61 Works

Data from: Cooperative personalities and social niche specialisation in female meerkats

Alecia J. Carter, Sinead English, Tim H. Clutton-Brock, A. J. Carter, S. English & T. H. Clutton-Brock
The social niche specialization hypothesis predicts that group-living animals should specialize in particular social roles to avoid social conflict, resulting in alternative life-history strategies for different roles. Social niche specialization, coupled with role-specific life-history trade-offs, should thus generate between-individual differences in behaviour that persist through time, or distinct personalities, as individuals specialize in particular nonoverlapping social roles. We tested for support for the social niche specialization hypothesis in cooperative personality traits in wild female meerkats...

Data from: Parasitic castration promotes coevolutionary cycling but also imposes a cost on sex

Ben Ashby & Sunetra Gupta
Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites is thought to drive a range of biological phenomena including the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Of particular interest are conditions that produce persistent fluctuations in the frequencies of genes governing host-parasite specificity (coevolutionary cycling), as sex may be more beneficial than asexual reproduction in a constantly changing environment. While many studies have shown that coevolutionary cycling can lead to the maintenance of sex, the effects of ecological feedbacks on...

Data from: Learning multiple routes in homing pigeons

Andrea Flack, Tim Guilford, Dora Biro, D. Biro, T. Guilford & A. Flack
The aerial lifestyle of central-place foraging birds allows wide-ranging movements, raising fundamental questions about their remarkable navigation and memory systems. For example, we know that pigeons (Columba livia), long-standing models for avian navigation, rely on individually distinct routes when homing from familiar sites. But it remains unknown how they cope with the task of learning several routes in parallel. Here, we examined how learning multiple routes influences homing in pigeons. We subjected groups of pigeons...

Data from: Sex drives intra-cellular conflict in yeast

Ellie Harrison, R. Craig MacLean, Vassiliki Koufopanou, Austin Burt, R. C. MacLean, V. Koufopanou & A. Burt
Theory predicts that sex can drive the evolution of conflict within the cell. During asexual reproduction genetic material within the cell is inherited as a single unit, selecting for cooperation both within the genome as well as between the extra-genomic elements within the cell (e.g. plasmids and endosymbionts). Under sexual reproduction this unity is broken down as parental genomes are distributed between meiotic progeny. Genetic elements able to transmit to more than 50% of meiotic...

Data from: Phylogenetic relationships and timing of diversification in gonorynchiform fishes inferred using nuclear gene DNA sequences (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)

Thomas J. Near, Alex Dornburg & Matt Friedman
The Gonorynchiformes are the sister lineage of the species-rich Otophysi and provide important insights into the diversification of ostariophysan fishes. Phylogenies of gonorynchiforms inferred using morphological characters and mtDNA gene sequences provide differing resolutions with regard to the sister lineage of all other gonorynchiforms (Chanos vs. Gonorynchus) and support for monophyly of the two miniaturized lineages Cromeria and Grasseichthys. In this study the phylogeny and divergence times of gonorynchiforms are investigated with DNA sequences sampled...

Data from: Additive genetic variance and developmental plasticity in growth trajectories in a wild cooperative mammal

Elise Huchard, Anne Charmantier, Sinead English, Andrew Bateman, Johanna F. Nielsen, Tim Clutton-Brock, J. F. Nielsen, S. English, A. Charmantier, E. Huchard, A. Bateman & T. Clutton-Brock
Individual variation in growth is high in cooperative breeders and may reflect plastic divergence in developmental trajectories leading to breeding vs. helping phenotypes. However, the relative importance of additive genetic variance and developmental plasticity in shaping growth trajectories is largely unknown in cooperative vertebrates. This study exploits weekly sequences of body mass from birth to adulthood to investigate sources of variance in, and covariance between, early and later growth in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta), a...

Data from: The relative roles of cultural drift and acoustic adaptation in shaping syllable repertoires of island bird populations change with time since colonization

Dominique A. Potvin & Sonya M. Clegg
In birds, song divergence often precedes and facilitates divergence of other traits. We assessed the relative roles of cultural drift, innovation and acoustic adaptation in divergence of island bird dialects, using silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis). In recently colonized populations, syllable diversity was not significantly lower than source populations, shared syllables between populations decreased with increasing number of founder events and dialect variation displayed contributions from both habitat features and drift. The breadth of multivariate space occupied...

Data from: Effects of epistasis on infectivity range during host-parasite coevolution

Ben Ashby, Sunetra Gupta & Angus Buckling
Understanding how parasites adapt to changes in host resistance is crucial to evolutionary epidemiology. Experimental studies have demonstrated that parasites are more capable of adapting to gradual, rather than sudden changes in host phenotype, as the latter may require multiple mutations that are unlikely to arise simultaneously. A key, but as yet unexplored factor is precisely how interactions between mutations (epistasis) affect parasite evolution. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in the context of infectivity range,...

Data from: Social transmission of tool use and tool manufacture in Goffin cockatoos (Cacatua goffini)

Alice M. I. Auersperg, Auguste M. I. Von Bayern, Stefan Weber, Anna Szabadvari, Thomas Bugnyar, Alex Kacelnik, T. Bugnyar, A. Szabadvari, S. Weber, A. M. I. Auersperg, A. Kacelnik & A. M. I. Von Bayern
Tool use can be inherited, or acquired as an individual innovation or by social transmission. Having previously reported individual innovative tool use and manufacture by a Goffin cockatoo, we used the innovator (Figaro, a male) as a demonstrator to investigate social transmission. Twelve Goffins saw either demonstrations by Figaro, or ‘ghost’ controls where tools and/or food were manipulated using magnets. Subjects observing demonstrations showed greater tool-related performance than ghost controls, with all three males in...

Data from: Phylogenetic informativeness reconciles ray-finned fish molecular divergence times

Alex Dornburg, Jeffrey P. Townsend, Matt Friedman & Thomas J. Near
Discordance among individual molecular age estimates, or between molecular age estimates and the fossil record, is observed in many clades across the Tree of Life. This discordance is attributed to a variety of variables including calibration age uncertainty, calibration placement, nucleotide substitution rate heterogeneity, or the specified molecular clock model. However, the impact of changes in phylogenetic informativeness of individual genes over time on phylogenetic inferences is rarely analyzed. Using nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data...

Data from: Developmental stress predicts social network position

Neeltje J. Boogert, Damien R. Farine, Karen A. Spencer, D. R. Farine, K. A. Spencer & N. J. Boogert
The quantity and quality of social relationships, as captured by social network analysis, can have major fitness consequences. Various studies have shown that individual differences in social behaviour can be due to variation in exposure to developmental stress. However, whether these developmental differences translate to consistent differences in social network position is not known. We experimentally increased levels of the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in nestling zebra finches in a fully balanced design. Upon...

Data from: Payoff-based learning explains the decline in cooperation in public goods games

Maxwell N. Burton-Chellew, Heinrich H. Nax, Stuart A. West, M. N. Burton-Chellew & S. A. West
Economic games such as the public goods game are increasingly being used to measure social behaviours in humans and non-human primates. The results of such games have been used to argue that people are pro-social, and that humans are uniquely altruistic, willingly sacrificing their own welfare in order to benefit others. However, an alternative explanation for the empirical observations is that individuals are mistaken, but learn, during the game, how to improve their personal payoff....

Data from: strap: an R package for plotting phylogenies against stratigraphy and assessing their stratigraphic congruence

Mark A. Bell & Graeme T. Lloyd
strap (Stratigraphic Tree Analysis for Palaeontology) is a new package for the freely available statistical programming language R designed to perform three main tasks: (1) to time-scale phylogenies of fossil taxa; (2) to plot those time-scaled trees against stratigraphy; and (3) to assess congruence between phylogenies and stratigraphy. Time-scaling is performed with the DatePhylo function, with three approaches offered. Plotting trees against a choice of five different geological time scaless is possible using the geoscalePhylo...

Data from: Linking system-wide impacts of RNA polymerase mutations to the fitness cost of rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Qin Qi, Gail M. Preston & R. Craig MacLean
Fitness costs play a key role in the evolutionary dynamics of antibiotic resistance in bacteria by generating selection against resistance in the absence of antibiotics. Although the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance is well understood, the precise molecular mechanisms linking the genetic basis of resistance to its fitness cost remain poorly characterized. Here, we examine how the system-wide impacts of mutations in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) gene rpoB shape the fitness cost of rifampin resistance...

Data from: Impacts of selective logging on inbreeding and gene flow in two Amazonian timber species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics

Christina C. Vinson, Milton Kanashiro, Stephen A. Harris, Dave H. Boshier, C. C. Vinson, S. A. Harris & D. H. Boshier
Selective logging in Brazil allows for the removal of up to 90% of trees above 50 cm diameter of a given timber species, independent of a species’ life history characteristics or how quickly it will recover. The genetic and demographic effects of selective logging on two Amazonian timber species (Dipteryx odorata Leguminosae, Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae) with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were assessed in the same forest. Genetic diversity and gene flow were characterized by...

Data from: Dispersal and the transition to sympatry in vertebrates

Alex L. Pigot, Joseph A. Tobias, A. L. Pigot & J. A. Tobias
Under allopatric speciation models, a key step in the build-up of species richness is population dispersal leading to the co-occurrence of previously geographically isolated forms. Despite its central importance for community assembly, the extent to which the transition from spatial segregation (allopatry or parapatry) to coexistence (sympatry) is a predictable process, or alternatively one governed by chance and the vagaries of biogeographic history, remains poorly understood. Here, we use estimated divergence times and current patterns...

Data from: Range-wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange, and distinct demographic histories

Mark J. Statham, Zhenghuan Wang, Carl D. Soulsbury, Jan Janecka, Benjamin N. Sacks, Keith B. Aubry, Oliver Berry, Ceiridwen J. Edwards & James Murdoch
Widely distributed taxa provide an opportunity to compare biogeographic responses to climatic fluctuations on multiple continents and to investigate speciation. We conducted the most geographically and genomically comprehensive study to date of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the world's most widely distributed wild terrestrial carnivore. Analyses of 697 bp of mitochondrial sequence in ~1000 individuals suggested an ancient Middle Eastern origin for all extant red foxes and a 400 kya (SD = 139 kya) origin...

Data from: Virtual reconstruction of endocast anatomy in early ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes: Actinopterygii)

Sam Giles & Matt Friedman
Cranial endocasts, infillings of the skeletal void that once contained the brain and associated soft tissues, represent detailed anatomical structures that have long been the focus of paleontological investigation. We applied computed tomographics (CTs) in order to generate endocast models for the Paleozoic actinopterygian fishes Mimipiscis and Kentuckia, which serve as key representatives of anatomically primitive, early ray fins in analyses of early vertebrate relationships. The resultant endocranial models generally corroborate existing accounts of endocranial...

Data from: Pathogen burden, co-infection and major histocompatibility complex variability in the European badger (Meles meles)

Yung Wa Sin, Geetha Annavi, Hannah L. Dugdale, Chris Newman, Terry Burke & David W. Macdonald
Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to maintain the extreme diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, operating through the heterozygote advantage, rare-allele advantage and fluctuating selection mechanisms. Heterozygote advantage (i.e., recognizing and binding a wider range of antigens than homozygotes) is expected to be more detectable when multiple pathogens are considered simultaneously. Here, we test if MHC diversity in a wild population of European badgers (Meles meles) is driven by pathogen-mediated selection. We examined individual...

High-resolution hydraulic parameter maps for surface soils in tropical South America

T. Marthews, C.A. Quesada, D.R. Galbraith, Y. Malhi, C.E. Mullins, M.G. Hodnett & I. Dharssi
Spatial data files holding gridded parameter maps of surface soil hydraulic parameters derived from a selection of pedotransfer functions. Modern land surface model simulations capture soil profile water movement through the use of soil hydraulics sub-models, but good hydraulic parameterisations are often lacking - especially in the tropics - and it is this lack that we fill here in the context of South America. Optimal hydraulic parameter values are given for the Brooks and Corey,...

Data from: Heterozygosity–fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects

Geetha Annavi, Chris Newman, Christina D. Buesching, David W. Macdonald, Terry Burke, Hannah L. Dugdale & Christopher Newman
HFCs (heterozygosity–fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture–mark–recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers...

Data from: Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

Wilm Daniel Kissling, Lars Dalby, Camilla Fløjgaard, Jonathan Lenoir, Brody Sandel, Christopher Sandom, Kristian Trøjelsgaard, Jens-Christian Svenning & Jens-Christian Svenning
Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species’ evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was...

Data from: The genetic basis of the fitness costs of antimicrobial resistance: a meta-analysis approach

Tom Vogwill & R. Craig MacLean
The evolution of antibiotic resistance carries a fitness cost, expressed in terms of reduced competitive ability in the absence of antibiotics. This cost plays a key role in the dynamics of resistance by generating selection against resistance when bacteria encounter an antibiotic-free environment. Previous work has shown that the cost of resistance is highly variable, but the underlying causes remain poorly understood. Here, we use a meta-analysis of the published resistance literature to determine how...

High-resolution global topographic index values

T.R. Marthews, S.J. Dadson, B. Lehner, S. Abele & N. Gedney
The topographic index is a hydrological quantity describing the propensity of the soil at landscape points to become saturated with water as a result of topographic position (i.e. not accounting for other factors such as climate that also affect soil moisture but are accounted for separately). Modern land surface models require a characterisation of the land surface hydrological regime and this parameter allows the use of the TOPMODEL hydrological model to achieve this .This Geographic...

Data from: The importance of microhabitat for biodiversity sampling

Zia Mehrabi, Eleanor M. Slade, Angel Solis & Darren J. Mann
Responses to microhabitat are often neglected when ecologists sample animal indicator groups. Microhabitats may be particularly influential in non-passive biodiversity sampling methods, such as baited traps or light traps, and for certain taxonomic groups which respond to fine scale environmental variation, such as insects. Here we test the effects of microhabitat on measures of species diversity, guild structure and biomass of dung beetles, a widely used ecological indicator taxon. We demonstrate that choice of trap...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Oxford
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Edinburgh
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of St Andrews
  • Yale University
  • Harvard University
  • University of Exeter
  • University of Helsinki
  • Imperial College London