92 Works

Dataset for the Environmental Risk Assessment of Chlorpyrifos to Chinook Salmon in four Rivers of Washington State, United States

Wayne G. Landis, Valerie R. Chu, Scarlett E. Graham, Meagan J. Harris, April J. Markiewicz, Chelsea J. Mitchell, Katherine E. von Stackelberg & John D. Stark

Rebooting Electronic Literature, volume 2: Documenting Pre-Web Born Digital Media

Rudyne (Dene) Grigar, Nicholas Schiller, Holly Slocum, Mariah Gwin, Andrew Nevue, Kathleen Zoller & Moneca Roath
Rebooting Electronic Literature, Volume 2 is the second of a series of open-source, multimedia books documenting works of electronic literature held in Dene Grigar's Electronic Literature Lab (ELL) collection at Washington State University Vancouver. The five works selected for this volume are among the most unique and fragile in the collection. All constitute long-form writing produced with stand-alone hypertext authoring systems available during the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The hypertext novels include Kathryn...

Reductions in the dietary niche of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the Holocene to the Anthropocene.

Emma Elliott Smith, M. Tim Tinker, Emily Whistler, Douglas Kennett, René Vellanoweth, Diane Gifford-Gonzalez, Mark Hylkema & Seth Newsome
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal hunted to near extinction during the 1800s. Despite their well-known importance as a keystone species, we know little about historical sea otter ecology. Here, we characterize the ecological niche of ancient southern sea otters (E. lutris nereis) using d13C and d15N analysis of bones recovered from archaeological sites spanning ~7,000 to 350 years before present (N=112 individuals) at five regions along the coast of California. These...

Landscape context mediates the physiological stress response of birds to farmland diversification

Christopher Latimer, Olivia Smith, Joseph Taylor, Amanda Edworthy, Jeb Owen, William Snyder & Christina M. Kennedy
1. Farmland diversification practices are increasingly adopted to help reverse biodiversity declines in agroecosystems. However, evidence for the effectiveness of this approach often comes from documenting the species attracted to particular farming systems or landscapes, rather than their underlying physiological states that ultimately determine population growth or decline over the longer term. 2. Across 38 organic, mixed-produce farms spanning the U.S. west coast, we quantified three physiological biomarkers that are widely used to capture variation...

Spatial and temporal patterns of environmental DNA detection to inform sampling protocols in lentic and lotic systems

Mallory Bedwell & Caren Goldberg
The development of efficient sampling protocols for the capture of environmental DNA (eDNA) could greatly help improve accuracy of occupancy monitoring for species that are difficult to detect. However, the process of developing a protocol in situ is complicated for rare species by the fact that animal locations are often unknown. We tested sampling designs in lake and stream systems to determine the most effective eDNA sampling protocols for two rare species: the Sierra Nevada...

Data from: Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: a new global synthesis

Bridget R. Deemer, John A. Harrison, Siyue Li, Jake J. Beaulieu, Tonya DelSontro, Nathan Barros, José F. Bezerra-Neto, Stephen M. Powers, Marco A. Dos Santos & J. Arie Vonk
Collectively, reservoirs created by dams are thought to be an important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. So far, efforts to quantify, model, and manage these emissions have been limited by data availability and inconsistencies in methodological approach. Here, we synthesize reservoir CH4, CO2, and N2O emission data with three main objectives: (1) to generate a global estimate of GHG emissions from reservoirs, (2) to identify the best predictors of these emissions, and...

Data from: Mutualists stabilize coexistence of congeneric legumes

Andrew Siefert, Kenneth W. Zillig, Maren L. Friesen & Sharon Y. Strauss
Coexistence requires that stabilizing niche differences, which cause species to limit themselves more than others, outweigh relative fitness differences that cause competitive exclusion. Interactions with shared mutualists, which can differentially affect host fitness and change in magnitude with host frequency, can satisfy these conditions for coexistence, yet empirical tests of mutualist effects on relative fitness and stabilizing niche differences are largely lacking within the framework of coexistence theory. Here, we show that N-fixing rhizobial mutualists...

Beyond the group: how food, mates and group size influence inter-group encounters in wild bonobos

Stefano Lucchesi, Leveda Cheng, Karline Janmaat, Roger Mundry, Anne Pisor & Surbeck Martin
In social-living animals, interactions between groups are frequently agonistic, but they can also be tolerant and even cooperative. Inter-group tolerance and cooperation are regarded as a crucial step in the formation of highly-structured multilevel societies. Behavioral ecological theory suggests that inter-group tolerance and cooperation can emerge either when the costs of hostility outweigh the benefits of exclusive resource access, or when both groups gain fitness benefits through their interactions. However, the factors promoting inter-group tolerance...

Beneficial microbes ameliorate abiotic and biotic sources of stress on plants

Maren Friesen, Stephanie Porter, Roxanne Bantay, Colleen Friel, Kristi Gdanetz, Bethany Moore, Prateek Shetty, Eleanor Siler & Maren Friesen
1. Global climate change and shifting land-use are increasing plant stress due to abiotic factors such as drought, heat, salinity and cold, as well as via the intensification of biotic stressors such as herbivores and pathogens. The ability of plants to tolerate such stresses is modulated by the bacteria and fungi that live on or inside of plant tissues and comprise the plant microbiome. However, the impacts of diverse classes of beneficial microbes and the...

Reduced cooperative courtship behavior as a cost of high testosterone in a lekking passerine bird

Ben Vernasco & Ignacio Moore
Many studies have identified the reproductive benefits of cooperative behaviors, yet few have identified the mechanisms that underlie these behaviors. Mechanistic studies can inform our understanding of why some individuals are more or less cooperative as well as identify the physiological constraints imposed upon the evolution of reproductive traits. Male wire-tailed manakins (Pipra filicauda) exhibit cooperative courtship behaviors and more cooperative territory-holders have been shown to exhibit higher reproductive success. To begin to understand the...

Occupancy in dynamic systems: accounting for multiple scales and false positives using environmental DNA to inform monitoring

Matthew Smith & Caren Goldberg
Occupancy is an important metric to understand current and future trends in populations that have declined globally. In addition, occupancy can be an efficient tool for conducting landscape-scale and long-term monitoring. A challenge for occupancy monitoring programs is to determine the appropriate spatial scale of analysis and to obtain precise occupancy estimates for elusive species. We used a multi-scale occupancy model to assess occupancy of Columbia spotted frogs in the Great Basin, USA, based on...

Future of the Human Climate Niche

Chi Xu, Timothy Kohler, Timothy Lenton, Jens-Christian Svenning & Marten Scheffer
All species have an environmental niche and despite technological advance humans are unlikely to be an exception. Here, we demonstrate that for millennia human populations have resided in the same narrow part of the climatic envelope available on the globe, characterized by mean annual temperatures (MAT) of ~11-15 °C. Current production of crops and livestock is largely limited to the same conditions. We subsequently show that in a business-as-usual climate-change scenario the geographical position of...

Genomic data reveal similar genetic differentiation in aquifer species with different dispersal capabilities and life histories

Steve Jordan, Brian Hand, Scott Hotaling, Amanda DelVecchia, Rachel Malison, Clark Nissley, Gordon Luikart & Jack Standford
Little is known about the life histories, genetic structure, and population connectivity of shallow groundwater organisms. We used next-generation sequencing (RAD-seq) to analyze population genomic structure in two aquifer species: Paraperla frontalis (Banks, 1902), a stonefly with groundwater larvae and aerial (winged) adults, and Stygobromus sp., a groundwater-obligate amphipod. We found similar genetic differentiation in each species between floodplains separated by ~70 river km in the Flathead River basin of NW Montana, USA. Given that...

Distribution and connectivity of protected areas in the Americas facilitates transboundary conservation

Daniel Thornton, Lyn Branch & Dennis Murray
Large-scale anthropogenic changes to landscapes will cause species to move and shift their ranges against a backdrop of international political boundaries. Transboundary conservation efforts are therefore key to preserving intact and connected landscapes, particularly if such efforts can be implemented within the framework of protected area networks that provide for resiliency and persistence in the face of threats such as climate change. We studied the distribution, connectivity, and integrity of protected areas in regions near...

Data from: Highly diversified crop-livestock farming systems reshape wild bird communities

Olivia Smith, Christina Kennedy, Jeb Owen, Tobin Northfield, Christopher Latimer & William Snyder
Agricultural intensification is a leading threat to bird conservation. Highly diversified farming systems that integrate livestock and crop production might promote a diversity of habitats useful to native birds foraging across otherwise-simplified landscapes. At the same time, these features might be attractive to non-native birds linked to a broad range of disservices to both crop and livestock production. We evaluated the influence of crop-livestock integration on wild bird richness and density along a north-south transect...

Data from: Using supermatrices for phylogenetic inquiry: an example using the sedges

Cody E. Hinchliff & Eric H. Roalson
In this article, we use supermatrix data-mining methods to reconstruct a large, highly inclusive phylogeny of Cyperaceae from nucleotide data available on GenBank. We explore the properties of these trees and their utility for phylogenetic inference, and show that even the highly incomplete alignments characteristic of supermatrix approaches may yield very good estimates of phylogeny. We present a novel pipeline for filtering sparse alignments to improve their phylogenetic utility by maximizing the partial decisiveness of...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

Lei Yang, M. Arunachalam, Tetsuya Sado, Boris A. Levin, Alexander S. Golubtsov, Jörg Freyhof, John P. Friel, Wei-Jen Chen, M. Vincent Hirt, Raja Manickam, Mary K. Agnew, Andrew M. Simons, Kenji Saitoh, Masaki Miya, Richard L. Mayden, Shunping He & M. Vincent Hirt
The cyprinid tribe Labeonini (sensu Rainboth, 1991) is a large group of freshwater fishes containing around 40 genera and 400 species. They are characterized by an amazing diversity of modifications to their lips and associated structures. In this study, a total of 34 genera and 142 species of putative members of this tribe, which represent most of the generic diversity and more than one third of the species diversity of the group, were sampled and...

Data from: Evolution of the additive genetic variance–covariance matrix under continuous directional selection on a complex behavioural phenotype

Vincent Careau, Matthew E. Wolak, Patrick A. Carter & Theodore Garland
Given the pace at which human-induced environmental changes occur, a pressing challenge is to determine the speed with which selection can drive evolutionary change. A key determinant of adaptive response to multivariate phenotypic selection is the additive genetic variance–covariance matrix (G). Yet knowledge of G in a population experiencing new or altered selection is not sufficient to predict selection response because G itself evolves in ways that are poorly understood. We experimentally evaluated changes in...

Data from: Artificial selection on larval growth curves in Tribolium: correlated responses and constraints

Kristen K. Irwin, Pat A. Carter, K. K. Irwin & P. A. Carter
Body size is often constrained from evolving. Although artificial selection on body size in insects frequently results in a sizable response, these responses usually bear fitness costs. Further, these experiments tend to select only on size at one landmark age, rather than selecting for patterns of growth over the whole larval life stage. To address whether constraints may be caused by larval growth patterns rather than final size, we implemented a function-valued (FV) trait method...

Data from: Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles

Ian A. Warren, J. Cristobal Vera, Annika Johns, Robert Zinna, James H. Marden, Douglas J. Emlen, Ian Dworkin & Laura C. Lavine
Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce...

Data from: Limits to behavioral evolution: the quantitative genetics of a complex trait under directional selection

Vincent Careau, Matthew E. Wolak, Patrick A. Carter, Garland Jr., Theodore & Theodore Garland
Replicated selection experiments provide a powerful way to study how “multiple adaptive solutions” may lead to differences in the quantitative-genetic architecture of selected traits and whether this may translate into differences in the timing at which evolutionary limits are reached. We analyze data from 31 generations (n = 17,988) of selection on voluntary wheel running in house mice. The rate of initial response, timing of selection limit, and height of the plateau varied significantly between...

Data from: Testing conceptual models of early plant succession across a disturbance gradient

Cynthia C. Chang, Charles B. Halpern, Joseph A. Antos, Meghan L. Avolio, Abir Biswas, James E. Cook, Roger Del Moral, Dylan G. Fischer, Andrés Holz, Robert J. Pabst, Mark E. Swanson & Donald B. Zobel
1.Studies of succession have a long history in ecology, but rigorous tests of general, unifying principles are rare. One barrier to these tests of theory is the paucity of longitudinal studies that span the broad gradients of disturbance severity that characterize large, infrequent disturbances. The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 produced a heterogeneous landscape of disturbance conditions, including primary to secondary successional habitats, affording a unique opportunity to explore how...

Data from: Modelling the functional link between movement, feeding activity and condition in a marine predator

Enrico Pirotta, Lisa K. Schwarz, Daniel P. Costa, Patrick W. Robinson, Leslie New, Daniel P Costa, Patrick W Robinson & Lisa K Schwarz
The ability to quantify animals’ feeding activity and the resulting changes in their body condition as they move in the environment is fundamental to our understanding of a population’s ecology. We use satellite tracking data from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), paired with simultaneous diving information, to develop a Bayesian state-space model that concurrently estimates an individual’s location, feeding activity, and changes in condition. The model identifies important foraging areas and times, the relative amount...

Data from: Trade-offs for butterfly alpha and beta diversity in human-modified landscapes and tropical rainforests

Hemchandranauth Sambhu, Alliea Nankishore, Stephen M. Turton & Tobin D. Northfield
The accelerating expansion of human populations and associated economic activity across the globe have made maintaining large, intact natural areas increasingly challenging. The difficulty of preserving large intact landscapes in the presence of growing human populations has led to a growing emphasis on landscape approaches to biodiversity conservation with a complementary strategy focused on improving conservation in human-modified landscapes. This, in turn, is leading to intense debate about the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in human-modified...

Data from: Phenological responses of 215 moth species to interannual climate variation in the Pacific Northwest from 1895 through 2013

Julie A. Maurer, Jon H. Shepard, Lars G. Crabo, Paul C. Hammond, Richard S. Zack & Merrill A. Peterson
Climate change has caused shifts in the phenology and distributions of many species but comparing responses across species is challenged by inconsistencies in the methodology and taxonomic and temporal scope of individual studies. Natural history collections offer a rich source of data for examining phenological shifts for a large number of species. We paired specimen records from Pacific Northwest insect collections to climate data to analyze the responses of 215 moth species to interannual climate...

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