The cyprinid tribe Labeonini (sensu Rainboth, 1991) is a large group of freshwater fishes containing around 40 genera and 400 species. They are characterized by an amazing diversity of modifications to their lips and associated structures. In this study, a total of 34 genera and 142 species of putative members of this tribe, which represent most of the generic diversity and more than one third of the species diversity of the group, were sampled and...
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...
Accurate gene tree reconstruction is a fundamental problem in phylogenetics, with many important applications. However, sequence data alone often lack enough information to confidently support one gene tree topology over many competing alternatives. Here, we present a novel framework for combining sequence data and species tree information, and we describe an implementation of this framework in TreeFix, a new phylogenetic program for improving gene tree reconstructions. Given a gene tree (preferably computed using a maximum...
The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are an evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of above-ground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization, have been hypothesized to shape the evolution of this system, no empirical support for these mechanisms has previously been reported beyond the observation that bird predation can extirpate small, experimentally mistimed...
Data from: The consequences of genetic variation in male sex peptide gene-expression levels for SP retention and egg laying in female DrosophilaDamian T. Smith, Laura K. Sirot, Mariana F. Wolfner, David J. Hosken, L K Sirot, M F Wolfner, D T Smith, D J Hosken & N Wedell
The accessory gland proteins (Acps) that male Drosophila melanogaster produce and transfer to females during copulation are key to male and female fitness. One Acp, the sex peptide (SP), is largely responsible for a dramatic increase in female egg laying and decrease in female receptivity after copulation. While genetic variation in male SP expression levels correlate with refractory period duration in females, it is unknown whether male SP expression influences female egg laying or if...
Data from: Origin of the chromosomal radiation of Madeiran house mice: a microsatellite analysis of metacentric chromosomesMaria Da Luz Mathias, Janice Britton-Davidian, Jeremy B. Searle & Daniel W. Förster
Chromosome races of Mus musculus domesticus are characterised by particular sets of metacentric chromosomes formed by Robertsonian fusions and whole-arm reciprocal translocations. The Atlantic island of Madeira is inhabited by six chromosome races of house mice with 6–9 pairs of metacentric chromosomes. Three of these races are characterised by the metacentric 3.8 also found elsewhere in the distribution of M. m. domesticus, including Denmark and Spain. We investigated the possibility that metacentric 3.8 was introduced...
One pervasive morphological feature of tetrapods is the pipe-like, often marrow-filled, structure of the limb or long bones. This “hollow” form maximizes flexural strength and stiffness with the minimum amount of bony material, and is exemplified by truly hollow (air-filled), or pneumatic, humeri in many modern birds. High-resolution microCT scans of the wings of two male Club-winged Manakins (Machaeropterus deliciosus) uncovered a notable exception to the hollow-tube rule in terrestrial vertebrates; males exhibited solidified ulnae...
Data from: Lobelia siphilitica plants that escape herbivory in time also have reduced latex productionAmy L. Parachnowitsch, Christina M. Caruso, Stuart A. Campbell & Andre Kessler
Flowering phenology is an important determinant of a plant’s reproductive success. Both assortative mating and niche construction can result in the evolution of correlations between phenology and other reproductive, functional, and life history traits. Correlations between phenology and herbivore defence traits are particularly likely because the timing of flowering can allow a plant to escape herbivory. To test whether herbivore escape and defence are correlated, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlations between flowering phenology and...
Data from: Range-wide population genetic structure of the Caribbean sea fan coral, Gorgonia ventalinaJason P. Andras, Krystal L. Rypien, Catherine Drew Harvell & Catherine D. Harvell
The population structure of benthic marine organisms is of central relevance for the conservation and management of these often threatened species as well as an accurate understanding of their ecological and evolutionary dynamics. A growing body of evidence suggests that marine populations can be structured over short distances despite theoretically high dispersal potential. Yet the proposed mechanisms governing this structure vary, and existing empirical population genetic evidence is of insufficient taxonomic and geographic scope to...
Broad-scale geographical gradients in the abiotic environment and interspecific interactions should select for clinal adaptation. How trait clines evolve has recently received increased attention because of anticipated climate change and the importance of rapid evolution in invasive species. This issue is particularly relevant for clines in growth and defense of plants, because both sets of traits are closely tied to fitness and because such sessile organisms experience strong local selection. Yet, despite widespread recognition that...
Data from: The relationship between variable host grouping and functional responses among parasitoids of Antispila nysaefoliella (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae)Candace Low, Sonja J. Scheffer, Matthew L. Lewis & Michael W. Gates
Our study investigated the importance of variability in the parasitoid community as a source of selection on host group size using a field population of the tupelo leafminer, Antispila nysaefoliella Clemens, which specializes on tupelo, Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Larvae were collected from leaves with variable numbers of larvae and screened for parasitism using polymerase chain reaction of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I using markers designed specifically for amplifying parasitoid DNA while excluding host DNA. This method...
Data from: Genetic identification of Iberian rodent species using both mitochondrial and nuclear loci: application to non-invasive samplingSoraia Barbosa, Joana Pauperio, Jeremy B. Searle, Paulo C. Alves, J. Pauperio, J. B. Searle, S. Barbosa & P. C. Alves
Species identification through non-invasive sampling is increasingly used in animal conservation genetics, given that it obviates the need to handle free-living individuals. Non-invasive sampling is particularly valuable for elusive and small species such as rodents. Although rodents are not usually assumed to be the most obvious target for conservation, of the 21 species or near-species present in Iberia, three are considered endangered and declining while several others are poorly studied. Here we develop a genetic...
Data from: Discovery and evaluation of candidate sex-determining genes and xenobiotics in the gonads of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)Matthew C. Hale, James R. Jackson, J. Andrew DeWoody, Matthew C. Hale, James R. Jackson & J. Andrew DeWoody
Modern pyrosequencing has the potential to uncover many interesting aspects of genome evolution, even in lineages where genomic resources are scarce. In particular, 454 pyrosequencing of nonmodel species has been used to characterize expressed sequence tags, xenobiotics, gene ontologies, and relative levels of gene expression. Herein, we use pyrosequencing to study the evolution of genes expressed in the gonads of a polyploid fish, the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Using 454 pyrosequencing of transcribed genes, we...
United States Department of Agriculture2
University of York2
North Carolina State University2
University of Montana1
National Museums Scotland1
Wayne State University1
Natural History Museum1
University of Minnesota1
University of Lisbon1
Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries1
Saint Louis University1
University of Guelph1
National University of Singapore1