111 Works

Soil moisture, temperature and bulk density and earthworm abundance and biomass along transects from hedges into arable fields, pasture fields, ley strips established in arable fields and arable strips established in pasture fields at a farm in West Yorkshire, England (2015-2017)

M.T. Prendergast-Miller, D.T. Jones & M.E. Hodson
Data are presented on earthworm abundance with distance from hedgerows was recorded for arable fields and pasture leys at Spens farm, the University of Leeds experiment farms, Yorkshire. Sampling was carried out annual from April 2015 to April 2017 with additional sampling in December 2015, and July and October 2016. Pits were excavated and soil hand sorted for earthworms. Mustard solution was then poured into the pit and any emerging earthworms collected. All earthworms were...

Soil moisture, temperature and bulk density and earthworm abundance and biomass along transects in arable fields and ley strips in farms in North Yorkshire, England (2016)

M.T. Prendergast-Miller, D.T. Jones & M.E. Hodson
Data are presented on earthworm abundance with distance from hedgerows was recorded for arable fields and pasture leys at farms at Little Langton, Hutton Wandesley, Overton and Whenby, Yorkshire. Sampling was carried out 12 to 26th May 2016. Pits were excavated and soil hand sorted for earthworms. Mustard solution was then poured into the pit and any emerging earthworms collected. All earthworms were preserved in ethanol for identification using the Sims and Gerard Field studies...

Insect species richness for each plant species and insect-plant interactions from the Database of Insects and their Food Plants [DBIF]

R. Padovani, L. Ward, R. M. Smith, M. J. O. Pocock & D. B. Roy
This dataset consists of 4,397 insect species associated with 679 native plant species, 120 archaeophytes, and 223 neophytes from the Database of Insects and their Food Plants (DBIF). The DBIF details approximately 60,000 interactions between phytophagous insect (and mite) species and plants recorded in Great Britain over the last century, based on a wide variety of sources, including entomological journals and field guides. The data here represents a reduced subset of the full DBIF (13,277...

Tracking the Near East origins and European dispersal of the house mouse

Thomas CUCCHI, Katerina Papayianni, Sophie Cersoy, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Antoine Zazzo, Régis Debruyne, Rémi Berthon, Adrian Bălășescu, Alan Simmons, François Valla, Yannis Hamilakis, Fanis Mavridis, Marjan Mashkour, Jamshid Darvish, Roohollah Siahsarvi, Fereidoun Biglari, Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks, Alireza Sardari, Sepideh Maziar, Christiane Denys, David Orton, Emma Jenkins, Melinda Zeder, Jeremy B. Searle … & Jean-Denis Vigne
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most invasive mammals and an evolutionary model. However, the timing and components of its origin and dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent biological invasion during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, dating between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometris numerical taxonomy with ancient mitochondrial DNA...

Soil moisture, temperature and bulk density and earthworm abundance and biomass along transects from hedges into arable fields, pasture fields, ley strips established in arable fields and arable strips established in pasture fields at a farm in West Yorkshire.

M.T. Prendergast-Miller & M. E. Hodson
Data are presented on earthworm abundance with distance from hedgerows was recorded for arable fields and pasture leys at Spens farm, the University of Leeds experiment farms, Yorkshire. Sampling was carried out annual from April 2015 to April 2017 with additional sampling in December 2015, and July and October 2016. Pits were excavated and soil hand sorted for earthworms. Mustard solution was then poured into the pit and any emerging earthworms collected. All earthworms were...

Photosynthesis of Trifolium repens versus Lolium perenne after ozone exposure in solardomes

F. Hayes, G. Mills & M. Ashmore
The dataset consists of ACi (net CO2 assimilation rate, A, versus calculated substomatal CO2 concentration, Ci) curve data from an ozone experiment during which Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne were exposed as both monocultures and two-species mixtures to an episodic rural ozone regime in large, well-watered containers within solardomes for 12 weeks. Treatments were elevated ozone (AOT40 (Accumulated Ozone Threshold exposure of 40 parts per billion) of 12.86 ppm h) or control conditions (AOT40 of...

Soil moisture, temperature and bulk density and earthworm abundance and biomass along transects in arable fields and ley strips in farms in North Yorkshire, England

M.T. Prendergast-Miller & M.E. Hodson
Data are presented on earthworm abundance with distance from hedgerows was recorded for arable fields and pasture leys at farms at Little Langton, Hutton Wandesley, Overton and Whenby, Yorkshire. Sampling was carried out 12 – 26th May 2016. Pits were excavated and soil hand sorted for earthworms. Mustard solution was then poured into the pit and any emerging earthworms collected. All earthworms were preserved in ethanol for identification using the Sims and Gerard Field studies...

Population fragmentation drives up genetic diversity in signals of individual identity

Calvin Dytham & Michael Thom
Many species advertise their unique identity to conspecifics using dedicated individuality signals: one familiar example is human faces. But how unique in the global population do these signals need to be? While human faces are highly variable, each person interacts with many fewer individuals than are found in the total population. This raises the question of how evolutionary mechanisms drive up population-wide diversity when selection occurs at such a local level. We use an individual-based...

Data from: Helping decisions and kin recognition in long-tailed tits: is call similarity used to direct help towards kin?

Amy Leedale, Robert Lachlan, Elva Robinson & Ben Hatchwell
Most cooperative breeders live in discrete family groups, but in a minority, breeding populations comprise extended social networks of conspecifics that vary in relatedness. Selection for effective kin recognition may be expected for individuals in such kin neighbourhoods to maximise indirect fitness. Using a long-term social pedigree, molecular genetics, field observations and acoustic analyses, we examine how vocal similarity affects helping decisions in the long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus. Long-tailed tits are cooperative breeders in which...

Data from: Introduced plants as novel Anthropocene habitats for insects

Roberto Padovani, Andrew Salisbury, Helen Bostock, David Roy & Chris Thomas
Insect-plant interactions from an extensive field experiment spanning several years (2010-2016), which examined the insects sampled from 69 garden plant species that vary in their relatedness to the native flora of Great Britain. The 69 plant species were organised into 23 species triplets, with a third of the plots containing a mixture of native plant species, a third containing a mixture of non-native species closely related to the natives (‘congeners’), and the remaining third of...

Data from: Making Brexit work for the environment and livelihoods: delivering a stakeholder informed vision for agriculture and fisheries

Bryce D. Stewart, Charlotte Burns, Adam P. Hejnowicz, Viviane Gravey, Bethan C. O'Leary, Kevin Hicks, Fay M. Farstad & Susan E. Hartley
1. The UK’s decision to leave the EU has far-reaching implications for agriculture and fisheries. To ensure the future sustainability of UK agricultural and fisheries systems, we argue that it is essential to grasp the opportunity that Brexit is providing to develop integrated policies that improve the management and protection of the natural environments, upon which these industries rely. 2. This article advances a stakeholder informed vision of the future design of UK agriculture and...

Data from: Impact of predicted precipitation scenarios on multitrophic interactions

Ruth N. Wade, Alison J. Karley, Scott N. Johnson & Sue E. Hartley
1. Predicted changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events in the UK have the potential to disrupt terrestrial ecosystem function. However, responses of different trophic levels to these changes in rainfall patterns, and the underlying mechanisms, are not well characterised. 2. This study aimed to investigate how changes in both the quantity and frequency of rainfall events will affect the outcome of interactions between plants, insect herbivores (above- and below- ground) and...

Data from: Probabilistic divergence time estimation without branch lengths: dating the origins of dinosaurs, avian flight and crown birds

Graeme T. Lloyd, David W. Bapst, Matt Friedman, Katie E. Davis, K. E. Davis, M. Friedman, G. T. Lloyd & D. W. Bapst
Branch lengths—measured in character changes—are an essential requirement of clock-based divergence estimation, regardless of whether the fossil calibrations used represent nodes or tips. However, a separate set of divergence time approaches are typically used to date palaeontological trees, which may lack such branch lengths. Among these methods, sophisticated probabilistic approaches have recently emerged, in contrast with simpler algorithms relying on minimum node ages. Here, using a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for Mesozoic dinosaurs, we apply two...

Data from: Evidence for a pervasive ‘idling-mode’ activity template in flying and pedestrian insects

Andrew M. Reynolds, Hayley B. C. Jones, Jane K. Hill, Aislinn J. Pearson, Kenneth Wilson, Stephan Wolf, Ka S. Lim, Donald R. Reynolds, Jason W. Chapman, J. K. Hill, S. Wolf, K. Wilson, J. W. Chapman, H. B. C. Jones, K. S. Lim, A. J. Pearson, A. M. Reynolds & D. R. Reynolds
Understanding the complex movement patterns of animals in natural environments is a key objective of ‘movement ecology’. Complexity results from behavioural responses to external stimuli but can also arise spontaneously in their absence. Drawing on theoretical arguments about decision-making circuitry, we predict that the spontaneous patterns will be scale-free and universal, being independent of taxon and mode of locomotion. To test this hypothesis, we examined the activity patterns of the European honeybee, and multiple species...

Data from: Divergent evolutionary processes associated with colonization of offshore islands

Natália Martínková, Ross Barnett, Thomas Cucchi, Rahel Struchen, Marine Pascal, Michel Pascal, Martin C. Fischer, Thomas Higham, Selina Brace, Simon Y. W. Ho, Jean-Pierre Quéré, Paul O'Higgins, Laurent Excoffier, Gerald Heckel, A. Rus Hoelzel, Keith M. Dobney, Jeremy B. Searle & A. Rus Hoelzel
Oceanic islands have been a test ground for evolutionary theory, but here, we focus on the possibilities for evolutionary study created by offshore islands. These can be colonized through various means and by a wide range of species, including those with low dispersal capabilities. We use morphology, modern and ancient sequences of cytochrome b (cytb) and microsatellite genotypes to examine colonization history and evolutionary change associated with occupation of the Orkney archipelago by the common...

Data from: Relaxed phylogenetics and the Palaeoptera problem: resolving deep ancestral splits in the insect phylogeny

Jessica A. Thomas, John W. H. Trueman, Andrew Rambaut & John J. Welch
The order in which the three groups of winged insects diverged from their common ancestor has important implications for understanding the origin of insect flight. But despite this importance, the split between the Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies), Ephemeroptera (mayflies) and Neoptera (the other winged orders) remains very much unresolved. Indeed, previous studies have obtained strong apparent support for each of the three possible branching patterns. Here, we present a systematic reinvestigation of the basal pterygote...

Data from: Sexually dimorphic gene expression and transcriptome evolution provides mixed evidence for a fast‐Z effect in Heliconius

Ana Pinharanda, Marjolaine Rousselle, Simon H. Martin, Joseph J. Hanly, John W. Davey, Sujai Kumar, Nicolas Galtier, Chris D. Jiggins & Joe J. Hanly
Sex chromosomes have different evolutionary properties compared to autosomes due to their hemizygous nature. In particular, recessive mutations are more readily exposed to selection, which can lead to faster rates of molecular evolution. Here, we report patterns of gene expression and molecular evolution for a group of butterflies. First, we improve the completeness of the Heliconius melpomene reference annotation, a neotropical butterfly with a ZW sex determination system. Then, we analyse RNA from male and...

Data from: A practical introduction to microbial molecular ecology through the use of isolation chips

Anna M. Alessi, Kelly R. Redeker, James P.J. Chong & James P. J. Chong
In the context of anti-microbial resistance as one of the most serious issues faced globally by health providers, we explored a practical introduction to molecular microbial ecology. We designed field work and practical experiments for third year members of a four year undergraduate Masters Programme in which the students employed traditional and novel isolation techniques to identify antimicrobial activities from soil dwelling microorganisms. Students gained experience in isolating DNA from complex microbial communities, amplifying 16S...

Data from: Forgotten Mediterranean calving grounds of gray and North Atlantic right whales: evidence from Roman archaeological records

Ana S.L. Rodrigues, Anne Charpentier, Darío Bernal-Casasola, Armelle Gardeisen, Carlos Nores, José Antonio Pis Millán, Krista McGrath, Camilla F. Speller & Ana S. L. Rodrigues
Right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) were extirpated from the eastern North Atlantic by commercial whaling. Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) disappeared from the entire North Atlantic in still-mysterious circumstances. Here we test the hypotheses that both of these species previously occurred in the Mediterranean Sea, an area not currently considered part of their historical range. We used ancient DNA barcoding and collagen fingerprinting methods to taxonomically identify a rare set of 10 presumed whale bones from Roman...

Data from: Chimpanzee intellect: personality, performance and motivation with touchscreen tasks

Drew M. Altschul, Emma K. Wallace, Ruth Sonnweber, Masaki Tomonaga, Alex Weiss & Alexander Weiss
Human intellect is characterized by intercorrelated psychological domains, including intelligence, academic performance and personality. Higher openness is associated with higher intelligence and better academic performance, yet high performance among individuals is itself attributable to intelligence, not openness. High conscientiousness individuals, although not necessarily more intelligent, are better performers. Work with other species is not as extensive, yet animals display similar relationships between exploration- and persistence-related personality traits and performance on cognitive tasks. However, previous studies...

Data from: An experimental study of the putative mechanism of a synthetic autonomous rotary DNA nanomotor

Katherine E. Dunn, Mark C. Leake, Adam J. M. Wollman, Martin A. Trefzer, Steven Johnson, Andy M. Tyrrell, K. E. Dunn, S. Johnson, M. C. Leake, M. A. Trefzer, A. M. Tyrrell & A. J. M. Wollman
DNA has been used to construct a wide variety of nanoscale molecular devices. Inspiration for such synthetic molecular machines is frequently drawn from protein motors, which are naturally occurring and ubiquitous. However, despite the fact that rotary motors such as ATP synthase and the bacterial flagellar motor play extremely important roles in nature, very few rotary devices have been constructed using DNA. This paper describes an experimental study of the putative mechanism of a rotary...

Data from: Differential gene expression according to race and host plant in the pea aphid

Isobel Eyres, Julie Jaquiéry, Akiko Sugio, Ludovic Duvaux, Karim Gharbi, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Fabrice Legeai, Michaela Nelson, Jean-Christophe Simon, Carole M. Smadja, Roger Butlin & Julia Ferrari
Host-race formation in phytophagous insects is thought to provide the opportunity for local adaptation and subsequent ecological speciation. Studying gene expression differences amongst host races may help to identify phenotypes under (or resulting from) divergent selection and their genetic, molecular and physiological bases. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) comprises host races specializing on numerous plants in the Fabaceae and provides a unique system for examining the early stages of diversification along a gradient of genetic...

Data from: Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears

Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Aurora Grandal-D'Anglade, Ben Kolbe, Daniel Fernandes, Ioana N. Meleg, Ana Garcia-Vazquez, Ana C. Pinto-Llona, Silviu Constantin, Trino J. De Torres, Jose E. Ortiz, Christine Frischauf, Gernot Rabeder, Michael Hofreiter, Axel Barlow & Gloria G. Fortes
Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost...

Data from: The ecology of wildlife disease surveillance: demographic and prevalence fluctuations undermine surveillance

Laura Walton, Glenn Marion, Ross S. Davidson, Piran C. L. White, Lesley A. Smith, Dolores Gavier-Widen, Lisa Yon, Duncan Hannant, Michael R. Hutchings & Piran C.L. White
Wildlife disease surveillance is the first line of defence against infectious disease. Fluctuations in host populations and disease prevalence are a known feature of wildlife disease systems. However, the impact of such heterogeneities on the performance of surveillance is currently poorly understood. We present the first systematic exploration of the effects of fluctuations' prevalence and host population size on the efficacy of wildlife disease surveillance systems. In this study, efficacy is measured in terms of...

Data from: Evolutionary novelty in a butterfly wing pattern through enhancer shuffling

Richard W. R. Wallbank, Simon W. Baxter, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Joseph J. Hanly, Simon H. Martin, James Mallet, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, Camilo Salazar, Mathieu Joron, Nicola Nadeau, W. Owen McMillan & Chris D. Jiggins
An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in...

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