301 Works

Seismic Data Archive for the Unsettled Earth Project, Bristol, England, UK

Ophelia George
This dataset contains broadband seismic data collected between May 2018 and January 2019 as part of the Unsettled Earth project funded by the University of Bristol's Brigstow Institute. The seismic station was deployed in one of the turrets of the Wills Memorial Building Tower, Bristol.

Drosophila-parasitoid interactions along an elevation gradient in an Australian rainforest, 2016

C.T. Jeffs, J.C.D. Terry, M. Higgie, A. Jandová, H. Konvičková, J.J. Brown, C-H. Lue, M. Schiffer, E.K. O’Brien, J. Bridle, J. Hrček & O.T. Lewis
The dataset contains records of Drosophila flies and associated parasitic wasps collected along two elevational (temperature) gradients from Australian rainforest site. The data is presented at the individual Drosophila pupae level. It describes patterns of parasitism levels from 14 sites and the structure of quantitative food webs at six sites. Also included are temperature records from each site.

Enchytraeid worm abundance and delta 13C cholesterol data from Sourhope field experiment site, Scotland, 2000 [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

H.I.J. Black, S.B. Piertney, C. Macdonald, V. Standen, I.D. Bull, R.P. Evershed, J.S. Chaplow & A.M. Thompson
This dataset comprises enchytraeid worm abundance and Delta 13C values from enchytraeid cholesterol. The data were collected as a component of the NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme, consisting of a one year study of the diversity and activity of Enchytraeid worms, small relatives of the earthworm. These worms are very common in upland soils and often outweigh all other fauna, including sheep. The project focused on investigating the importance of Enchytraeid species, or group diversity, in...

An effect size statistical framework for investigating sexual dimorphism in non-avian dinosaurs and other extinct taxa

Evan Saitta, Maximilian Stockdale, Nicholas Longrich, Vincent Bonhomme, Michael Benton, Innes Cuthill & Peter Makovicky
Despite reports of sexual dimorphism in extinct taxa, such claims in non-avian dinosaurs have been underrepresented recently (~the last decade) and often criticized. Since dimorphism is widespread in sexually reproducing organisms today, underrepresentation might suggest either methodological shortcomings or that this diverse group exhibited highly unusual reproductive biology. Univariate significance testing, especially for bimodality, is ineffective and prone to false negatives. Species recognition and mutual sexual selection hypotheses, therefore, may not be required to explain...

Stereo video files used for 3d tracking horsefly trajectories

Martin How & Tim Caro
Of all hypotheses advanced for why zebras have stripes, avoidance of biting fly attack receives by far the most support, yet the mechanisms by which stripes thwart landings are not yet understood. A logical and popular hypothesis is that stripes interfere with optic flow patterns needed by flying insects to execute controlled landings. This could occur through disrupting the radial symmetry of optic flow via the aperture effect (i.e. generation of false motion cues by...

Data from: An atlas of polygenic risk score associations to highlight putative causal relationships across the human phenome

Tom G. Richardson, Sean Harrison, Gibran Hemani & George Davey Smith
The age of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has provided us with an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the genetic liability of complex disease using polygenic risk scores (PRS). In this study, we have analysed 162 PRS (p<5×10−05) derived from GWAS and 551 heritable traits from the UK Biobank study (N = 334,398). Findings can be investigated using a web application (http://mrcieu.mrsoftware.org/PRS_atlas/), which we envisage will help uncover both known and novel mechanisms which contribute towards...

Data from: Avian surface reconstruction in free-flight with application to flight stability analysis of a barn owl and peregrine falcon

Nicholas E Durston, Xue Wan, Jian G Liu & Shane P Windsor
Birds primarily create and control the forces necessary for flight through changing the shape and orientation of their wings and tail. Their wing geometry is characterised by complex variation in parameters such as camber, twist, sweep and dihedral. To characterise this complexity, a multi-stereo photogrammetry setup was developed for accurately measuring surface geometry in high-resolution during free-flight. The natural patterning of the birds was used as the basis for phase correlation-based image matching, allowing indoor...

Data from: Effects of body plan evolution on the hydrodynamic drag and energy requirements of swimming in ichthyosaurs

Susana Gutarra, Benjamin Moon, Imran Rahman, Colin Palmer, Stephan Lautenschlager, Alison Brimacombe & Michael Benton
Ichthyosaurs are an extinct group of fully marine tetrapods that were well adapted to aquatic locomotion. During their ~160-million-year existence, they evolved from elongate and serpentine forms into stockier, fish-like animals, convergent with sharks and dolphins. Here, we use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to quantify the impact of this transition on the energy demands of ichthyosaur swimming for the first time. We run computational simulations of water flow using three-dimensional digital models of nine ichthyosaurs...

Data from: Head movements quadruple the range of speeds encoded by the insect motion vision system in hawkmoths

Shane P. Windsor & Graham K. Taylor
Flying insects use compensatory head movements to stabilize gaze. Like other optokinetic responses, these movements can reduce image displacement, motion, and misalignment, and simplify the optic flow field. Because gaze is imperfectly stabilized in insects, we hypothesised that compensatory head movements serve to extend the range of velocities of self-motion that the visual system encodes. We tested this by measuring head movements in hawkmoths Hyles lineata responding to full-field visual stimuli of differing oscillation amplitudes,...

Data from: The mosasaur fossil record through the lens of fossil completeness

Daniel A. Driscoll, Alexander M. Dunhill, Thomas L. Stubbs & Michael J. Benton
The quality of the fossil record affects our understanding of macroevolutionary patterns. Palaeodiversity is filtered through geological and human processes; efforts to correct for these biases are part of a debate concerning the role of sampling proxies and standardization in biodiversity models. We analyse the fossil record of mosasaurs in terms of fossil completeness as a measure of fossil quality, using three novel, correlating metrics of fossil completeness and 4083 specimens. A new qualitative measure...

Data from: Comparative rangewide phylogeography of four endemic Taiwanese bat species

Stephen J. Rossiter, Hao-Chih Kuo, Shiang-Fan Chen, Yin-Ping Fang & Jon Flanders
Phylogeographic reconstructions of co-distributed taxa can help reveal the interplay between abiotic factors, such as altitude and climate, and species-specific attributes, in shaping patterns of population genetic structure. Recent studies also demonstrate the value of both range-wide sampling and species distribution modeling (SDM) in comparative phylogeography. Here we combine these approaches to study the population histories of four phylogenetically-related forest-dependent bat species. All are endemic to the mountainous island of Taiwan but show differences in...

Data from: Differential effects of fertilisers on pollination and parasitoid interaction networks

Edith Villa-Galaviz, Simon M. Smart, Elizabeth L. Clare, Susan E. Ward & Jane Memmott
Grassland fertilisation drives non-random plant loss resulting in areas dominated by perennial grass species. How these changes cascade through linked trophic levels, however, is not well understood. We studied how grassland fertilisation propagates change through the plant assemblage into the plant-flower visitor, plant-leaf miner and leaf miner-parasitoid networks using a year’s data collection from a long-term grassland fertiliser application experiment. Our experiment had three fertiliser treatments each applied to replicate plots 15 m2 in size:...

Traditional Gender Roles Enacted by Men and Women in Azerbaijani Cinema

Zumrud Jalilova

Data from: Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats

Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo, John A. Raven, Davide Pisani & Andrew H. Knoll
The early evolutionary history of the chloroplast lineage remains an open question. It is widely accepted that the endosymbiosis that established the chloroplast lineage in eukaryotes can be traced back to a single event, in which a cyanobacterium was incorporated into a protistan host. It is still unclear, however, which Cyanobacteria are most closely related to the chloroplast, when the plastid lineage first evolved, and in what habitats this endosymbiotic event occurred. We present phylogenomic...

Data from: Stripes for warning and stripes for hiding: spatial frequency and detection distance

James B. Barnett, Annabelle S. Redfern, Robin Bhattacharyya-Dickson, Olivia Clifton, Thomas Courty, Thien Ho, Annabel Hopes, Thomas McPhee, Kaitlin Merrison, Robert Owen, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel & Innes C. Cuthill
Striped patterns are common in nature and are used both as warning signals and camouflage. Their effectiveness in either role depends on their color and spatial frequency, and how these compare to the background. Although this general principle is well established, the specific detail of how visual texture influences defensive coloration remains untested in the field. For aposematic patterns, especially, little work has focused on how pattern components, as opposed to color, affect warning signal...

Data from: The reproductive biology of two poorly known relatives of the fig (Ficus) and insights into the evolution of the fig syconium.

Chris Thorogood, Naomi Dalton, Aisa Irvine & Simon Hiscock
We conducted the first detailed investigation of the floral architecture and reproductive biology of two species from the genus Dorstenia, which are poorly known relatives of Ficus (Moraceae). Our aims were to extend and refine knowledge of the understudied genus Dorstenia and to explore possible insights into the evolution of the fig syconium. We characterised four key stages of floral development using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and histological staining. Reproductive biology was found to...

Data from: The Middle Triassic procolophonid Kapes bentoni: computed tomography of the skull and skeleton

Marta Zaher, Robert R. Coram & Michael J. Benton
Procolophonids were diverse small reptiles through the Late Permian and Triassic. Relatively complete specimens of various taxa are known from the Early and Late Triassic, but the ten or so Middle Triassic taxa, from South Africa, Russia, China and the UK, are mostly incomplete, being known only from skulls or partial and poorly preserved isolated elements. Because of their small size, it has often been difficult to establish details of anatomy using physical preparation methods,...

Data from: Anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance and the recovery debt

David Moreno Mateos, Edward B. Barbier, Peter C. Jones, Holly P. Jones, James Aronson, Jose A. Lopez-Lopez, Michelle L. McCrackin, Paula Meli, Daniel Montoya & José Rey Benayas
Ecosystem recovery from anthropogenic disturbances, either without human intervention or assisted by ecological restoration, is increasingly occurring worldwide. As ecosystems progress through recovery, it is important to estimate any resulting deficit in biodiversity and functions. Here we use data from 3,035 sampling plots worldwide, to quantify the interim reduction of biodiversity and functions occurring during the recovery process (that is, the ‘recovery debt’). Compared with reference levels, recovering ecosystems run annual deficits of 46–51% for...

Data from: Optimal background matching camouflage

Constantine Michalis, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, David P. Gibson & Innes C. Cuthill
Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous,...

Data from: Managing conflict between bats and humans: the response of soprano pipistrelles (Pipistrellus pygmaeus) to exclusion from roosts in houses

Emma Stone, Matt R. K. Zeale, Stuart E. Newson, William J. Browne, Stephen Harris & Gareth Jones
Conflict can arise when bats roost in human dwellings and householders are affected adversely by their presence. In the United Kingdom, the exclusion of bats from roosts can be licensed under exceptional circumstances to alleviate conflict, but the fate of excluded bats and the impact on their survival and reproduction is not well understood. Using radio-tracking, we investigated the effects of exclusion on the soprano pipistrelle Pipistrellus pygmaeus, a species that commonly roosts in buildings...

Data from: The diversity of floral temperature patterns, and their use by pollinators

Michael J. M. Harrap, Sean A. Rands, Natalie Hempel De Ibarra, Heather M. Whitney & Michael JM Harrap
Pollinating insects utilise various sensory cues to identify and learn rewarding flower species. One such cue is floral temperature, created by captured sunlight or plant thermogenesis. Bumblebees, honeybees and stingless bees can distinguish flowers based on differences in overall temperature between flowers. We report here that floral temperature often differs between different parts of the flower creating a temperature structure or pattern. Temperature patterns are common, with 55% of 118 plant species thermographed, showing within-flower...

Data from: A method for detecting characteristic patterns in social interactions with an application to handover interactions

Nikolai W. F. Bode, Andrew Sutton, Lindsey Lacey, John G. Fennell & Ute Leonards
Social interactions are a defining behavioural trait of social animals. Discovering characteristic patterns in the display of such behaviour is one of the fundamental endeavours in behavioural biology and psychology, as this promises to facilitate the general understanding, classification, prediction and even automation of social interactions. We present a novel approach to study characteristic patterns, including both sequential and synchronous actions in social interactions. The key concept in our analysis is to represent social interactions...

Data from: Comparative finite-element analysis: a single computational modeling method can reliably estimate the mechanical properties of porcine and human vertebrae

Kate A. Robson Brown, Sami Tarsuslugil, V. Nagitha Wijayathunga & Ruth K. Wilcox
Significant advances in the functional analysis of musculoskeletal systems require the development of modelling techniques with improved focus, accuracy and validity. This need is particularly visible in the fields, such as palaeontology, where unobservable parameters may lie at the heart of the most interesting research questions, and where models and simulations may provide some of the most innovative solutions. Here, we report on the development of a computational modelling method to generate estimates of the...

Data from: Prevalence and outcomes of multimorbidity in South Asia: a systematic review

Sanghamitra Pati, Subhashisa Swain, Mohammad Akhtar Hussain, Marjan Van Den Akker, Job Metsemakers, J. André Knottnerus & Chris Salisbury
Objective: To systematically review the studies of prevalence, patterns and consequences of multimorbidity reported from South Asia. Design: Systematic review. Setting: South Asia. Data sources: Articles were retrieved from two electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) and from the relevant references lists. Methodical data extraction according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was followed. English-language studies published between 2000 and March 2015 were included. Eligibility criteria: Studies addressing prevalence, consequences and...

Data from: Polar lakes may act as ecological islands to aquatic protists

Karin Rengefors, Ramiro Logares & Johanna Laybourn-Parry
A fundamental question in ecology is whether microorganisms follow the same patterns as multicellular organisms when it comes to population structure and levels of genetic diversity. Enormous population sizes, predominately asexual reproduction, and presumably high dispersal due to small body size could have profound implications on their genetic diversity and population structure. Here, we have analyzed the population genetic structure in a lake-dwelling microbial eukaryote (dinoflagellate) and tested the hypothesis that there is population genetic...

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