The mammalian gut microbiome plays a profound role in the physiology, metabolism, and overall health of its host. However, biologists have only a nascent understanding of the forces that drive inter-individual heterogeneity in gut microbial composition, especially the role of host social environment. Here we used 178 samples from 78 wild yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living in two social groups to test how host social context, including group living, social interactions within groups, and transfer...
Data from: A test of genomic modularity among life-history adaptations promoting speciation with gene flowGregory Ragland, Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Daniel A. Hahn, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Gregory J. Ragland
Speciation with gene flow may require adaptive divergence of multiple traits to generate strong ecologically based reproductive isolation. Extensive negative pleiotropy or physical linkage of genes in the wrong phase affecting these diverging traits may therefore hinder speciation, while genetic independence or “modularity” among phenotypic traits may reduce constraints and facilitate divergence. Here, we test whether the genetics underlying two components of diapause life history, initial diapause intensity and diapause termination timing, constrain differentiation between...
There are many examples of apparent manipulation of host phenotype by parasites, yet few examples of hypermanipulation—where a phenotype-manipulating parasite is itself manipulated by a parasite. Moreover, few studies confirm manipulation is occurring by quantifying whether the host's changed phenotype increases parasite fitness. Here we describe a novel case of hypermanipulation, in which the crypt gall wasp Bassettia pallida (a phenotypic manipulator of its tree host) is manipulated by the parasitoid crypt-keeper wasp Euderus set,...
Data from: Environmental context and contaminant biotransport by Pacific salmon interact to mediate the bioaccumulation of contaminants by stream-resident fishBrandon S. Gerig, Dominic T. Chaloner, David J. Janetski, Ashley H. Moerke, Richard R. Rediske, James P. O'Keefe, Dilkushi A. De Alwis Pitts & Gary A. Lamberti
1.The extent to which environmental context mediates the bioaccumulation of biotransported contaminants by stream-resident organisms is poorly understood. For example, it is unclear the extent to which contaminant type, instream characteristics, or resident fish identity interact to influence the uptake of contaminants deposited by Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) during their spawning runs. 2.To address this uncertainty, we sampled four stream-resident fish species from 13 watersheds of the Laurentian Great Lakes in locations with and without...
Data from: Suitability of Laurentian Great Lakes for invasive species based on global species distribution models and local habitatAndrew M. Kramer, Gust Annis, Marion E. Wittmann, William L. Chadderton, Edward S. Rutherford, David M. Lodge, Lacey Mason, Dmitry Beletsky, Catherine Riseng & John M. Drake
Efficient management and prevention of species invasions requires accurate prediction of where species of concern can arrive and persist. Species distribution models provide one way to identify potentially suitable habitat by developing the relationship between climate variables and species occurrence data. However, these models when applied to freshwater invasions are complicated by two factors. The first is that the range expansions that typically occur as part of the invasion process violate standard species distribution model...
Data from: Dissecting functional components of reproductive isolation among closely related sympatric species of the Anopheles gambiae complexMarco Pombi, Pierre Kengne, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Billy Tene-Fossog, Diego Ayala, Colince Kamdem, Federica Santalomazza, Wamdaogo Moussa Guelbeogo, N'Falé Sagnon, Vincenzo Petrarca, Didier Fontenille, Nora J. Besansky, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Roch K. Dabire, Alessandra Della Torre, Frederic Simard & Carlo Costantini
Explaining how and why reproductive isolation evolves and determining which forms of reproductive isolation have the largest impact on the process of population divergence are major goals in the study of speciation. By studying recent adaptive radiations in incompletely isolated taxa, it is possible to identify barriers involved at early divergence before other confounding barriers emerge after speciation is complete. Sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex offer opportunities to provide insights into speciation mechanisms....
As environmental DNA (eDNA) from macro-organisms is often assumed to be highly degraded, current eDNA assays target small DNA fragments to estimate species richness by metabarcoding. A limitation of this approach is the inherent lack of unique species-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms available for unequivocal species identification. We designed a novel primer pair capable of amplifying whole mitochondrial genomes and evaluated it in silico for a wide range of ray-finned fishes (Class: Actinopterygii). We tested the primer...
Data from: Patterns of divergence across the geographic and genomic landscape of a butterfly hybrid zone associated with a climatic gradientSean F. Ryan, Michaël C. Fontaine, J. Mark Scriber, Michael E. Pfrender, Shawn T. O'Neil & Jessica J. Hellmann
Hybrid zones are a valuable tool for studying the process of speciation and for identifying the genomic regions undergoing divergence and the ecological (extrinsic) and non-ecological (intrinsic) factors involved. Here, we explored the genomic and geographic landscape of divergence in a hybrid zone between Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Using a genome scan of 28,417 ddRAD SNPs, we identified genomic regions under possible selection and examined their distribution in the context of previously identified candidate...
Data from: Widespread position-specific conservation of synonymous rare codons within coding sequencesJulie L. Chaney, Aaron Steele, Rory Carmichael, Anabel Rodriguez, Alicia T. Specht, Kim Ngo, Jun Li, Scott J. Emrich, Patricia L. Clark & Scott Emrich
Synonymous rare codons are considered to be sub-optimal for gene expression because they are translated more slowly than common codons. Yet surprisingly, many protein coding sequences include large clusters of synonymous rare codons. Rare codons at the 5’ terminus of coding sequences have been shown to increase translational efficiency. Although a general functional role for synonymous rare codons farther within coding sequences has not yet been established, several recent reports have identified rare-to-common synonymous codon...
Data from: Reproductive isolation and environmental adaptation shape the phylogeography of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)Eddy J. Dowle, Ryan R. Bracewell, Michael E. Pfrender, Karen E. Mock, Barbara J. Bentz & Gregory J. Ragland
Chromosomal rearrangement can be an important mechanism driving population differentiation and incipient speciation. In the mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), deletions on the Y chromosome that are polymorphic among populations are associated with reproductive incompatibility. Here we used RAD sequencing across the entire MPB range in western North America to reveal the extent of the phylogeographic differences between Y haplotypes compared to autosomal and X-linked loci. Clustering and gene flow analyses revealed three distinct...
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