177 Works

Santiaguito Volcano 2014-2018 explosion catalogue

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Seismic waveforms from an explosion catalogue from a seismic network at Santiaguito volcano between November 2014 and December 2018. A network of 6 broadband and 6 short-period stations was used to record explosive volcanic activity. Waveforms from 18,895 explosions have been automatically been detected and extracted.

Interspecific communication in African savannah herbivores

J. Bro-Jorgensen, D.W. Franks & K. Meise
This dataset contains information about various aspects of the alarm communication network of African savannah herbivores. Data were collected in April 2015 and between September 2015 and October 2016 in the Masai Mara National Reserve, in southern Kenya (1°30’S, 35°10’E). Research focused on the 12 most common herbivore species in the ecosystem. For each of these species, the dataset provides information on vigilance rates, the probability to alarm call in response to different predators, the...

Ant colour data from an experiment in Malaysian Borneo, 2015-2018

S. Law, T.R. Bishop, P. Eggleton, H.M. Griffiths, L. Ashton & C. Parr
This dataset measures colour and estimates body size of ant species collected across four vertical strata: subterranean, ground, understory and canopy in lowland tropical rainforest. Ants were collected using different trapping techniques in each stratum; baited traps were used in the subterranean, understory and canopy strata and Winkler extractions were used to collect ground ants. The colour of each ant species was classified categorically by eye using a set pre-determined colours. A single dominant colour...

Dire wolves were the last of an ancient New World canid lineage

Laurent Frantz & Ardern Hulme-Beaman
Dire wolves are considered one of the most common and widespread large carnivores in Pleistocene America, yet relatively little is known about their evolution or extinction. To reconstruct the evolutionary history of dire wolves, we sequenced five genomes from sub-fossil bones dating from 13,000 to over 50,000 years ago. Our results indicate that though they were similar morphologically to the extant gray wolf, dire wolves were a highly divergent lineage that split from living canids...

Data from: Resource heterogeneity and the evolution of public-goods cooperation

Peter Stilwell, Siobhan O'Brien, Elze Hesse, Chris Lowe, Andy Gardner & Angus Buckling
Heterogeneity in resources is a ubiquitous feature of natural landscapes affecting many aspects of biology. However, the effect of environmental heterogeneity on the evolution of cooperation has been less well studied. Here, using a mixture of theory and experiments measuring siderophore production by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model for public-goods based cooperation, we show that cooperation in metapopulations that were spatially heterogeneous in terms of resources can be maintained at a higher level...

Data from: A comprehensive large-scale assessment of fisheries bycatch risk to threatened seabird populations

Thomas A. Clay, Cleo Small, Geoffrey N. Tuck, Deborah Pardo, Ana P.B. Carneiro, Andrew G. Wood, John P. Croxall, Glenn T. Crossin & Richard A. Phillips
1. Incidental mortality (bycatch) in fisheries remains the greatest threat to many large marine vertebrates and is a major barrier to fisheries sustainability. Robust assessments of bycatch risk are crucial for informing effective mitigation strategies, but are hampered by missing information on the distributions of key life-history stages (adult breeders and non-breeders, immatures and juveniles). 2. Using a uniquely comprehensive biologging dataset (1697 tracks, 790 individuals), we assessed spatial overlap of four threatened seabird populations...

Data from: Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs

Vivian Allen, Karl T. Bates, Zhiheng Li & John R. Hutchinson
Locomotion in living birds (Neornithes) has two remarkable features: feather-assisted flight, and the use of unusually crouched hindlimbs for bipedal support and movement. When and how these defining functional traits evolved remains controversial. However, the advent of computer modelling approaches and the discoveries of exceptionally preserved key specimens now make it possible to use quantitative data on whole-body morphology to address the biomechanics underlying this issue. Here we use digital body reconstructions to quantify evolutionary...

Data from: Urbanization and the temporal patterns of social networks and group foraging behaviours

Teri B. Jones, Julian C. Evans & Julie Morand-Ferron
Urbanization causes dramatic and rapid changes to natural environments, which can lead the animals inhabiting these habitats to adjust their behavioral responses. For social animals, urbanized environments may alter group social dynamics through modification of the external environment (e.g., resource distribution). This might lead to changes in how individuals associate or engage in group behaviors, which could alter the stability and characteristics of social groups. However, the potential impacts of urban habitat use, and of...

Data from: Tradeoffs with growth limit host range in complex life cycle helminths

Daniel Benesh, Geoff Parker, James C. Chubb & Kevin Lafferty
Parasitic worms with complex life cycles have several developmental stages, with each stage creating opportunities to infect additional host species. Using a dataset for 973 species of trophically transmitted acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes, we confirmed that worms with longer life cycles (i.e. more successive hosts) infect a greater diversity of host species and taxa (after controlling for study effort). Generalism at the stage level was highest for ‘middle’ life stages, the second and third intermediate...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: Masquerade is associated with polyphagy and larval overwintering in the Lepidoptera

Andrew D. Higginson, Leoni De Wert, Hannah M. Rowland, Michael P. Speed & Graeme D. Ruxton
Masquerading animals benefit from the difficulty that predators have in differentiating them from the inedible objects, such as twigs, that they resemble. The function of masquerade has been demonstrated, but how it interacts with the life history of organisms has not been studied. Here, we report the use of comparative analyses to test hypotheses linking masquerade to life-history parameters. We constructed a phylogenetic tree of the British species of the lepidoptera families Geometridae and Drepanidae...

Data from: The fitness effects of a pale mutant in the aposematic seed bug Lygaeus simulans indicate pleiotropy between warning coloration and life history

Vicki L. Balfour, Cédric Aumont, Liam R. Dougherty & David M. Shuker
Conspicuous warning colours that signal chemical or other defences are common in the natural world. For instance, such aposematic warning patterns of red-and-black or yellow-and-black are common among insect taxa, particularly in the order Hemiptera, often forming the basis of Batesian and/or Müllerian mimicry rings. In addition, it has been repeatedly noted that colour polymorphisms or mutants that influence pigmentation can show pleiotropy with other behavioural, physiological or life-history traits. Here we describe a pale...

Data from: Exploring preferences for variable delays over fixed delays to high-value food rewards as a model of food-seeking behaviours in humans

Laura-Jean G. Stokes, Anna Davies, Paul Lattimore, Catharine Winstanley & Robert D. Rogers
Foraging and operant models suggest that animals will tolerate uncertainty or risk to obtain food quickly. In modern food environments, sustained access to quick energy-dense foods can promote weight gain. Here, we used a discrete-choice procedure to examine peoples' decisions about when next to eat high-value, palatable food rewards, probabilistically delivered immediately or following longer delays. In Experiment 1, moderately hungry young females showed consistent preferences for a variable delay option that delivered food rewards...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Hybridization facilitates evolutionary rescue

Rike B. Stelkens, Michael A. Brockhurst, Gregory D. D. Hurst & Duncan Greig
The resilience of populations to rapid environmental degradation is a major concern for biodiversity conservation. When environments deteriorate to lethal levels, species must evolve to adapt to the new conditions to avoid extinction. Here, we test the hypothesis that evolutionary rescue may be enabled by hybridization, because hybridization increases genetic variability. Using experimental evolution, we show that interspecific hybrid populations of Saccharomyces yeast adapt to grow in more highly degraded environments than intraspecific and parental...

Data from: The effect of hybrid transgression on environmental tolerance in experimental yeast crosses

Rike B. Stelkens, Mike A. Brockhurst, Gregory D. D. Hurst, Eric L. Miller & Duncan Greig
Evidence is rapidly accumulating that hybridization generates adaptive variation. Transgressive segregation in hybrids could promote the colonization of new environments. Here, we use an assay to select hybrid genotypes that can proliferate in environmental conditions beyond the conditions tolerated by their parents, and we directly compete them against parental genotypes in habitats across environmental clines. We made 45 different hybrid swarms by crossing yeast strains (both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus) with different genetic and...

Data from: An experimental study on the manufacture and characterisation of in-plane fibre-waviness defects in composites

William J.R. Christian, Francisco A. DiazDelao, Kathryn Atherton, Eann A. Patterson & W. J. R. Christian
A new method has been developed for creating localised in-plane fibre-waviness in composite coupons and used to create a large batch of specimens. This method could be used by manufacturers to experimentally explore the effect of fibre-waviness on composite structures both directly and indirectly to develop and validate computational models. The specimens were assessed using ultrasound, digital image correlation and a novel inspection technique capable of measuring residual strain fields. To explore how the defect...

Data from: Persistent genetic signatures of historic climatic events in an Antarctic octopus

Jan M. Strugnell, Phill C. Watts, Peter J. Smith & A. Louise Allcock
Repeated cycles of glaciation have had major impacts on the distribution of genetic diversity of the Antarctic marine fauna. During glacial periods, ice cover limited the amount of benthic habitat on the continental shelf. Conversely, more habitat and possibly altered seaways, were available during interglacials when the ice receded and the sea level was higher. We used microsatellites and partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene to examine genetic structure...

Relationships of mass properties and body proportions to locomotor habit in terrestrial Archosauria

Peter Bishop, Karl Bates, Vivian Allen, Donald Henderson, Marcela Randau & John Hutchinson
Throughout their 250 Myr history, archosaurian reptiles have exhibited a wide array of body sizes, shapes and locomotor habits, especially in regard to terrestriality. These features make Archosauria a useful clade with which to study the interplay between body size, shape and locomotor behaviour, and how this interplay may have influenced locomotor evolution. Here, digital volumetric models of 80 taxa are used to explore how mass properties and body proportions relate to each other and...

Data from: The evolution of costly mate choice against segregation distorters

Andri Manser, Anna K. Lindholm, Franjo J. Weissing & Franz J. Weissing
The evolution of female preference for male genetic quality remains a controversial topic in sexual selection research. One well-known problem, known as the lek paradox, lies in understanding how variation in genetic quality is maintained in spite of natural selection and sexual selection against low-quality alleles. Here, we theoretically investigate a scenario where females pay a direct fitness cost to avoid males carrying an autosomal segregation distorter. We show that preference evolution is greatly facilitated...

Data from: Multihost Bartonella parasites display covert host specificity even when transmitted by generalist vectors

Susan M. Withenshaw, Godefroy Devevey, Amy B. Pedersen & Andy Fenton
Many parasites infect multiple sympatric host species, and there is a general assumption that parasite transmission between co-occurring host species is commonplace. Such between-species transmission could be key to parasite persistence within a disease reservoir and is consequently an emerging focus for disease control. However, while a growing body of theory indicates the potential importance of between-species transmission for parasite persistence, conclusive empirical evidence from natural communities is lacking, and the assumption that between-species transmission...

Data from: Plasmid carriage can limit bacteria-phage coevolution

Ellie Harrison, Julie Truman, Rosanna Wright, Andrew J. Spiers, Steve Paterson & Michael A. Brockhurst
Coevolution with bacteriophages is a major selective force shaping bacterial populations and communities. A variety of both environmental and genetic factors has been shown to influence the mode and tempo of bacteria–phage coevolution. Here, we test the effects that carriage of a large conjugative plasmid, pQBR103, had on antagonistic coevolution between the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and its phage, SBW25ϕ2. Plasmid carriage limited bacteria–phage coevolution; bacteria evolved lower phage-resistance and phages evolved lower infectivity in plasmid-carrying...

Data from: Experimental investigation of alternative transmission functions: quantitative evidence for the importance of non-linear transmission dynamics in host-parasite systems

Sarah A. Orlofske, Samuel M. Flaxman, Maxwell B. Joseph, Andy Fenton, Brett A. Melbourne & Pieter T. J. Johnson
1. Understanding pathogen transmission is crucial for predicting and managing disease. Nonetheless, experimental comparisons of alternative functional forms of transmission remain rare, and those experiments that are conducted are often not designed to test the full range of possible forms. 2. To differentiate among ten candidate transmission functions, we used a novel experimental design in which we independently varied four factors—duration of exposure, numbers of parasites, numbers of hosts, and parasite density—in laboratory infection experiments....

Data from: From the animal house to the field: are there consistent individual differences in immunological profile in wild populations of field voles (Microtus agrestis)?

Elena Arriero, Klara M. Wanelik, Richard J. Birtles, Janette E. Bradley, Joseph A. Jackson, Steve Paterson & Mike Begon
Inbred mouse strains, living in simple laboratory environments far removed from nature, have been shown to vary consistently in their immune response. However, wildlife populations are typically outbreeding and face a multiplicity of challenges, parasitological and otherwise. In this study we seek evidence of consistent difference in immunological profile amongst individuals in the wild. We apply a novel method in this context, using longitudinal (repeated capture) data from natural populations of field voles, Microtus agrestis,...

Data from: Conflicting selection alters the trajectory of molecular evolution in a tripartite bacteria–plasmid–phage interaction

Ellie Harrison, James Hall, Steve Paterson, Andrew Spiers, Michael Brockhurst, James P. J. Hall & Michael A. Brockhurst
Bacteria engage in a complex network of ecological interactions, which includes mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as phages and plasmids. These elements play a key role in microbial communities as vectors of horizontal gene transfer but can also be important sources of selection for their bacterial hosts. In natural communities, bacteria are likely to encounter multiple MGEs simultaneously and conflicting selection among MGEs could alter the bacterial evolutionary response to each MGE. Here, we test...

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