59 Works

Data from: Divergence in DNA photorepair efficiency among genotypes from contrasting UV radiation environments in nature

Brooks E. Miner, Paige M. Kulling, Karlyn D. Beer & Benjamin Kerr
Populations of organisms routinely face abiotic selection pressures, and a central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the mechanistic underpinnings of adaptive phenotypes. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of earth’s most pervasive environmental stressors, potentially damaging DNA in any organism exposed to solar radiation. We explored mechanisms underlying differential survival following UVR exposure in genotypes of the water flea Daphnia melanica derived from natural ponds of differing in UVR intensity. The UVR tolerance of...

Data from: Can observation skills of citizen scientists be estimated using species accumulation curves?

Steve Kelling, Alison Johnston, Wesley M. Hochachka, Marshall Iliff, Daniel Fink, Jeff Gerbracht, Carl Lagoze, Frank A. La Sorte, Travis Moore, Andrea Wiggins, Weng-Keen Wong, Chris Wood & Jun Yu
Volunteers are increasingly being recruited into citizen science projects to collect observations for scientific studies. An additional goal of these projects is to engage and educate these volunteers. Thus, there are few barriers to participation resulting in volunteer observers with varying ability to complete the project’s tasks. To improve the quality of a citizen science project’s outcomes it would be useful to account for inter-observer variation, and to assess the rarely tested presumption that participating...

Data from: Seasonal changes in the altitudinal distribution of nocturnally migrating birds during autumn migration

Frank A. La Sorte, Wesley M. Hochachka, Andrew Farnsworth, Daniel Sheldon, Benjamin M. Van Doren, Daniel Fink & Steve Kelling
Wind plays a significant role in the flight altitudes selected by nocturnally migrating birds. At mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, atmospheric conditions are dictated by the polar-front jet stream, whose amplitude increases in the autumn. One consequence for migratory birds is that the region’s prevailing westerly winds become progressively stronger at higher migration altitudes. We expect this seasonality in wind speed to result in migrants occupying progressively lower flight altitudes, which we test using density...

Data from: A characterization of autumn nocturnal migration detected by weather surveillance radars in the northeastern US

Andrew Farnsworth, Benjamin Mark Van Doren, Wesley M. Hochachka, Daniel Sheldon, Kevin Winner, Jed Irvine, Jeffrey Geevarghese, Steve Kelling & Benjamin M. Van Doren
Billions of birds migrate at night over North America each year. However, few studies have described the phenology of these movements, such as magnitudes, directions, and speeds, for more than one migration season and at regional scales. In this study, we characterize density, direction, and speed of nocturnally migrating birds using data from 13 weather surveillance radars in the autumns of 2010 and 2011 in the northeastern US. After screening radar data to remove precipitation,...

Data from: Seascape drivers of Macrocystis pyrifera population genetic structure in the northeast Pacific

Mattias L. Johansson, Filipe Alberto, Daniel C. Reed, Peter T. Raimondi, Nelson C. Coelho, Mary A. Young, Patrick T. Drake, Christopher A. Edwards, Kyle Cavanaugh, Jorge Assis, Lydia B. Ladah, Tom W. Bell, James A. Coyer, David A. Siegel & Ester A. Serrão
At small spatial and temporal scales, genetic differentiation is largely controlled by constraints on gene flow, while genetic diversity across a species' distribution is shaped on longer temporal and spatial scales. We assess the hypothesis that oceanographic transport and other seascape features explain different scales of genetic structure of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. We followed a hierarchical approach to perform a microsatellite-based analysis of genetic differentiation in Macrocystis across its distribution in the northeast Pacific....

Data from: Resolving relationships within the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae) using next-gen derived plastid sequences

Jason R. Comer, Wendy B. Zomlefer, Craig F. Barrett, Jerrold I. Davis, Dennis W. Stevenson, Karolina Heyduk & James H. Leebens-Mack
Premise of the study: Several studies have incorporated molecular and morphological data to study the phylogeny of the palms (Arecaceae), but some relationships within the family remain ambiguous—particularly those within Arecoideae, the most diverse subfamily including coconut and oil palm. Here, two next-generation, targeted plastid-enrichment methods were compared and used to elucidate Arecoideae phylogeny. Methods: Next-generation sequencing techniques were used to generate a plastid genome data set. Long range PCR and hybrid gene capture were...

Data from: Differentially expressed genes match bill morphology and plumage despite largely homogenous genomes in a Holarctic songbird

Nicholas A. Mason & Scott A. Taylor
Understanding the patterns and processes that contribute to phenotypic diversity and speciation is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Recently, high-throughput sequencing has provided unprecedented phylogenetic resolution in many lineages that have experienced rapid diversification. The Holarctic redpoll finches (Genus: Acanthis) provide an intriguing example of a recent, phenotypically diverse lineage; traditional sequencing and genotyping methods have failed to detect any genetic differences between currently recognized species, despite marked variation in plumage and morphology within...

Data from: Reed frog diversification in the Gulf of Guinea: overseas dispersal, the progression rule, and in situ speciation

Rayna C. Bell, Robert C. Drewes & Kelly R. Zamudio
Oceanic islands accumulate endemic species when new colonists diverge from source populations or by in situ diversification of resident island endemics. The relative importance of dispersal versus in situ speciation in generating diversity on islands varies with a number of archipelago characteristics including island size, age, and remoteness. Here we characterize inter-island dispersal and in situ speciation in frogs endemic to the Gulf of Guinea islands. Using mitochondrial sequence and genome-wide SNP data we demonstrate...

Data from: Genetic structure, admixture, and invasion success in a Holarctic defoliator, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

Yunke Wu, John J. Molongoski, Deborah F. Winograd, Steven M. Bogdanowicz, Artemis S. Louyakis, David R. Lance, Victor C. Mastro & Richard G. Harrison
Characterizing the current population structure of potentially invasive species provides a critical context for identifying source populations and for understanding why invasions are successful. Non-native populations inevitably lose genetic diversity during initial colonization events, but subsequent admixture among independently introduced lineages may increase both genetic variation and adaptive potential. Here we characterize the population structure of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar Linnaeus), one of the world's most destructive forest pests. Native to Eurasia and recently...

Data from: Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolism genes modulate field fitness

Rachel Kerwin, Julie Feusier, Jason Corwin, Matthew Rubin, Catherine Lin, Alise Muok, Brandon Larson, Baohua Li, Bindu Joseph, Marta Francisco, Daniel Copeland, Cynthia Weinig, Daniel J. Kliebenstein & Daniel J Kliebenstein
Natural populations persist in complex environments, where biotic stressors, such as pathogen and insect communities, fluctuate temporally and spatially. These shifting biotic pressures generate heterogeneous selective forces that can maintain standing natural variation within a species. To directly test if genes containing causal variation for the Arabidopsis thaliana defensive compounds, glucosinolates (GSL) control field fitness and are therefore subject to natural selection, we conducted a multi-year field trial using lines that vary in only specific...

Data from: Genetic mapping of novel loci affecting canine blood phenotypes

Michelle E. White, Jessica J. Hayward, Tracy Stokol & Adam R. Boyko
Since the publication of the dog genome and the construction of high-quality genome- wide SNP arrays, thousands of dogs have been genotyped for disease studies. For many of these dogs, additional clinical phenotypes are available, such as hematological and clinical chemistry results collected during routine veterinary care. Little is known about the genetic basis of variation in blood phenotypes, but this variation may play an important role in the etiology and progression of many diseases....

Data from: Environmental drivers of mast-seeding in Mediterranean oak species: does leaf habit matter?

Ignacio M. Pérez-Ramos, Carmen M. Padilla-Díaz, Walter D. Koenig & Teodoro Marañón
Understanding the proximate factors that govern the widespread mast-seeding process is a question of considerable interest that remains poorly understood. The identity and effect of these factors may vary among coexisting species that differ in leaf habit, potentially resulting in temporally asynchronous patterns of seed production. In this study we aim to identify the proximate causes of mast-seeding using two oak species with contrasting leaf habit that coexist in southern Spain, the deciduous Quercus canariensis...

Data from: Can plants evolve tolerance mechanisms to heterospecific pollen effects? An experimental test of the adaptive potential in Clarkia species

Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Robert A. Raguso & Monica A. Geber
Flowering plants do not occur alone and often grow in mixed-species communities where pollinator sharing is high and interactions via pollinators can occur at pre- and post-pollination stages. While the causes and consequences of pre-pollination interactions have been well studied little is known about post-pollination interactions via heterospecific pollen (HP) receipt, and even less about the evolutionary implications of these interactions. In particular, the degree to which plants can evolve tolerance mechanisms to the negative...

Data from: Whole transcriptome analysis reveals changes in expression of immune related genes during and after bleaching in a reef-building coral

Jorge H. Pinzón, Bishoy Kamel, Colleen A. Burge, C. Drew Harvell, Mónica Medina, Ernesto Weil, Laura D. Mydlarz, C. A. Burge, C. D. Harvell, B. Kamel, M. Medina & L. D. Mydlarz
Climate change is negatively affecting the stability of natural ecosystems, especially coral reefs. The dissociation of the symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal symbiont, or coral bleaching, has been linked to increased sea surface temperatures. Coral bleaching has significant impacts on corals, including an increase in disease outbreaks that can permanently change the entire reef ecosystem. Yet, little is known about the impacts of coral bleaching on the coral immune system. In this study,...

Data from: High opportunity for postcopulatory sexual selection under field conditions

Biz R. Turnell & Kerry L. Shaw
In polygamous systems, male fitness is determined not only by mating success but also by fertilization success. Despite the growing interest over the past several decades in postcopulatory sexual selection, its relative importance compared to precopulatory sexual selection remains a subject of debate. Here, we use extensive behavioral observations of a semi-natural population of Hawaiian swordtail crickets, Laupala cerasina, and molecular paternity assignment to measure the opportunities for pre- and postcopulatory selection. Because postcopulatory selection...

Data from: Lagged effects of early-season herbivores on valley oak fecundity

Ian S. Pearse, Kyle A. Funk, Thomas S. Kraft & Walter D. Koenig
The seasonal match between folivore and leaf phenology affects the annual success of arboreal folivore populations because many folivores exploit developing leaves, which are an ephemeral resource. One strategy for folivores to exploit early-season leaves is to anticipate their emergence. The consequence of this behavior for trees is that individuals that set leaves earlier may experience greater rates of folivore damage, with potential negative fitness consequences. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed the early-season phenology,...

Data from: Chronic household air pollution exposure is associated with impaired alveolar macrophage function in Malawian non-smokers

Jamie Rylance, Chikondi Chimpini, Sean Semple, David G. Russell, Malcolm J. Jackson, Robert S. Heyderman & Stephen B. Gordon
Background: Household air pollution in low income countries is an important cause of mortality from respiratory infection. We hypothesised that chronic smoke exposure is detrimental to alveolar macrophage function, causing failure of innate immunity. We report the relationship between macrophage function and prior smoke exposure in healthy Malawians. Methods: Healthy subjects exposed daily to cooking smoke at home volunteered for bronchoalveolar lavage. Alveolar macrophage particulate content was measured as a known correlate of smoke exposure....

Data from: The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards

Laura A. Russo, Mia Park, Jason Gibbs, Bryan Danforth & Laura Russo
Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years....

Data from: Long-term avian community response to housing development at the boundary of U.S. protected areas: effect size increases with time

Eric M. Wood, Anna M. Pidgeon, Volker C. Radeloff, David P. Helmers, Patrick D. Culbert, Nicholas S. Keuler & Curtis H. Flather
1. Biodiversity conservation is a primary function of protected areas. However, protected areas also attract people, and therefore, land use has intensified at the boundaries of these lands globally. In the USA, since the 1970s, housing growth at the boundaries (<1 km) of protected areas has increased at a rate far higher than on more distant private lands. Here, we designed our analyses to address our central hypothesis that increasing housing density in and near...

Data from: Negative effects of pesticides on wild bee communities can be buffered by landscape context

Mia G. Park, Eleanor J. Blitzer, Jason Gibbs, John E. Losey, Bryan N. Danforth & E. J. Blitzer
Wild bee communities provide underappreciated but critical agricultural pollination services. Given predicted global shortages in pollination services, managing agroecosystems to support thriving wild bee communities is, therefore, central to ensuring sustainable food production. Benefits of natural (including semi-natural) habitat for wild bee abundance and diversity on farms are well documented. By contrast, few studies have examined toxicity of pesticides on wild bees, let alone effects of farm-level pesticide exposure on entire bee communities. Whether beneficial...

Data from: The importance of terrestrial subsidies in stream food webs varies along a stream size gradient

Sarah M. Collins, Tyler J. Kohler, Steven A. Thomas, William W. Fetzer & Alexander S. Flecker
Cross system subsidies of energy and materials can be a substantial fraction of food web fluxes in ecosystems, especially when autochthonous production is strongly limited by light or nutrients. We explored whether assimilation of terrestrial energy varied in specific consumer taxa collected from streams of different sizes and resource availabilities. Since headwater streams are often unproductive, we expected that inputs from surrounding terrestrial systems (i.e. leaf litter, terrestrial invertebrates) would be a more important food...

Data from: Xylem vessel traits predict the leaf phenology of native and non-native understory species of temperate deciduous forests

Jingjing Yin, Jason D. Fridley, Maria S. Smith & Taryn L. Bauerle
Non-native understorey woody species have been shown to extend leaf display and inhabit vacant phenological niches in early spring and late autumn when growing with native counterparts in temperate deciduous forests across the world. Despite the potential competitive advantages, extended leaf duration also subjects non-native species to possible hydraulic risks associated with maintaining leaves during periods of increased frost probability. It remains unclear how non-native species are able to maintain xylem function within this context....

Data from: Increased susceptibility to fungal disease accompanies adaptation to drought in Brassica rapa

Niamh B. O'Hara, Joshua S. Rest & Steven J. Franks
Recent studies have demonstrated adaptive evolutionary responses to climate change, but little is known about how these responses may influence ecological interactions with other organisms, including natural enemies. We used a resurrection experiment in the greenhouse to examine the effect of evolutionary responses to drought on the susceptibility of Brassica rapa plants to a fungal pathogen, Alternaria brassicae. In agreement with previous studies in this population, we found an evolutionary shift to earlier flowering post-drought,...

Data from: Polyandry and postcopulatory sexual selection in a wild population

Biz R. Turnell & Kerry L. Shaw
When females mate multiply, postcopulatory sexual selection can occur via sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Although postcopulatory selection has the potential to be a major force in driving evolution, few studies have estimated its strength in natural populations. Likewise, though polyandry is widespread across taxa and is the focus of a growing body of research, estimates of natural female mating rates are still limited in number. Microsatellites can be used to estimate the number...

Data from: Divergence in calls but not songs in the orchard oriole complex: Icterus spurius and I. fuertesi

Rachel J. Sturge, Kevin E. Omland, J. Jordan Price & Bernard Lohr
Birdsong has important functions in attracting and competing for mates, and song characteristics are thought to diverge rapidly during the process of speciation. In contrast, other avian vocalizations that may have non-reproductive functions, such as calls, are thought to be more evolutionarily conserved and may diverge more slowly among taxa. This study examines differences in both male song and an acoustically simpler vocalization, the ‘jeet’ call, between two closely related taxa, Icterus spurius and I....

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Cornell University
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • University of California System
  • University of Georgia
  • Michigan State University
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • Oregon State University
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Utah
  • University of Nebraska–Lincoln
  • University of Maryland, College Park
  • Dartmouth College
  • University of Montana
  • University of Sussex
  • University of Washington