41 Works

Circumpolar boreal forest burnt area

C. George, F. Gerard & H. Balzter
Burnt areas are presented with a daily date of burn at 500m resolution for the circumpolar boreal forest zone. The dataset comprises eleven tiff files, one for each year: 2001 to 2011. The aim of this dataset is the improved understanding of spatio-temporal patterns and dynamics of boreal fire intensity and extent, the driving factors behind these variations, and the consequence for carbon fluxes for the whole boreal area. The source data for the daily...

Corine land cover 2012 for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey

B. Cole, S. King, B. Ogutu, D. Palmer, G. Smith & H. Balzter
This dataset for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey contains the Corine Land Cover (CLC) for 2012 (CLC2012). This dataset has been created from combining the 2012 land cover layers from the individual CLC files for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey. CLC is a dataset produced within the frame of the Initial Operations of the Copernicus programme (the European Earth monitoring programme previously known as GMES) on land monitoring. CLC provides consistent information on land cover...

Corine land cover 2006 (revised) for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey

B. Cole, S. King, B. Ogutu, D. Palmer, G. Smith & H. Balzter
This dataset for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey contains the Corine Land Cover (CLC) revised for 2006. This shapefile has been created from combining the 2006 land cover layers from the individual CLC database files for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey. CLC is a dataset produced within the frame of the Initial Operations of the Copernicus programme (the European Earth monitoring programme previously known as GMES) on land monitoring. CLC provides consistent information on land...

Corine land cover changes between 2006 and 2012 for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey

B. Cole, S. King, B. Ogutu, D. Palmer, G. Smith & H. Balzter
This dataset for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey contains the Corine Land Cover (CLC) changes between 2006 and 2012. This shapefile has been created by combining the land cover change layers from the individual CLC database files for the UK, Jersey and Guernsey. CLC is a dataset produced within the frame of the Initial Operations of the Copernicus programme (the European Earth monitoring programme previously known as GMES) on land monitoring. CLC provides consistent information...

Innate anti-predator behavior can promote infection in fish even in the absence of predators

Victor Mikheev, Anna Pasternak, Andrey Morozov & Jouni Taskinen
Natural enemies - predators and parasites - largely shape the dynamics of ecosystems. It is known that anti-predator and anti-parasite defense can be mutually conflicting, however consequences of this trade-off for the regulation of infection burden in animals are still poorly understood. We hypothesize that even in the absence of cues from predators, innate anti-predator behavior (“ghost of predation past”) interferes with defense against parasites and can enhance the infection risk. As a case study,...

Data from: The molecular evolution of spiggin nesting glue in sticklebacks

Paul J. Seear, Ezio Rosato, William P. Goodall-Copestake, Iain Barber, W. P. Goodall-Copestake, P. J. Seear, I. Barber & E. Rosato
Gene duplication and subsequent divergence can lead to the evolution of new functions and lineage-specific traits. In sticklebacks, the successive duplication of a mucin gene (MUC19) into a tandemly arrayed, multigene family has enabled the production of copious amounts of ‘spiggin’, a secreted adhesive protein essential for nest construction. Here, we examine divergence between spiggin genes among three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from ancestral marine and derived freshwater populations, and propose underpinning gene duplication mechanisms. Sanger...

Data from: Patient and staff perceptions of intradialytic exercise before and after implementation: a qualitative study

Hannah M. L. Young, Nicky Hudson, Amy L. Clarke, Maurice Dungey, John Feehally, James O. Burton & Alice C. Smith
Introduction: Despite guidance and evidence for the beneficial effects of intradialytic exercise (IDE), such programmes are rarely adopted within practice and little is known about how they may best be sustained. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was used to guide the understanding of the barriers and facilitators to initial and ongoing IDE participation and to understand how these are influential at each stage. Materials and Methods: Focus groups explored patient (n=24) and staff (n=9) perceptions...

Data from: A novel respiratory architecture in the Silurian mollusc Acaenoplax

Christopher D. Dean, Mark D. Sutton, Derek J. Siveter & David J. Siveter
Extant aplacophorans, a group of shell-less vermiform molluscs, respire through appendages within or projecting from a posterior cavity. Respiratory structures differ between the subclasses Caudofoveata (ctenidia within the cavity) and Solenogastres (folds of the mantle itself). Acaenoplax hayae, a Silurian vermiform mollusc from the Herefordshire Lagerstätte, England, exhibits characteristics of both these groups. While recent work places it within the crown group Aplacophora, near the caudofoveates, initial observations suggested that its respiratory structures were closer...

Data from: Genetic analysis of circadian responses to low frequency electromagnetic fields in Drosophila melanogaster

Giorgio Fedele, Matthew D. Edwards, Supriya Bhutani, John M. Hares, Manuel Murbach, Edward W. Green, Stephane Dissel, Michael H. Hastings, Ezio Rosato, Charalambos P. Kyriacou & Mathew D. Edwards
The blue-light sensitive photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY) may act as a magneto-receptor through formation of radical pairs involving a triad of tryptophans. Previous genetic analyses of behavioral responses of Drosophila to electromagnetic fields using conditioning, circadian and geotaxis assays have lent some support to the radical pair model (RPM). Here, we describe a new method that generates consistent and reliable circadian responses to electromagnetic fields that differ substantially from those already reported. We used the Schuderer...

Data from: Lysine-14 acetylation of histone H3 in chromatin confers resistance to the deacetylase and demethylase activities of an epigenetic silencing complex

Mingxuan Wu, Dawn Hayward, Jay H. Kalin, Yun Song, John W.R. Schwabe, Philip A. Cole, Jay H Kalin, Philip A Cole & John WR Schwabe
The core CoREST complex (LHC) contains histone deacetylase HDAC1 and histone demethylase LSD1 held together by the scaffold protein CoREST. Here we analyze the purified LHC with modified peptide and reconstituted semisynthetic mononucleosome substrates. LHC demethylase activity toward methyl-Lys4 in histone H3 is strongly inhibited by H3 Lys14 acetylation, and this appears to be an intrinsic property of the LSD1 subunit. Moreover, the deacetylase selectivity of LHC unexpectedly shows a marked preference for H3 acetyl-Lys9...

Data from: Identification of the Beagle 2 lander on Mars

John C. Bridges, Jim Clemmet, Michael Croon, Mark R. Sims, Derek Pullan, Jan-Peter Muller, Yu Tao, Xiong Xiong, Alfiah R. Putri, Tim Parker, Stuart M. R. Turner, Judith M. Pillinger, J. C. Bridges, D. Pullan, M. R. Sims, S. M. R. Turner, J. M. Pillinger & A. R. Putri
The 2003 Beagle 2 Mars lander has been identified in Isidis Planitia at 90.43° E, 11.53° N, close to the predicted target of 90.50° E, 11.53° N. Beagle 2 was an exobiology lander designed to look for isotopic and compositional signs of life on Mars, as part of the European Space Agency Mars Express (MEX) mission. The 2004 recalculation of the original landing ellipse from a 3-sigma major axis from 174 km to 57 km,...

Data from: A new Mississippian tetrapod from Fife, Scotland, and its environmental context

Timothy R. Smithson, Michael A. E. Browne, Sarah J. Davies, John E. A. Marshall, David Millward, Stig A. Walsh, Jennifer A. Clack & Sarah J Davies
The Visean stage of the Mississippian was a time of rapid tetrapod diversification which marks the earliest appearance of temnospondyls, microsaurs and the limbless aïstopods. Tetrapod finds from this stage are very rare and only a dozen sites are known worldwide. Here we announce the discovery of a new Visean site in Fife, Scotland, of Asbian age, and from it describe a new species of the baphetoid Spathicephalus. These specimens represent the oldest known baphetoid...

Data from: Nonselective bottlenecks control the divergence and diversification of phase-variable bacterial populations

Jack Aidley, Shweta Rajopadhye, Nwanekka M. Akinyemi, Lea Lango-Scholey & Christopher D. Bayliss
Phase variation occurs in many pathogenic and commensal bacteria and is a major generator of genetic variability. A putative advantage of phase variation is to counter reductions in variability imposed by nonselective bottlenecks during transmission. Genomes of Campylobacter jejuni, a widespread food-borne pathogen, contain multiple phase-variable loci whose rapid, stochastic variation is generated by hypermutable simple sequence repeat tracts. These loci can occupy a vast number of combinatorial expression states (phasotypes) enabling populations to rapidly...

Data from: Anaesthetic interventions for prevention of awareness during surgery

Anthony G. Messina, Michael Wang, Marshall J. Ward, Chase C. Wilker, Brett B. Smith, Daniel P. Vezina, Nathan Pace, Nathan Leon Pace, Brett B Smith, Anthony G Messina & Daniel P Vezina
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia is usually associated with unconsciousness. 'Awareness' is when patients have postoperative recall of events or experiences during surgery. 'Wakefulness' is when patients become conscious during surgery, but have no postoperative recollection of the period of consciousness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two types of anaesthetic interventions in reducing clinically significant awareness: - anaesthetic drug regimens; and - intraoperative anaesthetic depth monitors. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled...

Data from: High throughput method for analysis of repeat number for 28 phase variable loci of Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168

Lea Lango-Scholey, Jack Aidley, Alexandra Woodacre, Michael A. Jones & Christopher D. Bayliss
Mutations in simple sequence repeat tracts are a major mechanism of phase variation in several bacterial species including Campylobacter jejuni. Changes in repeat number of tracts located within the reading frame can produce a high frequency of reversible switches in gene expression between ON and OFF states. The genome of C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 contains 29 loci with polyG/polyC tracts of seven or more repeats. This protocol outlines a method—the 28-locus-CJ11168 PV-analysis assay—for rapidly determining...

Data from: Simulated annealing approach to vascular structure with application to the coronary arteries

Jonathan Keelan, James P. Hague & Emma M. L. Chung
Do the complex processes of angiogenesis during organism development ultimately lead to a near optimal coronary vasculature in the organs of adult mammals? We examine this hypothesis using a powerful and universal method, built on physical and physiological principles, for the determination of globally energetically optimal arterial trees. The method is based on simulated annealing, and can be used to examine arteries in hollow organs with arbitrary tissue geometries. We demonstrate that the approach can...

Data from: An edrioasteroid from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte of England reveals the nature of the water vascular system in an extinct echinoderm

Derek E. G. Briggs, Derek J. Siveter, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton & Imran A. Rahman
Echinoderms are unique in having a water vascular system with tube feet, which perform a variety of functions in living forms. Here, we report the first example of preserved tube feet in an extinct group of echinoderms. The material, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, UK, is assigned to a new genus and species of rhenopyrgid edrioasteroid, Heropyrgus disterminus. The tube feet attach to the inner surface of compound interradial plates and form two sets, an...

Data from: A three-dimensionally preserved lobopodian from the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte, UK

Derek J. Siveter, Derek E.G. Briggs, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton, David Legg & Derek E. G. Briggs
The Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstätte (c. 430 MYr BP) has yielded, amongst many exceptionally preserved invertebrates, a wide range of new genera belonging to crown-group Panarthropoda. Here we increase this panarthropod diversity with the lobopodian Thanahita distos, a new total-group panarthropod genus and species. This new lobopodian preserves at least nine paired, long, slender appendages, the anterior two in the head region and the posterior seven representing trunk lobopods. The body ends in a short post-appendicular...

Data from: The macro- and microfossil record of the middle Cambrian priapulid Ottoia

Martin R. Smith, Thomas H. P. Harvey & Nicholas J. Butterfield
The stem-group priapulid Ottoia Walcott, 1911, is the most abundant worm in the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale, but has not been unambiguously demonstrated elsewhere. High-resolution electron and optical microscopy of macroscopic Burgess Shale specimens reveals the detailed anatomy of its robust hooks, spines and pharyngeal teeth, establishing the presence of two species: Ottoia prolifica Walcott, 1911, and Ottoia tricuspida sp. nov. Direct comparison of these sclerotized elements with a suite of shale-hosted mid-to-late Cambrian microfossils extends...

Data from: Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic

Carl Smith, André Phillips & Martin Reichard
The ability to attract mates, acquire resources for reproduction, and successfully outcompete rivals for fertilizations may make demands on cognitive traits—the mechanisms by which an animal acquires, processes, stores and acts upon information from its environment. Consequently, cognitive traits potentially undergo sexual selection in some mating systems. We investigated the role of cognitive traits on the reproductive performance of male rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), a freshwater fish with a complex mating system and alternative mating...

Data from: A new exceptionally preserved Cambrian priapulid from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte

Xiaoya Ma, Richard J. Aldridge, David J. Siveter, Derek J. Siveter, Xianguang Hou & Gregory D. Edgecombe
A fossil priapulid, Eximipriapulus globocaudatus new genus new species, is described from the Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte of Yunnan, China. The exceptional preservation of the animal reveals morphological details that allow direct comparison with extant priapulids. The body is divisible into a partially eversible pharynx, a smooth collar, a scalid-bearing introvert, a neck with triangular scalids, an unsegmented trunk with annulations, and a distinctly expanded terminal region. Several specialized regions of the alimentary canal are recognized:...

Data from: Revisiting Brownian motion as a description of animal movement: a comparison to experimental movement data

Daniel Bearup, Carly M. Benefer, Sergei V. Petrovskii & Rod P. Blackshaw
Characterization of patterns of animal movement is a major challenge in ecology with applications to conservation, biological invasions and pest monitoring. Brownian random walks, and diffusive flux as their mean field counterpart, provide one framework in which to consider this problem. However, it remains subject to debate and controversy. This study presents a test of the diffusion framework using movement data obtained from controlled experiments. Walking beetles (Tenebrio molitor) were released in an open circular...

Data from: Environmental change mediates mate choice for an extended phenotype, but not for mate quality

Megan L. Head, Rebecca J. Fox & Iain Barber
Sexual cues, including extended phenotypes, are expected to be reliable indicators of male genetic quality and/or provide information on parental quality. However, the reliability of these cues may be dependent on stability of the environment, with heterogeneity affecting how selection acts on such traits. Here we test how environmental change mediates mate choice for multiple sexual traits, including an extended phenotype – the structure of male-built nests – in stickleback fish. First, we manipulated the...

Data from: Neofunctionalization within the Omp85 protein superfamily during chloroplast evolution

Mats Töpel, Qihua Ling & Paul Jarvis
The Toc75 and OEP80 proteins reside in the chloroplast outer envelope membrane. Both are members of the Omp85 superfamily of β-barrel proteins, and both are essential in Arabidopsis plants with important roles throughout development. Toc75 forms the translocation channel of the TOC complex, which is responsible for importing nucleus-encoded proteins into chloroplasts, while the function of OEP80 remains uncertain. Deficiency of Toc75 in plants that have artificially reduced OEP80 levels suggests that the latter may...

Data from: Microtopographic specialization and flexibility in tropical peat swamp forest tree species

Cathryn A. Freund, Fransiskus A. Harsanto, Ari Purwanto, Hidenori Takahashi & Mark E. Harrison
Tropical tree species distributions are determined by a wide range of biotic and abiotic factors, including topography and hydrology. Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSFs) are characterized in part by small-scale variations in topography (‘hummocks’ and ‘hollows’) that create distinct microhabitats and thus may contribute to niche diversification among TPSF tree species. Using tree elevations calibrated to daily peat water levels collected using a data logger and a permutation test, we evaluated topographical microhabitat preferences for...

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