78 Works

Chemical composition of Central Asian forage plants

S. J. Robinson
The database of chemical composition of Central Asian forage plants contains just under 1000 desert and steppe species with information such as Latin and Russian names and family and related records of chemical composition from various sources including percentages by weight of protein, ash, cellulose and fat. Where available, it also includes data on digestible protein content, metabolisable energy and Soviet Feed Units (SFU). Records also include information on the country, location, season or month...

Saiga antelope die-off and calving sites in Kazakhstan

S. J. Robinson, N. Singh & S. Zuther
This dataset records the Saiga antelope die-off and calving sites in Kazakhstan. It represents the locations (and where available dates) of (i) die-offs and (ii) normal calving events in the Betpak-dala population of the saiga antelope, in which three major mass mortality events have been recorded since 1988. In total, the data contains 214 saiga die-off and calving sites obtained from field visits, aerial surveys, telemetry and literature. Locations derived from field data, aerial surveys...

Plant Respiration Modelling with JULES for a changing climate (1860-2100)

C. Huntingford, O.K. Atkin, A. Martinez-De La Torre, L.M. Mercado, M.A. Heskel, A.B. Harper, K.J. Bloomfield, O.S. O'Sullivan, P.B. Reich, K.R. Wythers, E.E. Butler, M. Chen, K.L. Griffin, P. Meir, M.G. Tjoelker, M.H. Turnbull, S. Sitch, A. Wiltshire & Y. Malhi
The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under 4 different approaches to calcluate leaf...

Vertical profile data of light transmission in Atlantic forests along a disturbance gradient

S. Fauset, M.U. Gloor, M.A.P. Aidar, H.C. Freitas, N.M. Fyllas, C.A. Joly, M.A. Marabesi, A.L.C. Rochelle, A. Shenkin & S.A. Vieira
The data set contains vertical profiles of diffuse light transmittance measured within six forest plots in montane Atlantic forest, São Paulo state, Brazil. The plots measured include intact, previously logged and secondary forest in a large continuous forest block of the Serra do Mar State Park (Parque Estadual de Serra do Mar), and two forest fragments outside the park. In each plot 10 - 12 individual light profiles were recorded; the data set contains these...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

(LPWG), Legume Phylogeny Working Group, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B viruses on a global scale

Pinky Langat, Jayna Raghwani, Gytis Dudas, Thomas A. Bowden, Stephanie Edwards, Astrid Gall, Trevor Bedford, Andrew Rambaut, Rodney S. Daniels, Colin A. Russell, Oliver G. Pybus, John McCauley, Paul Kellam & Simon J. Watson
The global-scale epidemiology and genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B remain poorly understood compared with influenza A viruses. We compiled a spatio-temporally comprehensive dataset of influenza B viruses, comprising over 2,500 genomes sampled worldwide between 1987 and 2015, including 382 newly-sequenced genomes that fill substantial gaps in previous molecular surveillance studies. Our contributed data increase the number of available influenza B virus genomes in Europe, Africa and Central Asia, improving the global context to study...

Data from: Interactive life-history traits predict sensitivity of plants and animals to temporal autocorrelation

Maria Paniw, Arpat Ozgul & Roberto Salguero-Gomez
Temporal autocorrelation in demographic processes is an important aspect of population dynamics, but a comprehensive examination of its effects on different life-history strategies is lacking. We use matrix populations models from 454 plant and animal populations to simulate stochastic population growth rates (log λs) under different temporal autocorrelations in demographic rates, using simulated and observed covariation among rates. We then test for differences in sensitivities, or changes, of log λs to changes in autocorrelation among...

Data from: Reconstructing ecological niche evolution when niches are incompletely characterized

Erin E. Saupe, Narayani Barve, Hannah L. Owens, Jacob C. Cooper, Peter A. Hosner, A. Townsend Peterson, Jacob C Cooper, Erin E Saupe, Peter A Hosner, Hannah L Owens & A Townsend Peterson
Evolutionary dynamics of abiotic ecological niches across phylogenetic history can shed light on large-scale biogeographic patterns, macroevolutionary rate shifts, and the relative ability of lineages to respond to global change. An unresolved question is how best to represent and reconstruct evolution of these complex traits at coarse spatial scales through time. Studies have approached this question by integrating phylogenetic comparative methods with niche estimates inferred from correlative and other models. However, methods for estimating niches...

Data from: Rapid transformation in the braincase of sauropod dinosaurs: integrated evolution of the braincase and neck in early sauropods?

Mario Bronzati, Roger B. J. Benson & Oliver W. M. Rauhut
Sauropod dinosaurs were quadrupedal herbivores with a highly specialized body plan that attained the largest masses of any terrestrial vertebrates. Recent discoveries have shown that key traits associated with sauropod gigantism appeared stepwise during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic in evolutionary ‘cascades’ of associated changes, in which a ‘head and neck’ cascade has been suggested as an important module. Here, we investigate the evolutionary transformation of the sauropodomorph braincase, using discrete anatomical characters, prompted...

Data from: Head movements quadruple the range of speeds encoded by the insect motion vision system in hawkmoths

Shane P. Windsor & Graham K. Taylor
Flying insects use compensatory head movements to stabilize gaze. Like other optokinetic responses, these movements can reduce image displacement, motion, and misalignment, and simplify the optic flow field. Because gaze is imperfectly stabilized in insects, we hypothesised that compensatory head movements serve to extend the range of velocities of self-motion that the visual system encodes. We tested this by measuring head movements in hawkmoths Hyles lineata responding to full-field visual stimuli of differing oscillation amplitudes,...

Data from: Cope’s rule and the adaptive landscape of dinosaur body size evolution

Roger B. J. Benson, Gene Hunt, Matthew T. Carrano & Nicolás Campione
The largest known dinosaurs weighed at least 20 million times as much as the smallest, indicating exceptional phenotypic divergence. Previous studies have focused on extreme giant sizes, tests of Cope's rule, and miniaturization on the line leading to birds. We use non-uniform macroevolutionary models based on Ornstein–Uhlenbeck and trend processes to unify these observations, asking: what patterns of evolutionary rates, directionality and constraint explain the diversification of dinosaur body mass? We find that dinosaur evolution...

Data from: Novel and divergent genes in the evolution of placental mammals

Thomas L. Dunwell, Jordi Paps, Peter W.H. Holland & Peter W. H. Holland
Analysis of genome sequences within a phylogenetic context can give insight into the mode and tempo of gene and protein evolution, including inference of gene ages. This can reveal whether new genes arose on particular evolutionary lineages and were recruited for new functional roles. Here, we apply MCL clustering with all-vs-all reciprocal BLASTP to identify and phylogenetically date ‘Homology Groups’ amongst vertebrate proteins. Homology Groups include new genes and highly divergent duplicate genes. Focussing on...

Data from: An active-radio-frequency-identification system capable of identifying co-locations and social-structure: validation with a wild free-ranging animal

Stephen A. Ellwood, Chris Newman, Robert A. Montgomery, Vincenzo Nicosia, Christina D. Buesching, Andrew Markham, Cecilia Mascolo, Niki Trigoni, Bence Pasztor, Vladimir Dyo, Vito Latora, Sandra E. Baker & David W. Macdonald
Behavioural events that are important for understanding sociobiology and movement ecology are often rare, transient and localised, but can occur at spatially distant sites e.g. territorial incursions and co-locating individuals. Existing animal tracking technologies, capable of detecting such events, are limited by one or more of: battery life; data resolution; location accuracy; data security; ability to co-locate individuals both spatially and temporally. Technology that at least partly resolves these limitations would be advantageous. European badgers...

Data from: Does environmental heterogeneity drive functional trait variation? A test in montane and alpine meadows

Jordan Stark, Rebecca Lehman, Lake Crawford, Brian J. Enquist & Benjamin Blonder
While community-weighted means of plant traits have been linked to mean environmental conditions at large scales, the drivers of trait variation within communities are not well understood. Local environmental heterogeneity (such as microclimate variability), in addition to mean environmental conditions, may decrease the strength of environmental filtering and explain why communities support different amounts of trait variation. Here, we assess two hypotheses: first, that more heterogeneous local environments and second, that less extreme environments, should...

Data from: Allopreening in birds is associated with parental cooperation over offspring care and stable pair bonds across years

Elspeth Kenny, Tim.R. Birkhead, Jonathan P. Green, Tim R Birkhead & Jonathan P Green
Individuals of many species form bonds with their breeding partners, yet the mechanisms maintaining these bonds are poorly understood. In birds, allopreening is a conspicuous feature of interactions between breeding partners and has been hypothesized to play a role in strengthening and maintaining pair bonds within and across breeding attempts. Many avian species, however, do not allopreen and the relationship between allopreening and pair bonding across species remains unexplored. In a comparative analysis of allopreening...

Data from: The challenges of detecting subtle population structure and its importance for the conservation of emperor penguins

Jane L. Younger, Gemma V. Clucas, Damian Kao, Alex D. Rogers, Karim Gharbi, Tom Hart & Karen J. Miller
Understanding the boundaries of breeding populations is of great importance for conservation efforts and estimates of extinction risk for threatened species. However, determining these boundaries can be difficult when population structure is subtle. Emperor penguins are highly reliant on sea ice, and some populations may be in jeopardy as climate change alters sea-ice extent and quality. An understanding of emperor penguin population structure is therefore urgently needed. Two previous studies have differed in their conclusions,...

Data from: Learning from the past to prepare for the future: felids face continued threat from declining prey richness

Christopher James Sandom, Soren Faurby, Jens C. Svenning, Dawn Burnham, Amy Dickman, Amy Hinks, Ewan A. Macdonald, Bill Ripple, Jake Williams, David Macdonald, C. J. Sandom, S. Faurby, W. J. Ripple, J.-C. Svenning, D. Burnham, A. Dickman, A. E. Hinks, E. A. Macdonald, J. Williams & D. W. Macdonald
Many contemporary species of large-felids (>15 kg) feed upon prey that are endangered, raising concern that prey population declines (defaunation) will further threaten felids. We assess the threat that defaunation presents by investigating a late Quaternary (LQ), ‘present-natural’ counterfactual scenario. Our present-natural counterfactual is based on predicted ranges of mammals today in the absence of any impacts of modern humans (Homo sapiens) through time. Data from our present-natural counterfactual are used to understand firstly how...

Data from: Prenatal maternal effects appear to be insensitive to experimental or natural environmental variation

Caroline E. Thomson & Jarrod D. Hadfield
1. In many birds, hatching asynchrony is a common phenomenon, primarily driven by patterns of incubation behaviour. However, experimental results in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) have shown that asynchrony is reduced by intrinsic properties of later eggs that accelerate pre-natal development. 2. These intrinsic differences between early and late eggs could be driven by changes in resource availability to females, which are then passively passed onto the egg. Alternatively, it may be due to an...

Data from: Measuring selection when parents and offspring interact

Caroline E. Thomson & Jarrod D. Hadfield
Non-social and social selection gradients are key evolutionary parameters in systems where individuals interact. They are most easily obtained by regressing an individual's fitness on the trait values of the individual and its social partner. In the context of parental care it is more common to regress the trait value of the parents (i.e. the social partner) on a ‘mixed’ fitness measure that is a function of the parent's and offspring's fitness (for example, the...

Data from: Social learning and the demise of costly cooperation in humans

Maxwell N. Burton-Chellew, Claire El Mouden & Stuart A. West
Humans have a sophisticated ability to learn from others, termed social learning, which has allowed us to spread over the planet, construct complex societies, and travel to the moon. It has been hypothesized that social learning has played a pivotal role in making human societies cooperative, by favouring cooperation even when it is not favoured by genetical selection. However, this hypothesis lacks direct experimental testing, and the opposite prediction has also been made, that social...

Data from: Wild birds respond to flockmate loss by increasing their social network associations to others

Josh A. Firth, Bernhard Voelkl, Ross A. Crates, Lucy M. Aplin, Dora Biro, Darren P. Croft & Ben C. Sheldon
Understanding the consequences of losing individuals from wild populations is a current and pressing issue, yet how such loss influences the social behaviour of the remaining animals is largely unexplored. Through combining the automated tracking of winter flocks of over 500 wild great tits (Parus major) with removal experiments, we assessed how individuals' social network positions responded to the loss of their social associates. We found that the extent of flockmate loss that individuals experienced...

Data from: Programmed and flexible: long-term Zugunruhe data highlight the many axes of variation in avian migratory behaviour

Benjamin M. Van Doren, Miriam Liedvogel & Barbara Helm
Studies of Zugunruhe – the ‘migratory restlessness’ behaviour of captive birds – have been integral to our understanding of animal migration, revealing an inherited propensity to migrate and an endogenous timing and navigation system. However, differences between Zugunruhe in captivity and migration in the wild call for more data, in particular on variation within and among taxa with diverse migration strategies. Here, we characterise Zugunruhe in a long-term dataset of activity profiles from stonechats (genus...

Data from: A map of abstract relational knowledge in the human hippocampal–entorhinal cortex

Mona M. Garvert, Raymond J. Dolan, Timothy E.J. Behrens, Mona M Garvert, Timothy EJ Behrens & Raymond J Dolan
The hippocampal–entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information relies on the same neural system, but it is not known whether the organisational principles governing continuous maps may extend to the implicit encoding of discrete, non-spatial graphs. Here, we show that the human hippocampal–entorhinal system can represent relationships between objects using a metric that...

Data from: Predicting animal behaviour using deep learning: GPS data alone accurately predict diving in seabirds

Ella Browning, Mark Bolton, Ellie Owen, Akiko Shoji, Tim Guilford & Robin Freeman
1.In order to prevent further global declines in biodiversity, identifying and understanding key habitats is crucial for successful conservation strategies. For example, globally, seabird populations are under threat and animal movement data can identify key at-sea areas and provide valuable information on the state of marine ecosystems. To date, in order to locate these areas, studies have used Global Positioning System (GPS) to record position and are sometimes combined with Time Depth Recorder (TDR) devices...

Data from: An edrioasteroid from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte of England reveals the nature of the water vascular system in an extinct echinoderm

Derek E. G. Briggs, Derek J. Siveter, David J. Siveter, Mark D. Sutton & Imran A. Rahman
Echinoderms are unique in having a water vascular system with tube feet, which perform a variety of functions in living forms. Here, we report the first example of preserved tube feet in an extinct group of echinoderms. The material, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte, UK, is assigned to a new genus and species of rhenopyrgid edrioasteroid, Heropyrgus disterminus. The tube feet attach to the inner surface of compound interradial plates and form two sets, an...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Oxford
  • University of Edinburgh
  • Lund University
  • University of Cambridge
  • Yale University
  • Cornell University
  • University of Queensland
  • Australian National University
  • University of Tasmania
  • University of Leeds
  • University College London
  • University of Arizona
  • University of Sheffield
  • National Museum
  • Bangor University