967 Works

Data from: Gain-of-function experiments in bacteriophage lambda uncover residues under diversifying selection in nature

Rohan Maddamsetti, Daniel T. Johnson, Stephanie J. Spielman, Katherine L. Petrie, Debora S. Marks & Justin R. Meyer
Viral gain-of-function mutations frequently evolve during laboratory experiments. Whether the specific mutations that evolve in the lab also evolve in nature and whether they have the same impact on evolution in the real world is unknown. We studied a model virus, bacteriophage λ, that repeatedly evolves to exploit a new host receptor under typical laboratory conditions. Here we demonstrate that two residues of λ’s J protein are required for the new function. In natural λ...

Community College Students with Psychological Disorders and Their Perceptions of Online Learning

Gretchen Winifred Langford Warren
Research focusing on students with learning disabilities is abundant for secondary and higher education. Studies utilizing data on students with psychological disorders cover secondary and 4-year university education. However, community college students with psychological disorders and their perception of online classes is an area of educational research which lacks data. Students across a wide spectrum of psychological disorders tend to find learning challenging. The community college's learning environment may best fit their learning styles. With...

Discovering Career Self-Efficacy Among Rural Community College Students

Tameka Mierelle Womack
Many students report that their main purpose for attending a two- or four-year academic institution is to prepare for a career, and require assistance during the process of selecting a major and career that is appropriate for them. Students who struggle with career indecision often seek help through career counseling and/or computer-assisted career guidance systems. Self-efficacy plays a key role in students' self-esteem and their belief that they can not only choose a career but...

Urban Elementary Students' Views of Environmental Scientists, Environmental Caretakers and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

Patricia Lynne Horne
The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews were included to elucidate student illustrations. The study's sample represented one-third of all fifth graders in the mid-Atlantic school district selected for this research. Approximately 5% of participants were chosen for...

Autism Assessment Scale for Children (AASC): The Development of a DSM-V AIigned Questionnaire to Screen School-Aged Children for High Functioning Autism

Christine Hebert
The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the latent factor structure underlying the Ellis Functional Assessment (EFA) for children with high-functioning autism (HFA), to compare the latent factor structures for under-identified subgroups of children (older children, gifted children, female children), and to design a pre-screening assessment for HFA based on those results. The scope of the study is limited to children who have been identified as having HFA and whose parents completed the EFA...

Adjustment Experiences and Ethnic Identity Attitudes Among High School Students in Advanced Academic Programs

Tiffany Michelle Hall
African American high school students have been historically underrepresented in advanced placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and dual enrollment (DE) programs. The adoption of more equitable admissions practices has helped many school divisions develop a more ethnically diverse AP, IB, and DE student body. Despite increased African American student enrollment, retaining these students remains an ongoing problem. Equally troubling is the persistent achievement gap that exists between African American and White students in AP, IB,...

Efficacy of Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) Certifications

Daniel L. Trent
This research investigated the perceived effect of industry recognized Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) certifications among community college drafting instructors and employers. The research questions that guided this study were: (1) Do community college drafting instructors believe that certified drafters perform better on the job than non-certified drafters? (2) Do employers believe that certified drafters perform better on the job than non-certified drafters? (3) Do employers seek CAD certified individuals to fill drafting positions? (4) Is...

Engineering Design: A Cognitive Process Approach

Greg Joseph Strimel
The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning...

The Impact of Participation in a Virginia Community College Orientation Program Course on Student Engagement, Satisfaction, Academic achievement, and Retention

Wendy L. Tighe
Participation in an orientation program course and several student engagement and satisfaction factors have been identified as positively related to desirable student outcomes. This study explored student engagement, satisfaction, academic achievement, and retention for students based on their enrollment in an orientation course at Tidewater Community College (TCC) in Virginia. This study used a cross-sectional, static group comparison secondary data analysis approach to explore four research questions. The Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE)...

Predictors of Persistence Among Community College Adult and Traditional-Aged Students

Kellie Crawford Sorey
Previous literature has documented the high attrition rates for community college students. Beyond raw data, research has demonstrated that predictors of higher education persistence may include a student's background characteristics, a student's external commitments, institutional influences, and a combination thereof. However, empirical research on the persistence of community college students is scarce, and even fewer studies address the differential predictors of persistence between adult and traditional-aged students. The present study examined the predictors of institutional...

Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments of a Late Pleistocene Barrier Island Complex, Southeastern Virginia

Alan K. Jasper
The Norfolk, Kempsville, and Sand Bridge Formations beneath the HIckory Scarp of southeastern Virginia are reinterpreted as representing one glacio-eustatic transgressive cycle. The timing of this transgressive event is set during the earliest Wisconsinan. The formations were previously interpreted as unconformable overlying one another. The Norfolk-Kempsville unconformity is actually a diagenetic boundary. Evidence is presented which indicates that the Kempsville Scarp area should be reduced to member status or dropped entirely.

Food Habits and Ecology of Beavers in Southeastern Virginia

John Lennox Echternach Jr.
The food habits and ecology of three beaver colonies in James County, Virginia were studied. Vegetation surrounding the colonies was characterized as southern mixed hardwood forest or lowland swamp forest. Stream flow values ranged from 0.013 to 0.369 m3/sec. Water depth ranged from 0.5 60 4.0 m. Caloric value of 13 heavily used woody species ranged from 3305 to 6204 cal/g. Considerable seasonal variation was noted in most species with the lowest caloric values noted...

Association Between Fiscal Effort Above Required Local Effort and Accreditation in Virginia Schools

Daniel C. Soderholm
This study expands on previous research regarding the adequacy of educational funding in order to reach a desired academic outcome. Specifically, this study examines Virginia policies of Standards of Quality and Standards of Accreditation to see if local fiscal effort above the minimum required by Virginia has an association to the desired minimum academic outcome of school accreditation. The research in this study shows that when using a linear regression analysis or an ANCOVA there...

Freshwater Transport on the Continental Shelf of the Southeastern United States

Cheolsoo Kim
The circulation of water over the shelf of the southeastern United States was examined during the Fall Removal Experiment from late October to early November 1987. A steady state, two-dimensional analytical model of wind and density driven flow was used to study the relative importance of driving forces in shelf circulation, fate of freshwater and cross-shelf exchange processes. The inner and middle shelf mean circulation was found to be driven by four major components: (1)...

Perceptions of Second-Level Managers' Performance in Student affairs

Jennifer Kingsley
This study explored first- (subordinates) and second-level (managers) student affairs professionals' perceptions of managers' skills and abilities (N = 193). Participants in this study were members of the National Association for Student Personnel Administrators, National Association for Campus Activities, Association of College an University Housing Officer-International, and the Association on Higher Education and Disability in Virginia. Two instruments were used for the study: (1) Demographics, collecting demographic information and qualitative data, (2) Survey of Management...

Evaluating Work Keys Profiling as a Pre-Employment Assessment Tool to Increase Employee Retention

Ruth Zimmer Hendrick
Twenty-first century changes in the nature of work, the workforce and employment practices, along with increased employer need to select employees who will have the best "fit" with particular jobs in order to increase return on investment, are leading employers toward greater use of pre-employment assessments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of one of those tools, the Work Keys skill assessment battery, on employment retention. Research questions centered around the...

A Comparison of Two Theories of Resistance to Innovation in Medical Record Administration Baccalaureate Degree Programs

Joyce Brown-Harvey
Resistance to innovation is a major obstacle to the successful implementation of planned change in colleges and universities. The purpose of this study was to compare two explanations of resistance to innovation to determine which one best explains the variance in receptivity and proposed innovations among faculty members in medical record administration programs. One explanation holds that organizational members' receptivity to change is a function of their personalities. The second explanation holds that members respond...

Two Essays on IPO Earnings Management

Yong Sun
This dissertation includes two essays that study initial public offerings (IPO) earnings management. The first essay examines the underwriter's certification and monitoring roles in IPO earnings management; the second essay explores the relation between IPO earnings management and post-IPO institutional ownership. In the first essay, we investigate the certification role played by underwriters. We hypothesize that there is a negative relation between IPO earnings management and underwriter reputation and that there is a positive relation...

Anticipated vs Experienced Work-Family Conflict: Newcomer Expectations and Early Socialization Outcomes

Seterra D. Burleson
Applying met expectations and newcomer socialization theory, congruence and discrepancy between anticipated work-family conflict (AWFC) and experienced WFC were examined in relation to job satisfaction, affective commitment, and turnover intent. It was hypothesized that when AWFC and WFC are in agreement outcomes are more favorable. Further, it was hypothesized that when the discrepancy is such that WFC is higher than AWFC outcomes are more favorable than vice versa. Data were collected from 205 adults, first...

Purification and Characterization of the Prostate Cancer-Associated Antigen: 7E11-C5

Qi Feng
A murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), 7E11-C5, recognizes a prostate organ-specific antigen. Under reducing conditions, the 7E11-C5 antigen exhibited major 100-Kd and minor 70-Kd bands, suggesting that the antigen comprises two peptide chains. The antigen was detected in pooled normal human seminal plasma, xenograft tissue extract of a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line, LNCaP, and tissue extracts of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinomas, but was not identified in any of the non-prostate tissue extracts tested....

Role of Lipolysis and Lipogenesis in the Development of Diet-Induced Obesity

Michael John Davies
Obesity is an increasingly common public health problem with approximately one-half of the American adult population overweight and one-quarter considered obese. This alarming trend has led researchers to determine potential causative factors of excess weight gain in humans. However, it is difficult to discern whether perturbations that result in obesity are the cause or simply the result of the obese state. Diet-induced obesity is one of the animal models that allow researchers to address temporal...

Molecular Study of the B19 (Human) Pathogenic Parvovirus

Jamshed Ayub
The B19 (human) parvovirus is a small single stranded DNA virus of 5.4 kilobases. B19 is specific for erythroid progenitor cells and has been propagated in vitro only with human erythroid bone marrow. Replication of viral DNA and the viral protein products of B19 appear similar to those of other animal parvoviruses. However, B19 differs from other parvoviruses in some important aspects, which include the initiation of all transcripts at a strong left side promoter...

Seasonal and Diel Patterns of Abundance and Productivity of Phototrophic Picoplankton in the Lower Chesapeake Bay

Lewis Francis Affronti Jr.
This study was performed to evaluate phototrophic pico-plankton (0.2 to 2.0 μm) dynamics within the lower Chesapeake Bay. A 15 month study of phototrophic picoplankton abundance and productivity was made from June 1988 to October 1989. Annual picoplankton abundance using epifluorescence microscopy ranged from 7.26 x 106 cells/1 in the winter to 9.28 x 108 cells/1 during late summer. In situ incubations of natural picoplankton populations over the 15 month study were used to test...

Multigrid Acceleration of Time-Dependent Solutions of Navier-Stokes Equations

Sarafa Oladele Ibraheem
Recent progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics is encouraging scientists to look at fine details of flow physics of problems in which natural unsteady phenomena have hitherto been neglected. The acceleration methods that have proven very successful in steady state computations can be explored for time dependent computations. In this work, an efficient multigrid methods is developed to solve the time-dependent Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The Beam-Warming ADI method is used as the base algorithm for...

\"Preservation...From the Dangers of the Enemy as Well as Seas\": The Establishment of the Old Cape Henry Lighthouse

Kevin Charles Valliant
As the federal government of the United States began its existence, the Chesapeake Bay had gone without a significant navigational aid for nearly two centuries. What factors then led the newly established government to build a lighthouse on Cape Henry, at the entrance of the Bay? Although the colonial governments of Virginia and Maryland failed to build a lighthouse, their efforts provided the groundwork for the Cape Henry light, which the federal government envisioned not...

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