281 Works

Data from: Development and validation of a weather-based warning system to advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot on turfgrass

Damon L. Smith, James P. Kerns, Nathan R. Walker, Andrea F. Payne, Brandon Horvath, John C. Inguagiato, John E. Kaminski, Maria Tomaso-Peterson, Paul L. Koch, D. L. Smith, P. L. Koch, J. P. Kerns, N. R. Walker, A. F. Payne, B. Horvath, J. C. Inguagiato, J. E. Kaminski & M. Tomaso-Peterson
Dollar spot is one of the most common diseases of golf course turfgrass and numerous fungicide applications are often required to provide adequate control. Weather-based disease warning systems have been developed to more accurately time fungicide applications; however, they tend to be ineffective and are not currently in widespread use. The primary objective of this research was to develop a new weather-based disease warning system to more accurately advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot...

Data from: Overprinting of taphonomic and paleoecological signals across the forest-prairie environmental gradient, mid-continent of North America

Lauren E. Milideo, Russell W. Graham, Carl R. Falk, Holmes A. Semken & Max L. Christie
Taphonomic factors may significantly alter faunal assemblages at varying scales. An exceptional record of late Holocene (< 4000 years old) mammal fanuas establishes a firm baseline to investigate the effects of scale on taphonomy. Our sample contains 73 sites within four contiguous states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Illinois, USA) that transect a strong modern and late Holocene environmental gradient, the prairie-forest ecotone. We performed Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS)...

Data from: Projecting the recovery of a long-lived deep-sea octocoral species after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill using structured population models

Fanny Girard, Katriona Shea & Charles R. Fisher
1. Deep-water coral communities are hotspots of diversity and biomass in the deep sea. Most deep-sea coral species are long-lived and slow-growing, and are thus expected to recover slowly after disturbance. A better understanding of the recovery potential of these organisms is necessary to make appropriate management decisions. 2. We used data from high resolution monitoring of individual coral colonies that were impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (April 2010) to parameterise and validate...

Data from: Order-level fern plastome phylogenomics: new insights from Hymenophyllales

Li-Yaung Kuo, Xinping Qi, Hong Ma & Fay-Wei Li
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Filmy ferns (Hymenophyllales) are a highly specialized lineage, having mesophyll one cell layer thick and inhabiting particularly shaded and humid environments. The phylogenetic placement of Hymenophyllales has been inconclusive, and while over 87 whole fern plastomes have been published, none was from Hymenophyllales. To better understand the evolutionary history of filmy ferns, we sequenced the first complete plastome for this order. METHODS: We compiled a plastome phylogenomic dataset encompassing all eleven...

Data from: Limited hatchery introgression into wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations despite reoccurring stocking

Shannon L. White, William L. Miller, Stephanie A. Dowell, Meredith L. Bartron & Tyler Wagner
Due to increased anthropogenic pressures on many fish populations, supplementing wild populations with captive-raised individuals has become an increasingly common management practice. Stocking programs can be controversial due to uncertainty about the long-term fitness effects of genetic introgression on wild populations. In particular, introgression between hatchery and wild individuals can cause declines in wild population fitness, resiliency, and adaptive potential, and contribute to local population extirpation. However, low survival and fitness of captive-raised individuals can...

Data from: Survival and reproductive costs of repeated acute glucocorticoid elevations in a captive, wild animal

Kirsty J. MacLeod, Michael J. Sheriff, D.C.E. Ensminger, Dustin A.S. Owen, Tracy L. Langkilde, K.J. MacLeod, M.J. Sheriff, D.C. Ensminger, D.A.S. Owen & T. Langkilde
Organisms are continuously encountering both predictable and unpredictable ecological stressors within their environment. The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (stress) axis is a fundamental process allowing animals to cope with and respond to such encounters. A main consequence of HPA axis activation is the release of glucocorticoid hormones. Although short-term glucocorticoid elevations lead to changes in physiological and behavioral processes that are often adaptive, our understanding of fitness consequences of repeated acute elevations in glucocorticoid hormones...

Data from: The importance of growing up: juvenile environment influences dispersal of individuals and their neighbours

Stacy B. Endriss, Megan L. Vahsen, Ellyn V. Bitume, J. Grey Monroe, Kathryn G. Turner, Andrew P. Norton, Ruth A. Hufbauer & J. Grey Monroe
Dispersal is a key ecological process that is strongly influenced by both phenotype and environment. Here, we show that juvenile environment influences dispersal not only by shaping individual phenotypes, but also by changing the phenotypes of neighbouring conspecifics, which influence how individuals disperse. We used a model system (Tribolium castaneum, red flour beetles) to test how the past environment of dispersing individuals and their neighbours influences how they disperse in their current environment. We found...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Collective behavior and colony persistence of social spiders depends on their physical environment

Ambika Kamath, Skylar D. Primavera, Colin M. Wright, Grant N. Doering, Kirsten A. Sheehy, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Jonathan N. Pruitt, Colin M Wright, Jonathan N Pruitt, Skylar D Primavera, Grant N Doering & Kirsten A Sheehy
The physical environment occupied by group-living animals can profoundly affect their cooperative social interactions and therefore their collective behavior and success. These effects can be especially apparent in human-modified habitats, which often harbor substantial variation in the physical environments available within them. For nest-building animal societies, this influence of the physical environment on collective behavior can be mediated by the construction of nests—nests could either buffer animal behavior from changes in the physical environment or...

Data from: How does avian seed dispersal shape the structure of early successional tropical forests?

Aarón González-Castro, Suann Yang & Tomás A. Carlo
1. Frugivores shape plant communities via seed dispersal of fleshy-fruited plant species. However, the structural characteristics that frugivores impart to plant communities are little understood. Evaluating how frugivores structure plant communities via the non-proportional use of available fruit resources is critical to understand the functioning of ecosystems where fleshy-fruited plant species are dominant, such as tropical forests. 2. We performed a seed-addition field experiment to investigate how frugivorous birds shape the composition and richness of...

Data from: Fine-scale spatial homogenization of microbial habitats: a multivariate index of headwater wetland complex condition

Jessica B. Moon, Denice H. Wardrop, Erica A.H. Smithwick, Kusum J. Naithani & Erica A. H. Smithwick
With growing public awareness that wetlands are important to society, there are intensifying efforts to understand the ecological condition of those wetlands that remain, and to develop indicators of wetland condition. Indicators based on soils are not well developed and are absent in some current assessment protocols; these could be advantageous, particularly for soils, which are complex habitats for plants, invertebrates, and microbial communities. In this study, we examine whether multivariate soil indicators, correlated with...

Data from: Scatterhoarders drive long- and short-term population dynamics of a nut-producing tree, while pre-dispersal seed predators and herbivores have little effect

Elise C. Elwood, Nathanael I. Lichti, Sara F. Fitzsimmons & Harmony J. Dalgleish
1.Both seed predators and herbivores can have profound effects on individual plant growth, reproduction and survival, but their population level effects are less well understood. While most plants interact with a suite of seed predators and herbivores over their life cycle, few studies incorporate the effects of multiple interacting partners and multiple life stages on plant population growth. 2.We constructed a matrix model using six years of data from a rare, seed-producing population of American...

Data from: Empirical and theoretical investigation into the potential impacts of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets

Katey D. Glunt, Maureen Coetzee, Silvie Huijben, A. Alphonsine Koffi, Penelope A. Lynch, Raphael N'Guessan, Welbeck A. Oumbouke, Eleanore D. Sternberg & Matthew B. Thomas
In spite of widespread insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes throughout Africa, there is limited evidence that long lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are failing to protect against malaria. Here, we showed that LLIN contact in the course of host-seeking resulted in higher mortality of resistant Anopheles spp. mosquitoes than predicted from standard laboratory exposures with the same net. We also found that sub-lethal contact with an LLIN caused a reduction in blood feeding and subsequent...

Data from: Age-specific infectious period shapes dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

Raina K. Plowright, Kezia R. Manlove, Thomas E. Besser, David J. Páez, Kimberly R. Andrews, Patrick E. Matthews, Lisette P. Waits, Peter J. Hudson & E. Frances Cassirer
Superspreading, the phenomenon where a small proportion of individuals contribute disproportionately to new infections, has profound effects on disease dynamics. Superspreading can arise through variation in contacts, infectiousness or infectious periods. The latter has received little attention, yet it drives the dynamics of many diseases of critical public health, livestock health and conservation concern. Here, we present rare evidence of variation in infectious periods underlying a superspreading phenomenon in a free-ranging wildlife system. We detected...

Data from: Root morphology and mycorrhizal type strongly influence root production in nutrient hot spots of mixed forests

Weile Chen, Roger T. Koide & David M. Eissenstat
1. Plants compete for nutrients using a range of strategies. We investigated nutrient foraging within nutrient hot-spots simultaneously available to plant species with diverse root traits. We hypothesized that there would be more root proliferation by thin-root species than by thick-root species, and that root proliferation by thin-root species would limit root proliferation by thick-root species. 2. We conducted a root ingrowth experiment in a temperate forest in eastern USA where root systems of different...

Data from: Fitness costs of mating with preferred females in a scramble mating system

Lindsey Swierk & Tracy Langkilde
Little is known about the operation of male mate choice in systems with perceived high costs to male choosiness. Scramble mating systems are one type of system in which male choice is often considered too costly to be selected. However, in many scramble mating systems, there are also potentially high rewards of male choosiness, as females vary dramatically in reproductive output and males typically mate once per season and/or per lifetime. Using scramble-mating wood frogs...

Data from: Fat in the leg: function of the expanded hind leg in gasteruptiid wasps (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae)

István Mikó, Sarthok Rasique Rahman, Salvatore S. Anzaldo, Thomas Van De Kamp, Ben A. Parslow, Nikolai J. Tatarnic, Maxwell T. Wetherington, Julie Anderson, Rudolf J. Schilder, Jonah M. Ulmer, Andrew R. Deans & Heather M. Hines
Among some of the most unusual traits of the gasteruptiid wasps is their unique hovering flight and the expansion of their hind tibiae. Tibial expansions in female parasitoid hymenopterans often involve an enlarged sensory structure for vibration detection, the subgenual organ, thus enabling refined substrate-borne detection of concealed hosts. In the present paper, we utilize a combination of microscopy, chemical analysis, gene expression, and behavior to explore the function of the expanded hind tibia of...

Data from: Earth history and the passerine superradiation

Carl H. Oliveros, Daniel J. Field, Daniel T. Ksepka, F. Keith Barker, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael J. Andersen, Per Alström, Brett W. Benz, Edward L. Braun, Michael J. Braun, Gustavo A. Bravo, Robb T. Brumfield, R. Terry Chesser, Santiago Claramunt, Joel Cracraft, Andrés M. Cuervo, Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Travis C. Glenn, Michael G. Harvey, Peter A. Hosner, Leo Joseph, Rebecca T. Kimball, Andrew L. Mack, Colin M. Miskelly, A. Townsend Peterson … & Brant C. Faircloth
Avian diversification has been influenced by global climate change, plate tectonic movements, and mass extinction events. However, the impact of these factors on the diversification of the hyperdiverse perching birds (passerines) is unclear because family level relationships are unresolved and the timing of splitting events among lineages is uncertain. We analyzed DNA data from 4,060 nuclear loci and 137 passerine families using concatenation and coalescent approaches to infer a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis that clarifies relationships...

Data from: Predicting fine root lifespan from plant functional traits in temperate trees

M. Luke McCormack, Thomas S. Adams, Mark D. Coleman & David M. Eissenstat
• Although linkages of leaf and whole-plant traits to leaf lifespan have been rigorously investigated, there is a limited understanding of similar linkages of whole-plant and fine root traits to root lifespan. In comparisons across species, do suites of traits found in leaves also exist for roots, and can these traits be used to predict root lifespan? • We observed the fine root lifespan of 12 temperate tree species using minirhizotrons in a common garden...

Habitat suitability modeling to predict the spatial distribution of cold-water coral communities affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Samuel Georgian, Kody Kramer, Miles Saunders, William Shedd, Harry Roberts, Christopher Lewis, Chuck Fisher & Erik Cordes
Aim: The Deepwater Horizon disaster resulted in the largest accidental marine oil spill in history and caused extensive injury to deep-sea habitats, including cold-water coral communities dominated by Paramuricea species. One of the primary difficulties in assessing the full extent of the injury to cold-water coral ecosystems is the extreme paucity of observational data and the subsequent lack of knowledge of their distribution within the affected region. The aim of this study was to use...

The hornwort genome and early land plant evolution

Jian Zhang, Xin-Xing Fu, Rui-Qi Li, Xiang Zhao, Yang Liu, Ming-He Li, Arthur Zwaenepoel, Hong Ma, Bernard Goffinet, Yan-Long Guan, Jia-Yu Xue, Yi-Ying Liao, Qing-Feng Wang, Qing-Hua Wang, Jie-Yu Wang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Zhi-Wen Wang, Yu Jia, Mei-Zhi Wang, Shan-Shan Dong, Jian-Fen Yang, Yuan-Nian Jiao, Ya-Long Guo, Hong-Zhi Kong, An-Ming Lu … & Zhi-Duan Chen
Hornworts, liverworts, and mosses are three early diverging clades of land plants, together composing the bryophytes. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the hornwort Anthoceros angustus. Phylogenomic inferences confirm the monophyly of bryophytes, with hornworts sister to liverworts and mosses. The simple morphology of hornworts correlates with low genetic redundancy in plant body plan while the basic transcriptional regulation toolkit for plant development has already been established in this early land plant lineage....

Data from: A connection between colony biomass and death in Caribbean reef-building corals

Daniel J. Thornhill, Randi D. Rotjan, Brian D. Todd, Geoff C. Chilcoat, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Todd C. LaJeunesse, Dustin W. Kemp, Jennifer McCabe Reynolds, Gregory W. Schmidt, Thomas Shannon, Mark E. Warner & William K. Fitt
Increased sea-surface temperatures linked to warming climate threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To better understand how corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) respond to environmental change, tissue biomass and Symbiodinium density of seven coral species were measured on various reefs approximately every four months for up to thirteen years in the Upper Florida Keys, United States (1994–2007), eleven years in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas (1995–2006), and four years in Puerto Morelos, Mexico (2003–2007). For...

Data from: A phylogenomic assessment of ancient polyploidy and genome evolution across the Poales

Michael R. McKain, Haibao Tang, Joel R. McNeal, Saravanaraj Ayyampalayam, Jerrold I. Davis, Claude W. DePamphilis, Thomas J. Givnish, J. Chris Pires, Dennis Wm. Stevenson & Jim H. Leebens-Mack
Comparisons of flowering plant genomes reveal multiple rounds of ancient polyploidy characterized by large intra-genomic syntenic blocks. Three such whole genome duplication (WGD) events, designated as rho (ρ), sigma (σ), and tau (τ), have been identified in the genomes of cereal grasses. Precise dating of these WGD events is necessary to investigate how they have influenced diversification rates, evolutionary innovations, and genomic characteristics such as the GC profile of protein coding sequences. The timing of...

Data from: Using spatial capture–recapture to elucidate population processes and space-use in herpetological studies

David J. Muñoz, David A. W. Miller, Chris Sutherland, Evan H. Campbell Grant & Evan H. Campbell Grant
The cryptic behavior and ecology of herpetofauna make estimating the impacts of environmental change on demography difficult; yet, the ability to measure demographic relationships is essential for elucidating mechanisms leading to the population declines reported for herpetofauna worldwide. Recently developed spatial capture–recapture (SCR) methods are well suited to standard herpetofauna monitoring approaches. Individually identifying animals and their locations allows accurate estimates of population densities and survival. Spatial capture–recapture methods also allow estimation of parameters describing...

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