376 Works

Data from: Increased susceptibility to fungal disease accompanies adaptation to drought in Brassica rapa

Niamh B. O'Hara, Joshua S. Rest & Steven J. Franks
Recent studies have demonstrated adaptive evolutionary responses to climate change, but little is known about how these responses may influence ecological interactions with other organisms, including natural enemies. We used a resurrection experiment in the greenhouse to examine the effect of evolutionary responses to drought on the susceptibility of Brassica rapa plants to a fungal pathogen, Alternaria brassicae. In agreement with previous studies in this population, we found an evolutionary shift to earlier flowering post-drought,...

Data from: Strong dispersal in a parasitoid wasp overwhelms habitat fragmentation and host population dynamics

Christelle Couchoux, Perttu Seppä & Saskya Van Nouhuys
The population dynamics of a parasite depend on species traits, host dynamics, and the environment. Those dynamics are reflected in the genetic structure of the population. Habitat fragmentation has a greater impact on parasites than on their hosts because resource distribution is increasingly fragmented for species at higher trophic levels. This could lead to either more or less genetic structure than the host, depending on the relative dispersal rates of species. We examined the spatial...

Data from: Invading Africa: a novel transoceanic dispersal by a New World ant parasitoid

Elizabeth A. Murray & John M. Heraty
Aim: An ant parasitoid wasp genus (Eucharitidae: Kapala) common in the New World exhibits the intriguing pattern of having one species distributed widely across tropical Africa and Madagascar. The unusual distribution prompted an investigation of the age, origins and diversification of the Afrotropical Kapala species. We evaluate a previous hypothesis that the species was anthropogenically introduced. Location: Africa and Madagascar and the Neotropics. Methods: Numerous forms of evidence are incorporated to explain the origin of...

Data from: Cryptic species diversity reveals biogeographic support for the ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ hypothesis

Brian A. Gill, B. C. Kondratieff, K. L. Casner, A. C. Encalada, A. S. Flecker, D. G. Gannon, C. K. Ghalambor, J. M. Guayasamin, N. L. Poff, M. P. Simmons, S. A. Thomas, K. R. Zamudio, W. C. Funk & B. A. Gill
The ‘mountain passes are higher in the tropics’ (MPHT) hypothesis posits that reduced climate variability at low latitudes should select for narrower thermal tolerances, lower dispersal and smaller elevational ranges compared with higher latitudes. These latitudinal differences could increase species richness at low latitudes, but that increase may be largely cryptic, because physiological and dispersal traits isolating populations might not correspond to morphological differences. Yet previous tests of the MPHT hypothesis have not addressed cryptic...

Data from: Allele-specific transcriptome and methylome analysis reveals stable inheritance and cis-regulation of DNA methylation in Nasonia

Xu Wang, John H Werren, Andrew G. Clark & John H. Werren
Gene expression divergence between closely related species could be attributed to both cis- and trans- DNA sequence changes during evolution, but it is unclear how the evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic marks are regulated. In eutherian mammals, biparental DNA methylation marks are erased and reset during gametogenesis, resulting in paternal or maternal imprints which lead to genomic imprinting. Whether DNA methylation reprogramming exists in insects is not known. Wasps of the genus Nasonia are non-social parasitoids...

Data from: Crop domestication facilitated rapid geographical expansion of a specialist pollinator, the squash bee Peponapis pruinosa

Margarita M. López-Uribe, James H. Cane, Robert L. Minckley & Bryan N. Danforth
Squash was first domesticated in Mexico and is now found throughout North America (NA) along with Peponapis pruinosa, a pollen specialist bee species of the squash genus Cucurbita. The origin and spread of squash cultivation is well-studied archaeologically and phylogenetically; however, no study has documented how cultivation of this or any other crop has influenced species in mutualistic interactions. We used molecular markers to reconstruct the demographic range expansion and colonization routes of P. pruinosa...

Data from: Cover crop root contributions to soil carbon in a no-till corn bioenergy cropping system

Emily E. Austin, Kyle Wickings, Marshall D. McDaniel, G. Philip Robertson & A. Stuart Grandy
Crop residues are potential biofuel feedstocks, but residue removal may reduce soil carbon (C). The inclusion of a cover crop in a corn bioenergy system could provide additional biomass, mitigating the negative effects of residue removal by adding to stable soil C pools. In a no-till continuous corn bioenergy system in the northern US Corn Belt, we used 13CO2 pulse labeling to trace plant C from a winter rye (Secale cereale) cover crop into different...

Data from: Year-round spatiotemporal distribution of harbour porpoises within and around the Maryland wind energy area

Jessica E. Wingfield, Michael O'Brien, Vyacheslav Lyubchich, Jason J. Roberts, Patrick N. Halpin, Aaron N. Rice, Helen Bailey & Michael O’Brien
Offshore windfarms provide renewable energy, but activities during the construction phase can affect marine mammals. To understand how the construction of an offshore windfarm in the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA) off Maryland, USA, might impact harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), it is essential to determine their poorly understood year-round distribution. Although habitat-based models can help predict the occurrence of species in areas with limited or no sampling, they require validation to determine the accuracy of...

Data from: Digest: trait variation in Mimulus provides new evidence for the joint action of ecological sorting and character displacement

Katherine Elizabeth Eisen & Katherine E. Eisen
Understanding how closely related species coexist in communities is one of the oldest goals of ecology and evolutionary biology. One long-standing hypothesis is that the evolution of key differences in species’ niches or ecological requirements (a process known as niche differentiation) can minimize competition and promote coexistence.

Data from: A global analysis of plant recovery performance from water stress

Jingjing Yin & Taryn L. Bauerle
Plant post-drought recovery performance is essential to predict shifts in ecosystem dynamics and production during frequent climate change-driven drought events. Yet, it is not clear how post-drought recovery is related to evolutionary and geographic variations in plants. In this study, we generated a global data set of post-drought recovery performance in 140 plant species from published studies. We quantified the plant post-drought recovery performance by calculating a recovery index for multiple plant physiological and hydraulic...

Data from: Risk-aware multi-armed bandit problem with application to portfolio selection

Xiaoguang Huo & Feng Fu
Sequential portfolio selection has attracted increasing interests in the machine learning and quantitative finance communities in recent years. As a mathematical framework for reinforcement learning policies, the stochastic multi-armed bandit problem addresses the primary difficulty in sequential decision making under uncertainty, namely the exploration versus exploitation dilemma, and therefore provides a natural connection to portfolio selection. In this paper, we incorporate risk-awareness into the classic multi-armed bandit setting and introduce an algorithm to construct portfolio....

Data from: eDNA metabarcoding: a promising method for anuran surveys in highly diverse tropical forests

Carla Martins Lopes, Thais Sasso, Alice Valentini, Tony Dejean, Marcio Martins, Kelly R. Zamudio & Célio F. B. Haddad
Understanding the geographical distribution and community composition of species is crucial to monitor species persistence and define effective conservation strategies. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has emerged as a powerful noninvasive tool for species detection. However, most eDNA survey methods have been developed and applied in temperate zones. We tested the feasibility of using eDNA to survey anurans in tropical streams in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and compared the results with short-term visual and audio surveys. We...

Data from: Anatomy of a cline: dissecting anti-predatory adaptations in a marine gastropod along the U.S. Atlantic coast

Mary E. Kosloski, Gregory P. Dietl & John C. Handley
The scope of anti-predatory adaptation is expected to be greater in warm than in cold environments. High temperatures lower the costs associated with the production and maintenance of energetically expensive traits and enable ecological interactions to intensify. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the expression of anti-predatory morphology within a marine gastropod species (the knobbed whelk, Busycon carica) over a large (>1,400 km) geographic area that spans more than 10°C annual temperature variation. We also...

Data from: Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker

Walter D. Koenig & Eric L. Walters
Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous...

Data from: Polyandrous females provide sons with more competitive sperm: support for the sexy-sperm hypothesis in the rattlebox moth (Utetheisa ornatrix)

Andrea L. Egan, Kristin A. Hook, H. Kern Reeve & Vikram K. Iyengar
Given the costs of multiple-mating, why has female polyandry evolved? Utetheisa ornatrix moths are well-suited for studying multiple mating in females because females are highly polyandrous over their lifespan, with each male mate transferring a substantial spermatophore with both genetic and non-genetic material. The accumulation of resources might explain the prevalence of polyandry in this species, but another, not mutually-exclusive, possibility is that females mate multiply to increase the probability that their sons will inherit...

Data from: Individual resource limitation combined with population-wide pollen availability drives masting in the valley oak (Quercus lobata)

Walter D. Koenig, Mario B. Pesendorfer, Ian S. Pearse, Johannes M. H. Knops & Kyle A. Funk
1. Masting, the synchronized production of variable seed crops, is widespread among woody plants, but there is no consensus about the underlying proximate mechanisms. To understand this population-level behavior, it is necessary to dissect the behavior of individual trees as well as the interactions that synchronize them. 2. Here we test a model of masting in which variability in seed set is driven by resource limitation within trees and synchrony is driven by pollen limitation...

Data from: Genetic drift and rapid evolution of viviparity in insular fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra)

Guillermo Velo-Antón, Kelly R. Zamudio & Adolfo Cordero-Rivera
Continental islands offer an excellent opportunity to investigate adaptive processes and to time microevolutionary changes that precede macroevolutionary events. We performed a population genetic study of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), a species that displays unique intraspecific diversity of reproductive strategies, to address the microevolutionary processes leading to phenotypic and genetic differentiation of island, coastal and interior populations. We used eight microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic parameters in viviparous insular...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses reveal convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in elephant and human ancestries

Morris Goodman, Kirstin N. Sterner, M. Munirul Islam, Monica Uddin, Chet C. Sherwood, Patrick R. Hof, Zhuo-Cheng Hou, Leonard Lipovich, Hui Jia, Lawrence I. Grossman, Derek E. Wildman, D. E. Wildman, L. I. Grossman, C. C. Sherwood, M. Islam, L. Lipovich, H. Jia, P. R. Hof, Z. C. Hou & K. N. Sterner
Specific sets of brain-expressed genes, such as aerobic energy metabolism genes, evolved adaptively in the ancestry of humans and may have evolved adaptively in the ancestry of other large-brained mammals. The recent addition of genomes from two afrotherians (elephant and tenrec) to the expanding set of publically available sequenced mammalian genomes provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Elephants resemble humans by having large brains and long life spans; tenrecs, in contrast, have small brains...

Data from: An alternative pathway to eusociality: exploring the molecular and functional basis of fortress defense

Sarah P. Lawson, Leah Sigle, Abigail Lind, Andrew W. Legan, Jessica N. Mezzanotte, Hans-Willi Honegger, Patrick Abbot, Leah T. Sigle & Abigail L. Lind
Some animals express a form of eusociality known as 'fortress defense', in which defense rather than brood care is the primary social act. Aphids are small plant-feeding insects, but like termites, some species express division of labor and castes of aggressive juvenile 'soldiers'. What is the functional basis of fortress defense eusociality in aphids? Previous work showed that the acquisition of venoms might be a key innovation in aphid social evolution. We show that the...

Data from: Patriline differences reveal genetic influence on forewing size and shape in a yellowjacket wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespula flavopilosa Jacobson, 1978)

Adrien Perrard & Kevin J. Loope
The wing venation is frequently used as a morphological marker to distinguish biological groups among insects. With geometric morphometrics, minute shape differences can be detected between closely related species or populations, making this technique useful for taxonomy. However, the direct influence of genetic differences on wing morphology has not been explored within colonies of social insects. Here, we show that the father’s genotype has a direct effect on wing morphology in colonies of social wasps....

Data from: Molecular evolution patterns reveal life history features of mycoplasma-related endobacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Kevin H. Toomer, Xiuhua Chen, Mizue Naito, Stephen J. Mondo, Henk C. Den Bakker, Nicholas W. VanKuren, Ylva Lekberg, Joseph B. Morton & Teresa E. Pawlowska
The mycoplasma-related endobacteria (MRE), representing a recently discovered lineage of Mollicutes, are widely distributed across arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota). AMF colonize roots of most terrestrial plants and improve plant mineral nutrient uptake in return for plant-assimilated carbon. The role of MRE in the biology of their fungal hosts is unknown. To start characterizing this association, we assessed partitioning of MRE genetic diversity within AMF individuals and across the AMF phylogeographic range. We further used...

Data from: Migration timing and its determinants for nocturnal migratory birds during autumn migration

Frank A. La Sorte, Wesley H. Hochachka, Andrew Farnsworth, Daniel Sheldon, Daniel Fink, Jeffrey Geevarghese, Kevin Winner, Benjamin M. Van Doren, Steve Kelling & Wesley M. Hochachka
1. Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments, and multiple environmental and biological factors determine the timing of migration. How these factors operate in combination during autumn migration, which is considered to be under weaker time constraints relative to spring migration, is not clear. 2. Here, we examine the patterns and determinants of migration timing for nocturnal migrants during autumn migration in the north-eastern USA using nocturnal reflectivity data...

Data from: Whole transcriptome analysis reveals changes in expression of immune related genes during and after bleaching in a reef-building coral

Jorge H. Pinzón, Bishoy Kamel, Colleen A. Burge, C. Drew Harvell, Mónica Medina, Ernesto Weil, Laura D. Mydlarz, C. A. Burge, C. D. Harvell, B. Kamel, M. Medina & L. D. Mydlarz
Climate change is negatively affecting the stability of natural ecosystems, especially coral reefs. The dissociation of the symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal symbiont, or coral bleaching, has been linked to increased sea surface temperatures. Coral bleaching has significant impacts on corals, including an increase in disease outbreaks that can permanently change the entire reef ecosystem. Yet, little is known about the impacts of coral bleaching on the coral immune system. In this study,...

Data from: Na+/K+-ATPase resistance and cardenolide sequestration: basal adaptations to host plant toxins in the milkweed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Lygaeinae)

Christiane Bramer, Susanne Dobler, Jürgen Deckert, Michael Stemmer, Georg Petschenka, G. Petschenka & J. Deckert
Despite sequestration of toxins being a common coevolutionary response to plant defence in phytophagous insects, the macroevolution of the traits involved is largely unaddressed. Using a phylogenetic approach comprising species from four continents, we analysed the ability to sequester toxic cardenolides in the hemipteran subfamily Lygaeinae, which is widely associated with cardenolide-producing Apocynaceae. In addition, we analysed cardenolide resistance of their Na+/K+-ATPases, the molecular target of cardenolides. Our data indicate that cardenolide sequestration and cardenolide-resistant...

Data from: Xylem vessel traits predict the leaf phenology of native and non-native understory species of temperate deciduous forests

Jingjing Yin, Jason D. Fridley, Maria S. Smith & Taryn L. Bauerle
Non-native understorey woody species have been shown to extend leaf display and inhabit vacant phenological niches in early spring and late autumn when growing with native counterparts in temperate deciduous forests across the world. Despite the potential competitive advantages, extended leaf duration also subjects non-native species to possible hydraulic risks associated with maintaining leaves during periods of increased frost probability. It remains unclear how non-native species are able to maintain xylem function within this context....

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