52 Works

Social relationships, social status, and survival in wild baboons: A tale of two sexes

Fernando Campos, Francisco Villavicencio, Elizabeth Archie, Fernando Colchero & Susan Alberts
People who are more socially integrated or have higher social status live longer, and recent studies on aging and social environments in mammals show some striking convergences with this human pattern. Nonhuman primates are especially valuable models of aging, and studies of several populations of wild primates have shown parallel results to human studies. Specifically, greater numbers and strength of social bonds and/or higher social dominance rank predict longer lifespan in females of several nonhuman...

Data from: Host plant-related genomic differentiation in the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L., 1758) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Vid Bakovic, Hannes Schuler, Martin Schebeck, Jeffrey L. Feder, Christian Stauffer & Gregory J. Ragland
Elucidating the mechanisms and conditions facilitating the formation of biodiversity are central topics in evolutionary biology. A growing number of studies imply that divergent ecological selection may often play a critical role in speciation by counteracting the homogenising effects of gene flow. Several examples involve phytophagous insects, where divergent selection pressures associated with host plant shifts may generate reproductive isolation, promoting speciation. Here, we use ddRADseq to assess the population structure and to test for...

Data from: Social networks predict gut microbiome composition in wild baboons

Jenny Tung, Luis B. Barriero, Michael B. Burns, J. C. Grenier, Josh Lynch, L. E. Grieneisen, J. Altmann, S. C. Alberts, R. Blekhman, E. A. Archie, Laura E Grieneisen, Elizabeth A Archie, Susan C Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Luis B Barreiro, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Michael B Burns & Ran Blekhman
Social relationships have profound effects on health in humans and other primates, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic data from wild baboons, we found that social group membership and social network relationships predicted both the taxonomic structure of the gut microbiome and the structure of genes encoded by gut microbial species. Rates of interaction directly explained variation in the gut microbiome, even after controlling for diet, kinship,...

Data from: Costs of reproduction in a long-lived female primate: injury risk and wound healing

Elizabeth A. Archie, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Reproduction is a notoriously costly phase of life, exposing individuals to injury, infectious disease, and energetic tradeoffs. The strength of these costs should be influenced by life history strategies, and in long-lived species, females may be selected to mitigate costs of reproduction because life span is such an important component of their reproductive success. Here we report evidence for two costs of reproduction that may influence survival in wild female baboons— injury risk and delayed...

Data from: Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice

Kevin P. Johnson, Julie M. Allen, Brett P. Olds, Lawrence Mugisha, David L. Reed, Ken N. Paige, Barry R. Pittendrigh, B. P. Olds, J. M. Allen, K. N. Paige, D. L. Reed & L. Mugisha
The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their...

Data from: Social environment influences the relationship between genotype and gene expression in wild baboons

Daniel E. Runcie, Ralph T. Wiedmann, Elizabeth A. Archie, Jeanne Altmann, Gregory A. Wray, Susan C. Alberts, Jenny Tung, S. C. Alberts, D. E. Runcie, J. Tung, G. A. Wray, J. Altmann & E. A. Archie
Variation in the social environment can have profound effects on survival and reproduction in wild social mammals. However, we know little about the degree to which these effects are influenced by genetic differences among individuals, and conversely, the degree to which social environmental variation mediates genetic reaction norms. To better understand these relationships, we investigated the potential for dominance rank, social connectedness and group size to modify the effects of genetic variation on gene expression...

Data from: Spatially explicit models of divergence and genome hitchhiking

Samuel M. Flaxman, Jeffrey L. Feder, Patrik Nosil, J. L. Feder, S. M. Flaxman & P. Nosil
Strong barriers to genetic exchange can exist at divergently selected loci, whereas alleles at neutral loci flow more readily between populations, thus impeding divergence and speciation in the face of gene flow. However, ‘divergence hitchhiking’ theory posits that divergent selection can generate large regions of differentiation around selected loci. ‘Genome hitchhiking’ theory suggests that selection can also cause reductions in average genome-wide rates of gene flow, resulting in widespread genomic divergence (rather than divergence only...

Data from: Adaptive periodicity in the infectivity of malaria gametocytes to mosquitoes

Petra Schneider, Samuel S.C. Rund, Natasha L. Smith, Kimberley F. Prior, Aidan J. O'Donnell, Sarah E. Reece & Samuel S. C. Rund
Daily rhythms in behaviour, physiology, and molecular processes are expected to enable organisms to appropriately schedule activities according to consequences of the daily rotation of the Earth. For parasites, this includes capitalizing on periodicity in transmission opportunities and for hosts/vectors, this may select for rhythms in immune defence. We examine rhythms in the density and infectivity of transmission forms (gametocytes) of rodent malaria parasites in the host’s blood, parasite development inside mosquito vectors, and potential...

Data from: Mate choice strategies in a spatially-explicit model environment

Giordano B.S. Ferreira, Matthias Scheutz, Sunny K. Boyd & Giordano B. S. Ferreira
Decisions about the choice of a mate can greatly impact both individual fitness and selection processes. We developed a novel agent-based model to investigate two common mate choice rules that may be used by female gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). In this model environment, female agents using the minimum-threshold strategy found higher quality mates and traveled shorter distances on average, compared with female agents using the best-of-n strategy. Females using the minimum-threshold strategy, however, incur significant...

Data from: Group living and male dispersal predict the core gut microbiome in wild baboons

Laura E. Grieneisen, Josh Livermore, Susan Alberts, Jenny Tung & Elizabeth A. Archie
The mammalian gut microbiome plays a profound role in the physiology, metabolism, and overall health of its host. However, biologists have only a nascent understanding of the forces that drive inter-individual heterogeneity in gut microbial composition, especially the role of host social environment. Here we used 178 samples from 78 wild yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living in two social groups to test how host social context, including group living, social interactions within groups, and transfer...

Data from: The hitchhiker's guide to Europe: the infection dynamics of an ongoing Wolbachia invasion and mitochondrial selective sweep in Rhagoletis cerasi

Hannes Schuler, Kirsten Koeppler, Sabine Daxböck-Horvath, Bilal Rasool, Susanne Krumboeck, Dietmar Schwarz, Thomas Hoffmeister, Birgit Schlick-Steiner, Florian Steiner, Arndt Telschow, Christian Stauffer, Wolfgang Arthofer, Markus Riegler, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner & Thomas S. Hoffmeister
Wolbachia is a maternally inherited and ubiquitous endosymbiont of insects. It can hijack host reproduction by manipulations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) to enhance vertical transmission. Horizontal transmission of Wolbachia can also result in the colonization of new mitochondrial lineages. In this study, we present a 15-year-long survey of Wolbachia in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi across Europe and the spatiotemporal distribution of two prevalent strains, wCer1 and wCer2, and associated mitochondrial haplotypes in...

Data from: Rapid and repeatable shifts in life-history timing of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) following colonization of novel host plants in the Pacific Northwestern United States

Monte Mattsson, Glen R. Hood, Jeffrey L. Feder & Luis A. Ruedas
Host shifts of phytophagous insect specialists to novel plants can result in divergent ecological adaptation, generating reproductive isolation and potentially new species. Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies in eastern North America underwent a host shift ~160 ya from native downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to introduced, domesticated apple (Malus domestica). Divergent selection on diapause phenology related to the earlier fruiting time of apples versus downy hawthorns resulted in partial allochronic reproductive isolation between the fly races. Here,...

Data from: A test of genomic modularity among life-history adaptations promoting speciation with gene flow

Gregory Ragland, Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Daniel A. Hahn, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Gregory J. Ragland
Speciation with gene flow may require adaptive divergence of multiple traits to generate strong ecologically based reproductive isolation. Extensive negative pleiotropy or physical linkage of genes in the wrong phase affecting these diverging traits may therefore hinder speciation, while genetic independence or “modularity” among phenotypic traits may reduce constraints and facilitate divergence. Here, we test whether the genetics underlying two components of diapause life history, initial diapause intensity and diapause termination timing, constrain differentiation between...

Data from: Local and system-wide adaptation is influenced by population connectivity

Patrik Nosil, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffery L. Feder, Samuel M. Flaxman, Zachariah Gompert, Jeffrey L. Feder & Zach Gompert
Complex systems can be conceptualized and studied as networks of nodes with varying connectivity between nodes. In well-connected systems, local disturbance of individual nodes can be countered by input from neighbouring nodes, buffering the system against local change. Thus, pronounced change in a well-connected system may not occur until the system hits a threshold or ‘tipping point’ that drives a shift to an alternative, system-wide state. In contrast, poorly connected systems are more prone to...

Data from: Reconstruction of genetically identified neurons imaged by serial-section electron microscopy

Maximilian Joesch, David Mankus, Masahito Yamagata, Ali Shahbazi, Richard Shalek, Adi Suissa-Peleg, Markus Meister, Jeff W. Lichtman, Walter J. Scheirer, Joshua R. Sanes, Walter J Scheirer, Richard Schalek, Jeff W Lichtman & Joshua R Sanes
Resolving patterns of synaptic connectivity in neural circuits currently requires serial section electron microscopy. However, complete circuit reconstruction is prohibitively slow and may not be necessary for many purposes such as comparing neuronal structure and connectivity among multiple animals. Here, we present an alternative strategy, targeted reconstruction of specific neuronal types. We used viral vectors to deliver peroxidase derivatives, which catalyze production of an electron-dense tracer, to genetically identified neurons, and developed a protocol that...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Meredith Doellman, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Mary Glover, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell … & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

Data from: Divergent host preferences of above- and below-ground Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and their hybrid offspring.

Megan L. Fritz, Edward D. Walker, James R. Miller, David W. Severson, Ian Dworkin, J. R. MILLER, M. L. FRITZ, E. D. WALKER, I. DWORKIN & D. W. SEVERSON
Culex pipiens form pipiens and Cx. pipiens form molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) belong to a cosmopolitan taxonomic group known as the Pipiens Assemblage. Hybridization between these forms is thought to contribute to human transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America. Complementary choice and no-choice landing assays were developed to examine host acceptance by North American Cx. pipiens in the laboratory. Populations collected from above- and below-ground sites in suburban Chicago were identified as forms...

Data from: Conditional fetal and infant killing by male baboons

Matthew N. Zipple, Jackson H. Grady, Jacob B. Gordon, Lydia D. Chow, Elizabeth A. Archie, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Sexually selected feticide—the death of infants in utero as a result of male behaviour—has only rarely been described or analysed, although it is presumed to be favoured by the same selective pressures that favour sexually selected infanticide. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frequency of feticide and infanticide by male baboons of the Amboseli basin in Kenya, and examined which characteristics of a male and his environment made him more likely to commit feticide...

Data from: Tales from the crypt: a parasitoid manipulates the behaviour of its parasite host

Kelly L. Weinersmith, Sean M. Liu, Andrew A. Forbes & Scott P. Egan
There are many examples of apparent manipulation of host phenotype by parasites, yet few examples of hypermanipulation—where a phenotype-manipulating parasite is itself manipulated by a parasite. Moreover, few studies confirm manipulation is occurring by quantifying whether the host's changed phenotype increases parasite fitness. Here we describe a novel case of hypermanipulation, in which the crypt gall wasp Bassettia pallida (a phenotypic manipulator of its tree host) is manipulated by the parasitoid crypt-keeper wasp Euderus set,...

Data from: Meek mothers with powerful daughters: effects of novel host environments and small trait differences on parasitoid competition

Gabriela Hamerlinck, Nathan P. Lemoine, Glen R. Hood, Karen C. Abbott & Andrew A. Forbes
Outcomes of competition may depend both on subtle differences in traits relevant to fitness and on how those traits are expressed in the context of the environment. Environmental effects on traits impacting population dynamics are often overlooked in studies of parasitic wasp (parasitoid) competition. Lineages of the parasitoid Diachasma alloeum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) differ in relative ovipositor length (a trait affecting the proportion of hosts available for parasitism). Since the size of natal hosts affects the...

Data from: Historical contingency in a multigene family facilitates adaptive evolution of toxin resistance

Joel McGlothlin, Megan Kobiela, Chris R. Feldman, Todd A. Castoe, Shana L. Geffeney, Charles T. Hanifin, Gabriela Toledo, Freek J. Vonk, Michael K. Richardson, Brodie Jr., Edmund D., Michael Pfrender & Brodie III, Edmund D.
Novel adaptations must originate and function within an already established genome [ 1 ]. As a result, the ability of a species to adapt to new environmental challenges is predicted to be highly contingent on the evolutionary history of its lineage [ 2–6 ]. Despite a growing appreciation of the importance of historical contingency in the adaptive evolution of single proteins [ 7–11 ], we know surprisingly little about its role in shaping complex adaptations...

Data from: Evolution of invasive traits in nonindigenous species: increased survival and faster growth in invasive populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus)

Lindsey W. Sargent & David M. Lodge
The importance of evolution in enhancing the invasiveness of species is not well understood, especially in animals. To evaluate evolution in crayfish invasions, we tested for differences in growth rate, survival, and response to predators between native and invaded range populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus). We hypothesized that low conspecific densities during introductions into lakes would select for increased investment in growth and reproduction in invasive populations. We reared crayfish from both ranges in...

Data from: Environmental context and contaminant biotransport by Pacific salmon interact to mediate the bioaccumulation of contaminants by stream-resident fish

Brandon S. Gerig, Dominic T. Chaloner, David J. Janetski, Ashley H. Moerke, Richard R. Rediske, James P. O'Keefe, Dilkushi A. De Alwis Pitts & Gary A. Lamberti
1.The extent to which environmental context mediates the bioaccumulation of biotransported contaminants by stream-resident organisms is poorly understood. For example, it is unclear the extent to which contaminant type, instream characteristics, or resident fish identity interact to influence the uptake of contaminants deposited by Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) during their spawning runs. 2.To address this uncertainty, we sampled four stream-resident fish species from 13 watersheds of the Laurentian Great Lakes in locations with and without...

Data from: Suitability of Laurentian Great Lakes for invasive species based on global species distribution models and local habitat

Andrew M. Kramer, Gust Annis, Marion E. Wittmann, William L. Chadderton, Edward S. Rutherford, David M. Lodge, Lacey Mason, Dmitry Beletsky, Catherine Riseng & John M. Drake
Efficient management and prevention of species invasions requires accurate prediction of where species of concern can arrive and persist. Species distribution models provide one way to identify potentially suitable habitat by developing the relationship between climate variables and species occurrence data. However, these models when applied to freshwater invasions are complicated by two factors. The first is that the range expansions that typically occur as part of the invasion process violate standard species distribution model...

Data from: Limited genetic evidence for host plant-related differentiation in the Western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Gilbert Saint Jean, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Hannes Schuler, Meredith M. Doellman, Mary M. Glover, James J. Smith, Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Howard M.A. Thistlewood, Sheri A. Maxwell, Nusha Keyghobadi, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
The shift of the fruit fly Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in the mid-1800s from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis (Torrey & Asa Gray) Scheele, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), in the eastern USA is a model for ecological divergence with gene flow. A similar system may exist in the northwestern USA and British Columbia, Canada, where Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacks the native bitter cherry Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton (Rosaceae). Populations of...

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