891 Works

Community College Presidents' Perspectives on Campus Safety

Chad Christopher Sartini
This study addressed the phenomenon of campus safety from the perspective of the community college president. The researcher employed a mixed methods design by surveying the community college presidents of one state community college system followed by in-depth interviews of three of the presidents of the same community college system. The quantitative inquiry used descriptive statistics to detail community college presidents’ knowledge and perceptions of campus safety. The qualitative inquiry employed case study analysis through...

A Multi-Agent Systems Approach for Analysis of Stepping Stone Attacks

Marco Antonio Gamarra
Stepping stone attacks are one of the most sophisticated cyber-attacks, in which attackers make a chain of compromised hosts to reach a victim target. In this Dissertation, an analytic model with Multi-Agent systems approach has been proposed to analyze the propagation of stepping stones attacks in dynamic vulnerability graphs. Because the vulnerability configuration in a network is inherently dynamic, in this Dissertation a biased min-consensus technique for dynamic graphs with fixed and switching topology is...

The Effect of Differing Degrees of Automation and Reliability on Simulated Luggage Screening Performance

Molly M. Liechty
The present work examined the effects of two types of decision support systems in a simulated luggage screening task: An input aid and an output aid. An input aid supports an operator’s information gathering. An output aid supports decision making and action selection. A Time-Accuracy Function (TAF) analysis was applied to isolate processing time from performance asymptote, which conventional performance measures such as sensitivity and response time do not distinguish one from the other. Sixty...

Medical Specialty Camps: A Holistic Approach to Assist in the Management Of Diabetes

Takeyra Monique Collins
From toddlers to adolescents, poor medical regimen and adherence occurs as youth face adversities caused by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This inquiry-based research sought to explore the process of promoting resilience to attain personal diabetes management through outcome-focused programming. This dissertation was structured in a three-paper format to highlight three sectors of a medical specialty camp to identify the significance of building resilience among youth with T1DM, incorporating family support, and providing service-learning opportunities...

An Examination of the Decision-Making Process Instructional Designers Use to Complete Projects With the Constraints of Limited Time and Tools

Denesha Kaye Rabel
Based on a phenomenological theoretical perspective, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how instructional designers make decisions related to determining which layers and related instructional design activities to address based on time and tool resource constraints. To explore the topic, this study was guided by five research questions which included: (a) what type of time and tool constraints do instructional design practitioners experience, (b) how do instructional design practitioners make decisions based...

Current Barriers to Dental Care of Virginia Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Sfair Alkhthami
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the barriers to accessing professional dental care for Virginia children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as a mechanism for evaluating dental hygiene curricula. Methods: Data was collected via Qualtrics® from caregivers of one or more children with ASD who were part of Families of Autistic Children in Tidewater (FACT). The survey was distributed through FACT to all 200 members (N=200) via an email link, and a...

The Application of Formal Principles of Public Administration as Perceived by City Managers

Shelton P. Rhodes
The present study seeks to determine the extent to which formalist ideas in public administration are evident in the practice of managerial performance as perceived by city managers and assistant city managers in the three states of Arizona, Colorado, and Virginia. While numerous studies demonstrate how administrative practices vary in different socio-political environments, the International City Management Association contends that certain basic features of public management nevertheless should be widely applied in different settings. The...

Data from: The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes

Ricardo Betancur-R., Adela Roa-Varon, Nancy I. Holcroft, W. Calvin Borden, Terry Grande, Kent Carpenter, Millicent Sanciangco, Chenhong Li, Dahiana Arcila, Jesus A Ballesteros, Guillermo Ortí, J. Andrés López, Matthew A. Campbell, Edward O. Wiley, Gloria Arratia, Guoqing Lu, Stuart Willis, Richard E. Broughton, Cureton II, James C, Feifei Zhang & Daniel J. Hough
The tree of life of fishes is in a state of flux because we still lack a comprehensive phylogeny that includes all major groups. The situation is most critical for a large clade of spiny-finned fishes, traditionally referred to as percomorphs, whose uncertain relationships have plagued ichthyologists for over a century. Most of what we know about the higher-level relationships among fish lineages has been based on morphology, but rapid influx of molecular studies is...

Data from: Evolution of woody life form on tropical mountains in the tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae)

Suman Neupane, Paul O. Lewis, Steven Dessein, Hunter Lee Shanks, Sushil Paudyal, Frederic Lens & Hunter Shanks
Spermacoceae are mainly an herbaceous group in the Rubiaceae. However, a few lineages are woody, and are found in a diverse range of habitat types. Three of the largest woody lineages (Arcytophyllum, Hedyotis, and Kadua) are characterized by their distribution in the moist tropical mountains, and have disjunct distribution patterns with respect to their closest relatives. In this study, we explore the cases of derived woodiness in these three lineages and their diversification dynamics in...

Data from: Synthesis and characterization of azo-guanidine based alcoholic media naked eye DNA sensor

Ataf Ali Altaf, Uzma Hashmat, Muhammad Yousaf, Bhajan Lal, Shafiq Ullah, Alvin A. Holder & Amin Badshah
DNA sensing always has an open meadow of curiosity for biotechnologists and other researchers. Recently, in this field, we have introduced an emerging class of molecules containing azo and guanidine functionalities. In this study, we have synthesized three new compounds (UA1, UA6 and UA7) for potential application in DNA sensing in alcoholic medium. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Their DNA sensing potential were investigated...

Data from: Supplementing small farms with native mason bees increases strawberry size and growth rate

Lisa Horth & Laura A. Campbell
Pollination services, especially those of bees, play a vital role in agriculture. Declining honeybee populations require us to find alternative solutions for sustainable agriculture. Native bees are proving to be efficient pollinators. Mason bees (Osmia lignaria) provide valuable pollinator services for some woody orchard species, but their value as pollinators for herbaceous crops is largely untested. We assessed the effectiveness of O. lignaria supplementation on nine strawberry farms over two growing seasons. We specifically selected...

Data from: Experimental demonstration of an Allee effect in microbial populations

RajReni B. Kaul, Andrew M. Kramer, Fred C. Dobbs & John M. Drake
Microbial populations can be dispersal limited. However, microorganisms that successfully disperse into physiologically ideal environments are not guaranteed to establish. This observation contradicts the Baas-Becking tenet: ‘Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects’. Allee effects, which manifest in the relationship between initial population density and probability of establishment, could explain this observation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that small populations of Vibrio fischeri are subject to an intrinsic demographic Allee effect. Populations subjected to predation by...

Data from: Wild acorn woodpeckers recognize associations between individuals in other groups

Michael A. Pardo, Emilee A. Sparks, Tejal S. Kuray, Natasha D. Hagemeyer, Eric L. Walters & Walter D. Koenig
According to the social intelligence hypothesis, understanding the cognitive demands of the social environment is key to understanding the evolution of intelligence. Many important socio-cognitive abilities, however, have primarily been studied in a narrow subset of the social environment—within-group social interactions—despite the fact that between-group social interactions often have a substantial effect on fitness. In particular, triadic awareness (knowledge about the relationships and associations between others) is critical for navigating many types of complex social...

Data from: Causes of seasonal decline in reproduction of the cooperatively-breeding acorn woodpecker

Walter D. Koenig & Eric L. Walters
Clutch size and reproductive success decline seasonally in a wide range of temperate avian taxa. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain such declines: the “timing” hypothesis, which states that conditions affecting reproduction decline intrinsically with date, and the “quality” hypothesis, which proposes that high-quality individuals or individuals in high-quality situations breed earlier. We contrasted the relative importance of these two hypotheses using a long-term dataset of the cooperatively-breeding acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in...

Factors Affecting Policy in Educational Media Services

Diane S. Barker
Teachers use a variety of resources to motivate students and to enrich and expand learning experiences in the classroom. Media, including films, videotapes, and other audiovisual materials, are some of those resources. Over the years, as teacher access to media increased, researchers began to investigate factors which encouraged or discouraged its use. Factors which had an impact on teacher use or lack of use of media were and are important indicators to administrators responsible for...

Data from: Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

James D. McLaren, Jeffrey J. Buler, Tim Schreckengost, Jaclyn A. Smolinsky, Matthew Boone, E. Emiel Van Loon, Deanna K. Dawson, Eric L. Walters & E. Emiel Van Loon
With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern...

Data from: The contribution of marine aggregate-associated bacteria to the accumulation of pathogenic bacteria in oysters: an agent-based model

Andrew M. Kramer, J. Evan Ward, Fred C. Dobbs, Melissa L. Pierce & John M. Drake
Bivalves process large volumes of water, leading to their accumulation of bacteria, including potential human pathogens (e.g., vibrios). These bacteria are captured at low efficiencies when freely suspended in the water column, but they also attach to marine aggregates, which are captured with near 100% efficiency. For this reason, and because they are often enriched with heterotrophic bacteria, marine aggregates have been hypothesized to function as important transporters of bacteria into bivalves. The relative contribution...

Data from: Gain-of-function experiments in bacteriophage lambda uncover residues under diversifying selection in nature

Rohan Maddamsetti, Daniel T. Johnson, Stephanie J. Spielman, Katherine L. Petrie, Debora S. Marks & Justin R. Meyer
Viral gain-of-function mutations frequently evolve during laboratory experiments. Whether the specific mutations that evolve in the lab also evolve in nature and whether they have the same impact on evolution in the real world is unknown. We studied a model virus, bacteriophage λ, that repeatedly evolves to exploit a new host receptor under typical laboratory conditions. Here we demonstrate that two residues of λ’s J protein are required for the new function. In natural λ...

Sexual Orientation, Attachment, and Adult Relationship Quality

Earl Calvin Riggins III
Comparisons were made between 55 heterosexual males, 49 heterosexual females, 56 homosexual males, and 35 homosexual females on measures of attachment, relationship satisfaction and relationship success. Results indicated that adult homosexuals experience greater difficulty than adult heterosexuals in becoming close to others. Individuals endorsing the secure attachment style reported greater relationship satisfaction than individuals endorsing either of the two insecure attachment styles. In addition, females reported greater relationship satisfaction than males. Significantly more individuals endorsing...

Parallel Process: An Empirical Investigation

Thomas E. Pollack
The purpose of the present study was to conduct an empirical investigation of parallel process. The study used a cross-sectional design in which 30 therapy relationships and the corresponding supervision relationships were studied. The therapist assessed the behavior manifested by the patient during a targeted therapy session. Following the subsequent supervision session, the supervisor assessed the behavior manifested by the supervisee during the supervision session. In addition, each of the triad participants (patient, therapist, supervisor)...

The Effects of Nonlinear Damping on the Large Deflection Response of Structures Subjected to Random Excitation

Chunchu Bhavani Prasad
Effects of both nonlinear damping and large deflection stiffness are included in the theoretical analysis in an attempt to explain the experimental phenomena of aircraft panels excited at high sound pressure levels; that is the broadening of the strain response peak and the increase in modal frequency. Beams and symmetrically laminated plates subjected to acoustic excitation are considered in the analyses. The excitations are ergodic and Gaussian with zero mean. A polynomial containing both linear...

The Effects of Wellness Activity Choices on Urban Employees' Psychological Mood States and Job Satisfaction

Ruth Porter Holland
This ex-post-facto study was designed to examine the effects of varied levels of physical activity participation choices on employees' mood states and job satisfaction. A six (group) x two (sex) x three (times) ANCOVA method analyzed the relationship of three independent variables (group, sex and repeated exercise sessions) to ten dependent psychological measures (seven mood states and three job satisfaction components). Comparisons by group, sex, and time were made to determine whether four treatment groups...

The Role of GABA in Reproductive Neuroendocrine Systems

Robert Carter McRee
Local gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurons in the hypothalamus can modulate the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) pulse generating system. Two animal models (intact and ovariectomized rats) were used to determine the nature of modulation of LHRH release by GABA. The experiment determined the release of LHRH, serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) during two hormonal states with each model. In the intact rat the proestrus and estrus states were examined, and in the...

Two Essays on IPO Earnings Management

Yong Sun
This dissertation includes two essays that study initial public offerings (IPO) earnings management. The first essay examines the underwriter's certification and monitoring roles in IPO earnings management; the second essay explores the relation between IPO earnings management and post-IPO institutional ownership. In the first essay, we investigate the certification role played by underwriters. We hypothesize that there is a negative relation between IPO earnings management and underwriter reputation and that there is a positive relation...

Understanding the Digital Divide As It Relates to Electronic Commerce

Franklin D. Gaillard
There exists an electronic digital divide within the United States. This digital divide concerns access to the Internet and its corresponding technologies. The U.S. government is concerned about the digital divide because it appears that certain ethnic groups and income levels are being excluded from computer technologies and the Internet. These groups include African Americans and Hispanics, who are lagging the Caucasians significantly in gaining access to the Internet. For a while the gap between...

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