11 Works

Microbial associations and spatial proximity predict North American moose (Alces alces) gastrointestinal community composition

Nicholas Fountain-Jones, Nicholas Clark, Amy Kinsley, Michelle Carstensen, James Forester, Johnson Timothy, Elizabeth Miller, Seth Moore, Tiffany Wolf & Meggan Craft
Microbial communities are increasingly recognised as crucial for animal health. However, our understanding of how microbial communities are structured across wildlife populations is poor. Mechanisms such as interspecific associations are important in structuring free-living communities, but we still lack an understanding of how important interspecific associations are in structuring gut microbial communities in comparison to other factors such as host characteristics or spatial proximity of hosts. Here we ask how gut microbial communities are structured...

Data from: Application of a Bayesian weighted surveillance approach for detecting chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

Christopher S. Jennelle, Daniel P. Walsh, Michael D. Samuel, Erik E. Osnas, Robert Rolley, Julia Langenberg, Jenny G. Powers, Ryan J. Monello, E. David Demarest, Rolf Gubler & Dennis M. Heisey
SUMMARY 1. Surveillance is critical for the early detection of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and weighted surveillance uses heterogeneity in risk of infection to increase the sampling efficiency. 2. We apply a Bayesian approach to estimate weights for 16 surveillance classes of white-tailed deer in Wisconsin, USA, relative to hunter-harvested yearling males. We use these weights to conduct a surveillance program for detecting chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer at Shenandoah National Park...

Data from: Environmental filtering and competitive exclusion drive biodiversity-invasibility relationships in shallow lake plant communities

Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Nicole Hansel-Welch & Daniel J. Larkin
1. Understanding the processes that influence the diversity of ecological communities and their susceptibility to invasion by exotic species remains a challenge in ecology. In many systems, a positive relationship between the richness of native species and exotic species has been observed at larger spatial (e.g., regional) scales, while a negative pattern has been observed at local (e.g., plot) scales. These patterns are widely attributed to (1) biotic interactions, particularly biotic resistance, limiting invasions in...

Data from: American black bears perceive the risks of crossing roads

Mark A. Ditmer, Spencer J. Rettler, John R. Fieberg, Paul A. Iaizzo, Timothy G. Laske, Karen V. Noyce, David L. Garshelis, Mark A Ditmer, Spencer J Rettler, John R Fieberg, David L Garshelis, Karen V Noyce, Paul A Iaizzo & Timothy G Laske
Roadways may negatively impact wildlife species through vehicular-related mortality and spatial displacement or obstruction. Here we investigated physiological responses, which provide insights into the animal’s perception of its environment. We deployed GPS-collars in combination with cardiac biologgers on American black bears (Ursus americanus; 18 bear-years) in areas with differing road densities across Minnesota, USA. We tested whether bears exhibited acute stress responses, as defined by significant increases in heart rate (HR), associated with road crossings....

Data from: Optimizing techniques to capture and extract environmental DNA for detection and quantification of fish

Jessica J. Eichmiller, Loren M. Miller & Peter W. Sorensen
Few studies have examined capture and extraction methods for environmental DNA (eDNA) to identify techniques optimal for detection and quantification. In this study, precipitation, centrifugation and filtration eDNA capture methods and six commercially available DNA extraction kits were evaluated for their ability to detect and quantify common carp (Cyprinus carpio) mitochondrial DNA using quantitative PCR in a series of laboratory experiments. Filtration methods yielded the most carp eDNA, and a glass fibre (GF) filter performed...

Data from: Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome

Marianne S. Moore, Kenneth A. Field, Melissa J. Behr, Gregory G. Turner, Morgan E. Furze, Daniel W. F. Stern, Paul R. Allegra, Sarah A. Bouboulis, Chelsey D. Musante, Megan E. Vodzak, Matthew E. Biron, Melissa B. Meierhofer, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A. Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S. Johnson, Thomas M. Lilley, Benjamin W. Barrett & DeeAnn M. Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS...

Data from: Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, U.S.A. 50 years after translocation

Emily E. Puckett, Thea V. Kristensen, Clay M. Wilton, Sara B. Lyda, Karen V. Noyce, Paula M. Holahan, Leslie Jr, David M., Jeff Beringer, Jerrold L. Belant, White, Jr. Donald, Lori S. Eggert & David M. Leslie
Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita...

Data from: Watershed versus within-lake drivers of nitrogen: phosphorus dynamics in shallow lakes

Luke J. Ginger, Kyle D. Zimmer, Brian R. Herwig, Mark A. Hanson, William O. Hobbs, Gaston E. Small & James B. Cotner
Research on lake eutrophication often identifies variables affecting amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, but understanding factors influencing N:P ratios is important given its influence on species composition and toxin production by cyanobacteria. We sampled 80 shallow lakes in Minnesota (USA) for three years to assess effects of watershed size, proportion of watershed as both row crop and natural area, fish biomass, and lake alternative state (turbid versus clear) on total N:...

Data from: Accurate estimates of age at maturity from the growth trajectories of fishes and other ectotherms

Andrew E. Honsey, David F. Staples & Paul A. Venturelli
Age-at-maturity (AAM) is a key life history trait that provides insight into ecology, evolution, and population dynamics. However, maturity data can be costly to collect or may not be available. Life history theory suggests that growth is biphasic for many organisms, with a change-point in growth occurring at maturity. If so, then it should be possible to use a biphasic growth model to estimate AAM from growth data. To test this prediction, we used the...

Data from: First discovery of the charophycean green alga Lychnothamnus barbatus (Charophyceae) extant in the New World

Kenneth G. Karol, Paul M. Skawinski, Richard M. McCourt, Michelle E. Nault, Reesa Evans, Martha E. Barton, Matthew S. Berg, Donna J. Perleberg, John Hall & John D. Hall
Premise of the study: Although some species of Characeae, known as stoneworts, can be found on every continent except Antarctica, many species and some genera have limited geographic distributions. The genus Lychnothamnus, represented by a single extant species L. barbatus, was known only from scattered localities in Europe and Australasia until it was recently discovered in North America. Methods: Morphological identifications were made from specimens collected in Minnesota and Wisconsin, U.S.A. DNA sequences were obtained...

Data from: The legacy of large regime shifts in shallow lakes

Joy M. Ramstack Hobbs, William O. Hobbs, Mark B. Edlund, Kyle D. Zimmer, Kevin M. Theissen, Natalie Hoidal, Leah M. Domine, Mark A. Hanson, Brian R. Herwig & James B. Cotner
Ecological shifts in shallow lakes from clear-water macrophyte-dominated to turbid-water phytoplankton-dominated are generally thought of as rapid short-term transitions. Diatom remains in sediment records from shallow lakes in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America provide new evidence that the long-term ecological stability of these lakes is defined by the legacy of large regime shifts. Here we examine the modern and historical stability of eleven shallow lakes. Currently, four of the lakes are in a...

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