179 Works

Pollen defenses negatively impact foraging and fitness in a generalist bee (Bombus impatiens: Apidae)

Kristen Brochu
Plants may benefit from limiting the community of generalist floral visitors if the species that remain are more effective pollinators and less effective pollenivores. Plants can reduce access to pollen through altered floral cues or morphological structures, but can also reduce consumption through direct pollen defenses. We observed that Eucera (Peponapis) pruinosa, a specialist bee on Cucurbita plants, collected pure loads of pollen while generalist honey bees and bumble bees collected negligible amounts of cucurbit...

Human-dominated landcover corresponds to spatial variation in Mourning Dove reproductive output across the United States.

David Munoz & David Miller
Studies examining impacts of land cover typically focus on abundance, distribution, and/or community richness, overlooking underlying demographic processes such as survival or reproduction. Here, we present findings from a unique dataset that allowed us to measure the relationship between land cover and reproductive output across the distribution of the Mourning Dove (Macroura zenaida). We used hunter-derived, Mourning Dove wing data across 1,271 counties in the United States from 2008 to 2014 to estimate spatially explicit...

Utilizing field collected insects for next generation sequencing: effects of sampling, storage, and DNA extraction methods

Kimberly Ballare, Nathaniel Pope, Antonio Castilla, Sarah Cusser, Richard Metz & Shalene Jha
DNA sequencing technologies continue to advance the biological sciences, expanding opportunities for genomic studies of non-model organisms for basic and applied questions. Despite these opportunities, many next-generation sequencing protocols have been developed assuming a substantial quantity of high molecular weight DNA (>100 ng), which can be difficult to obtain for many study systems. In particular, the ability to sequence field-collected specimens that exhibit varying levels of DNA degradation remains largely unexplored. In this study we...

Data, analyses, and software for the 12 May 2010 tornadic supercell storm intercepted near Clinton, Oklahoma by VORTEX2

P. Markowski, T.P. Hatlee & Y.P. Richardson
This dataset contains the raw, edited, and gridded mobile radar data (DOW6, DOW7, NOXP) and dual-Doppler wind syntheses that were the subject of the Markowski et al. (2018) study. That study analyzed the Clinton, Oklahoma, tornadic supercell storm intercepted by the Second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX2). The dataset also includes mobile mesonet data and the analysis software used for the study (mostly FORTRAN and MATLAB code). Additional documentation is...

Disentangling the mechanisms underpinning disturbance-mediated invasion data

Luke Lear, Elze Hesse, Katriona Shea & Angus Buckling
Disturbances can play a major role in biological invasions: by destroying biomass, they alter habitat and resource abundances. Previous field studies suggest that disturbance-mediated invader success is a consequence of resource influxes, but the importance of other potential covarying causes, notably the opening up of habitats, have yet to be directly tested. Using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens we determined the relative importance of disturbance-mediated habitat opening and resource influxes, plus any interaction...

Nonlinear Impacts of Surface Exchange Coefficient Uncertainty on Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Air-Sea Interactions

R.G. Nystrom, X. Chen, F. Zhang & C.A. Davis
Tropical cyclone maximum intensity is believed to result from a balance between the surface friction, which removes energy, and a temperature/moisture (enthalpy) difference between the sea surface and the air above it, which adds energy. The competing processes near the air-sea interface are controlled by both the near surface wind speed and the surface momentum (Cd) and enthalpy flux (Ck) coefficients. Unfortunately, these coefficients are currently highly uncertain at high wind speeds. Tropical cyclone winds...

Configurational crop heterogeneity increases within-field plant diversity

Audrey Alignier, Audrey Alignier, Xavier Solé-Senan, Irene Robleño, Barbara Baraibar, Fahrig Lenore, David Giralt, Nicolas Gross, Jean-Louis Martin, Jordi Recasens, Clelia Sirami, Gavin Siriwardena, Aliette Bosem Baillod, Colette Bertrand, Romain Carrie, Annika Hass, Laura Henckel, Paul Miguet, Isabelle Badenhausser, Jacques Baudry, Gerard Bota, Vincent Bretagnolle, Lluis Brotons, Francoise Burel, François Calatayud … & Péter Batáry
1. Increasing landscape heterogeneity by restoring semi-natural elements to reverse farmland biodiversity declines is not always economically feasible or acceptable to farmers due to competition for land. We hypothesized that increasing the heterogeneity of the crop mosaic itself, hereafter referred to as crop heterogeneity, can have beneficial effects on within-field plant diversity. 2. Using a unique multi-country dataset from a cross-continent collaborative project covering 1451 agricultural fields within 432 landscapes in Europe and Canada, we...

Single-cell NDIR-based measurements of atmospheric C02 mole fractions measured at Ameriflux towers, 2006 - 2016

N.L. Miles, S.J. Richardson, B.J. Haupt, K.J. Davis, B. Stephens & A. Watt
Data collected via relatively low-cost, high-precision CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems, developed in collaboration with NCAR-ATD, are reported here. These data were collected to support inverse analyses of the terrestrial carbon balance at regional to continental scales. The systems use LICOR-820 non-dispersive infrared analyzers rather than the more expensive, but lower noise LICOR-6262 or LICOR-7000, since fast time response is not required for this application and the noise of the LICOR-820 can be reduced sufficiently...

Data from: User experience methods and maturity in academic libraries

Scott W. H. Young, Zoe Chao & Adam Chandler
This article presents a mixed-methods study of the methods and maturity of user experience (UX) practice in academic libraries. The authors apply qualitative content analysis and quantitative statistical analysis to a research dataset derived from a survey of UX practitioners. Results reveal the type and extent of UX methods currently in use by practitioners in academic libraries. Themes extracted from the survey responses also reveal a set of factors that influence the development of UX...

Data from: The Achilles' heel hypothesis: misinformed keystone individuals impair collective learning and reduce group success

Jonathan Pruitt, Colin Wright, Carl Keiser, Alexander DeMarco, Matt Grobis, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Matthew M. Grobis, Alex E. DeMarco, Carl N. Keiser, Jonathan N. Pruitt & Colin M. Wright
Many animal societies rely on highly influential keystone individuals for proper functioning. When information quality is important for group success, such keystone individuals have the potential to diminish group performance if they possess inaccurate information. Here we test whether information quality (accurate or inaccurate) influences collective outcomes when keystone individuals are the first to acquire it. We trained keystone or generic individuals to attack or avoid novel stimuli and implanted these seed individuals within groups...

Title Shale Network – Statewide Surface Water (Five Analytes: Cl, Ba, Br, Mg, Na) in Pennsylvania as of February 2018

T. Wen
This data set is a subset of the Shale Network database (https://doi.org/10.4211/his-data-shalenetwork) and has been discussed in the following publication “Agarwal, A., Wen, T., Chen, A., Zhang, A., Niu, X., Zhan, X., Xue, L., Brantley, S., 2019. Using a New Geospatial Tool to Detect Contamination Incidents in Stream Chemistry Networks: A Case Study for Shale Gas Development. XXXXXXXXX”. The Shale Network (http://www.shalenetwork.org/) is a project funded by the National Science Foundation to help scientists and...

Analyses of vertical wind profile data from the VORTEX-Southeast 2017 field campaign

P. Markowski
This dataset contains observations from the Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System (CLAMPS) and NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division) micrometeorological towers that were analyzed in the Markowski et al. (2019) study. That study used CLAMPS Doppler lidar observations of near-surface vertical wind profiles, and NOAA tower observations of near-surface shear and vertical momentum fluxes, both of which were obtained during the spring 2017 Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes...

Impacts of the Opioid Epidemic

Sterner Glenn
This is a place and name redacted dataset of 60 qualitative interviews of those who have been affected by the opioid crisis. Individuals fit into one of four categories: (1) individuals in recovery from an opioid use disorder; (2) individuals who have lost a loved one due to an opioid overdose; (3) individuals who have supported a loved one through their opioid use; and (4) individuals who are pain management patients who have faced obstacles...

Data from: Dermal denticle assemblages in coral reef sediments correlate with conventional shark surveys

Erin Dillon, Kevin Lafferty, Douglas McCauley, Darcy Bradley, Richard Norris, Jennifer Caselle, Graziella DiRenzo, Jonathan Gardner & Aaron O'Dea
It is challenging to assess long-term trends in mobile, long-lived, and relatively rare species such as sharks. Despite ongoing declines in many coastal shark populations, conventional surveys might be too fleeting and too recent to describe population trends over decades to millennia. Placing recent shark declines into historical context should improve management efforts as well as our understanding of past ecosystem dynamics. A new paleoecological approach for surveying shark abundance on coral reefs is to...

Overfishing and the ecological impacts of extirpating large parrotfish from Caribbean coral reefs

Andrew Shantz, Mark Ladd & Deron Burkepile
The unique traits of large animals often allow them to fulfill functional roles in ecosystems that small animals cannot. However, large animals are also at greater risk from human activities. Thus, it is critical to understand how losing large animals impacts ecosystem function. In the oceans, selective fishing for large animals alters the demographics and size-structure of numerous species. While the community-wide impacts of losing large animals is a major theme in terrestrial research, the...

The hornwort genome and early land plant evolution

Jian Zhang, Xin-Xing Fu, Rui-Qi Li, Xiang Zhao, Yang Liu, Ming-He Li, Arthur Zwaenepoel, Hong Ma, Bernard Goffinet, Yan-Long Guan, Jia-Yu Xue, Yi-Ying Liao, Qing-Feng Wang, Qing-Hua Wang, Jie-Yu Wang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Zhi-Wen Wang, Yu Jia, Mei-Zhi Wang, Shan-Shan Dong, Jian-Fen Yang, Yuan-Nian Jiao, Ya-Long Guo, Hong-Zhi Kong, An-Ming Lu … & Zhi-Duan Chen
Hornworts, liverworts, and mosses are three early diverging clades of land plants, together composing the bryophytes. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the hornwort Anthoceros angustus. Phylogenomic inferences confirm the monophyly of bryophytes, with hornworts sister to liverworts and mosses. The simple morphology of hornworts correlates with low genetic redundancy in plant body plan while the basic transcriptional regulation toolkit for plant development has already been established in this early land plant lineage....

Cavity ring-down spectroscopic measurements of CO2 mole fraction in State College, Pennsylvania, 2017-2018.

S.J. Richardson, N.L. Miles, T. Lauvaux, B.J. Haupt & K.J. Davis
Carbon dioxide (CO2) mole fractions were measured at three locations near State College, Pennsylvania, using cavity ring-down spectrometers (Picarro, Inc.). This dataset includes raw data and hourly averages. The instruments were calibrated via four NOAA tertiary tanks prior to deployment, but no field calibrations were applied. The air samples were not dried. The locations of the measurements were Rock Springs (40°43'15.3"N 77°55'54.1"W, 10 m AGL), Walker Building roof (40°47'36.1"N 77°52'02.0"W, 30 m AGL), and Houserville...

Substantial genetic divergence and lack of recent gene flow support cryptic speciation in a colour polymorphic bumble bee (Bombus bifarius) species complex

Guillaume Ghisbain, Jeffrey D. Lozier, Sarthok Rasique Rahman, Briana D. Ezray, Li Tian, Jonah M. Ulmer, Sam D. Heraghty, James P. Strange, Pierre Rasmont & Heather M. Hines
Phenotypic polymorphism can constitute an inherent challenge for species delimitation. This issue is exemplified in bumble bees (Bombus), where species can exhibit high colour variation across their range, but otherwise exhibit little morphological variation to distinguish them from close relatives. We examine the species status of one of the most abundant North American bumble bees, Bombus bifarius Cresson, which historically was comprised of two major taxa, bifarius s.s. (sensu stricto) and nearcticus. These sublineages are...

Temperature and Fluid Pressurization Effects on Frictional Stability of Shale Faults Reactivated by Hydraulic Fracturing

Mengke An, Fengshou Zhang, Zhaowei Chen, Derek Elsworth & Lianyang Zhang
A shale fault reactivated during hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin, southwest China spawned a cluster of small earthquakes. We illuminate the underlying mechanisms of fault reactivation through measurements of frictional properties on simulated fault gouge under hydrothermal conditions. Velocity-stepping experiments show that the gouge is frictionally strong with coefficient of friction of 0.6-0.7. At observed in-situ pore fluid pressure (30 MPa), the slip stability response is characterized by velocity strengthening at temperatures of 30-200 ℃...

Data from: Spatially-explicit avian frugivory, fruit availability, and seed rain in a latitudinal gradient of the Americas

Tomás Carlo
Network metrics are widely used to infer the roles of mutualistic animals in plant communities and to predict the effect of species' loss. However, their empirical validation is scarce. Here we parameterized a joint species model of frugivory and seed dispersal with bird movement and foraging data from tropical and temperate communities. With this model we investigate the effect of frugivore loss on seed rain, and compare our predictions to those of standard coextinction models...

Data from: The contribution of host cell-directed vs. parasite-directed immunity to the disease and dynamics of malaria infections

Nina Wale, Matthew J. Jones, Derek G. Sim, Andrew F. Read & Aaron A. King
Hosts defend themselves against pathogens by mounting an immune response. Fully understanding the immune response as a driver of host disease and pathogen evolution requires a quantitative account of its impact on parasite population dynamics. Here, we use a data-driven modeling approach to quantify the birth and death processes underlying the dynamics of infections of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, and the red blood cells (RBCs) it targets. We decompose the immune response into...

Enhanced and unified anatomical labeling for a common mouse brain atlas

Uree Chon, Daniel Vanselow, Keith Cheng & Yongsoo Kim
Anatomical atlases in standard coordinates are necessary for the interpretation and integration of research findings in a common spatial context. However, the two most-used mouse brain atlases, the Franklin and Paxinos (FP) and the common coordinate framework (CCF) from the Allen Institute for Brain Science, have accumulated inconsistencies in anatomical delineations and nomenclature, creating confusion among neuroscientists. To overcome these issues, here we adopt the FP labels into the CCF to merge two labels in...

Data from: Physician champions’ perspectives and practices on electronic health records implementation: challenges and strategies

Xinning Gui, Yunan Chen, Xiaomu Zhou, Tera L. Reynolds, Kai Zheng & David A. Hanauer
Objective: Physician champions are “boots on the ground” physician leaders who facilitate the implementation of, and transition to, new health information technology (HIT) systems within an organization. They are commonly cited as key personnel in HIT implementations, yet little research has focused on their practices and perspectives. Methods: We addressed this research gap through a qualitative study of physician champions that aimed to capture their challenges and strategies during a large-scale HIT implementation. Email interviews...

Shale anisotropy and natural hydraulic fracture propagation: An example from the Posidonienschiefer, Germany

J.N. Hooker, M. Ruhl, A.J. Dickson, L.N. Hanson, E. Idiz, S.P. Hesselbo & J. Cartwright
Cores recovered from the Posidonienschiefer (Posidonia Shale) in the Lower Saxony Basin, Germany, contain calcite filled fractures (veins) at low angle to bedding. The veins preferentially form where the shale is both organic rich and thermally mature, supporting previous interpretations that the veins formed as hydraulic fractures in response to volumetric expansion of organic material during catagenesis. Despite the presence of hydrocarbons during fracturing, the calcite fill is fibrous and so the veins appear to...

Data from: A new framework for analysing automated acoustic species detection data: occupancy estimation and optimization of recordings post-processing

Thierry Chambert, J. Hardin Waddle, David A.W. Miller, Susan C. Walls, James D. Nichols & David A. W. Miller
The development and use of automated species detection technologies, such as acoustic recorders, for monitoring wildlife are rapidly expanding. Automated classification algorithms provide cost- and time-effective means to process information-rich data, but often at the cost of additional detection errors. Appropriate methods are necessary to analyse such data while dealing with the different types of detection errors. We developed a hierarchical modelling framework for estimating species occupancy from automated species detection data. We explore design...

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