
Knowledge of the genetic variances and covariances of traits (the G-matrix) is fundamental for the understanding of evolutionary dynamics of populations. Despite its essential importance in evolutionary studies, empirical tests of the temporal stability of the G-matrix in natural populations are few. We used a 25-year-long individual-based field study on almost 7000 breeding attempts of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to estimate the stability of the G-matrix over time. Using animal models to estimate G...

Data from: Demographic expansion and genetic load of the halophyte model plant Eutrema salsugineum

Xiao-Juan Wang, Quan-Jun Hu, Xin-Yi Guo, Kun Wang, Da-Fu Ru, Dmitry A. German, Elizabeth A. Weretilnyk, Richard J. Abbott, Martin Lascoux & Jian-Quan Liu
Eutrema salsugineum is a widely distributed species, which provide a good model to study long-distance dispersal and accumulation of deleterious mutations. Based on population genomic data, we clarified demographic history of E. salsugineum and showed how deleterious alleles accumulated.

Data from: Northeast African genomic variation shaped by the continuity of indigenous groups and Eurasian migrations

Nina Hollfelder, Carina M. Schlebusch, Torsten Günther, Hiba Babiker, Hisham Y. Hassan & Mattias Jakobsson
Northeast Africa has a long history of human habitation, with fossil-finds from the earliest anatomically modern humans, and housing ancient civilizations. The region is also the gate-way out of Africa, as well as a portal for migration into Africa from Eurasia via the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula. We investigate the population history of northeast Africa by genotyping ~3.9 million SNPs in 221 individuals from 18 populations sampled in Sudan and South Sudan and...

Data from: Haploid selection within a single ejaculate increases offspring fitness

Ghazal Alavioon, Cosima Hotzy, Khriezhanuo Nakhro, Sandra Rudolf, Douglas Scofield, Susanne Zajitschek, Alexei Maklakov & Simone Immler
An inescapable consequence of sex in eukaryotes is the evolution of a biphasic life cycle with alternating diploid and haploid phases. The occurrence of selection during the haploid phase can have far-reaching consequences for fundamental evolutionary processes including the rate of adaptation, the extent of inbreeding depression, and the load of deleterious mutations, as well as for applied research into fertilization technology. Although haploid selection is well established in plants, current dogma assumes that in...

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