7,646 Works

Death or Taxes? The Political Economy of Sanitation Expenditure in Nineteenth Century Britain

Jonathan Neil Chapman
This thesis consists of three papers studying the relationship between democratic reform, expenditure on sanitation public goods and mortality in Britain in the second half of the nineteenth century. During this period decisions over spending on critical public goods such as water supply and sewer systems were made by locally elected town councils, leading to extensive variation in the level of spending across the country. This dissertation uses new historical data to examine the political...

State-Dependent Modulation of Neuronal Circuits in C. elegans Sleep

Julie YoungHee Cho
C. elegans is a compact system of 302 neurons with identifiable and mapped connections that makes it ideal for systems analysis. This work is a demonstration of what I have been able to learn about the nature of state-specific modulation and reversibility during a state called lethargus, a sleep-like state in the worm. I begin with description about the nervous system of the worm, the nature of sleep in the worm, the questions about behavior...

Experimental Study on Inertial Effects in Liquid-Solid Flows

Esperanza Crystal Linares-Guerrero
This thesis presents experimental measurements of the rheological behavior of liquid-solid mixtures at moderate Reynolds (defined by the shear rate and particle diameter) and Stokes numbers, ranging from 3 ≤ Re ≤ 1.6 × 103 and 0.4 ≤ St ≤ 195. The experiments use a specifically designed Couette cylindrical rheometer that allows for probing the transition from transporting a pure liquid to transporting a dense suspension of particles. Measurements of the shear stress are presented...

Toward Understanding Astrophysical Phenomena

Jing Luan
Fast radio bursts (FRBs), a novel type of radio pulse, whose physics is not yet understood at all. Only a handful of FRBs had been detected when we started this project. Taking account of the scant observations, we put physical constraints on FRBs. We excluded proposals of a galactic origin for their extraordinarily high dispersion measures (DM), in particular stellar coronas and HII regions. Therefore our work supports an extragalactic origin for FRBs. We show...

Information-Theoretic Studies and Capacity Bounds: Group Network Codes and Energy Harvesting Communication Systems

Wei Mao
Network information theory and channels with memory are two important but difficult frontiers of information theory. In this two-parted dissertation, we study these two areas, each comprising one part. For the first area we study the so-called entropy vectors via finite group theory, and the network codes constructed from finite groups. In particular, we identify the smallest finite group that violates the Ingleton inequality, an inequality respected by all linear network codes, but not satisfied...

Cavity Optomechanics at Millikelvin Temperatures

Sean Michael Meenehan
The field of cavity optomechanics, which concerns the coupling of a mechanical object's motion to the electromagnetic field of a high finesse cavity, allows for exquisitely sensitive measurements of mechanical motion, from large-scale gravitational wave detection to microscale accelerometers. Moreover, it provides a potential means to control and engineer the state of a macroscopic mechanical object at the quantum level, provided one can realize sufficiently strong interaction strengths relative to the ambient thermal noise. Recent...

Imperfection Insensitive Thin Shells

Xin Ning
The buckling of axially compressed cylindrical shells and externally pressurized spherical shells is extremely sensitive to even very small geometric imperfections. In practice this issue is addressed by either using overly conservative knockdown factors, while keeping perfect axial or spherical symmetry, or adding closely and equally spaced stiffeners on shell surface. The influence of imperfection-sensitivity is mitigated, but the shells designed from these approaches are either too heavy or very expensive and are still sensitive...

Essays on Correlated Equilibrium and Voter Turnout

Kirill B. Pogorelskiy
This thesis consists of three essays in the areas of political economy and game theory, unified by their focus on the effects of pre-play communication on equilibrium outcomes. Communication is fundamental to elections. Chapter 2 extends canonical voter turnout models, where citizens, divided into two competing parties, choose between costly voting and abstaining, to include any form of communication, and characterizes the resulting set of Aumann's correlated equilibria. In contrast to previous research, high-turnout equilibria...

Experimental Investigation of Thrust Fault Rupture Mechanics

Vahe Gabuchian
Thrust fault earthquakes are investigated in the laboratory by generating dynamic shear ruptures along pre-existing frictional faults in rectangular plates. A considerable body of evidence suggests that dip-slip earthquakes exhibit enhanced ground motions in the acute hanging wall wedge as an outcome of broken symmetry between hanging and foot wall plates with respect to the earth surface. To understand the physical behavior of thrust fault earthquakes, particularly ground motions near the earth surface, ruptures are...

Metaconcrete: Engineered Aggregates for Enhanced Dynamic Performance

Stephanie Jane Mitchell
This work presents the development and investigation of a new type of concrete for the attenuation of waves induced by dynamic excitation. Recent progress in the field of metamaterials science has led to a range of novel composites which display unusual properties when interacting with electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic waves. A new structural metamaterial with enhanced properties for dynamic loading applications is presented, which is named metaconcrete. In this new composite material the standard stone...

Rate and Microstructure Effects on the Dynamics of Carbon Nanotube Foams

Ramathasan Thevamaran
Soft hierarchical materials often present unique functional properties that are sensitive to the geometry and organization of their micro- and nano-structural features across different lengthscales. Carbon Nanotube (CNT) foams are hierarchical materials with fibrous morphology that are known for their remarkable physical, chemical and electrical properties. Their complex microstructure has led them to exhibit intriguing mechanical responses at different length-scales and in different loading regimes. Even though these materials have been studied for mechanical behavior...

On the Link Floer Homology of L-space Link

Nakul Dawra
We will prove that, for a 2 or 3 component L-space link, HFL- is completely determined by the multi-variable Alexander polynomial of all the sub-links of L, as well as the pairwise linking numbers of all the components of L. We will also give some restrictions on the multi-variable Alexander polynomial of an L-space link. Finally, we use the methods in this paper to prove a conjecture of Yajing Liu classifying all 2-bridge L-space links.

Noise Cancellation for Gravitational Wave Detectors

Jennifer Clair Driggers
The LIGO gravitational wave detectors are on the brink of making the first direct detections of gravi- tational waves. Noise cancellation techniques are described, in order to simplify the commissioning of these detectors as well as significantly improve their sensitivity to astrophysical sources. Future upgrades to the ground based detectors will require further cancellation of Newtonian gravitational noise in order to make the transition from detectors striving to make the first direct detection of gravitational...

Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

Ran Duan
A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property...

Rewriting Schemes for Flash Memory

Eyal En Gad
Flash memory is a leading storage media with excellent features such as random access and high storage density. However, it also faces significant reliability and endurance challenges. In flash memory, the charge level in the cells can be easily increased, but removing charge requires an expensive erasure operation. In this thesis we study rewriting schemes that enable the data stored in a set of cells to be rewritten by only increasing the charge level in...

Value Estimation and Comparison in Multi-Attribute Choice

Geoffrey W. Fisher
The following work explores the processes individuals utilize when making multi-attribute choices. With the exception of extremely simple or familiar choices, most decisions we face can be classified as multi-attribute choices. In order to evaluate and make choices in such an environment, we must be able to estimate and weight the particular attributes of an option. Hence, better understanding the mechanisms involved in this process is an important step for economists and psychologists. For example,...

Metallaboratrane Facilitated E‒H Bond Activation and Hydrogenation Catalysis

Henry Fong
The E‒H bond activation chemistry of tris-phosophino-iron and -cobalt metallaboratranes is discussed. The ferraboratrane complex (TPB)Fe(N2) heterolytically activates H‒H and the C‒H bonds of formaldehyde and arylacetylenes across an Fe‒B bond. In particular, H‒H bond cleavage at (TPB)Fe(N2) is reversible and affords the iron-hydride-borohydride complex (TPB)(μ‒H)Fe(L)(H) (L = H2, N2). (TPB)(μ‒H)Fe(L)(H) and (TPB)Fe(N2) are competent olefin and arylacetylene hydrogenation catalysts. Stoichiometric studies indicate that the B‒H unit is capable of acting as a hydride shuttle...

Establishing the C. elegans Uterine Seam Cell (utse) as a Novel Model for Studying Cell Behavior

Srimoyee Ghosh
The molecular inputs necessary for cell behavior are vital to our understanding of development and disease. Proper cell behavior is necessary for processes ranging from creating one’s face (neural crest migration) to spreading cancer from one tissue to another (invasive metastatic cancers). Identifying the genes and tissues involved in cell behavior not only increases our understanding of biology but also has the potential to create targeted therapies in diseases hallmarked by aberrant cell behavior. A...

The Mechanical Genome in Regulation and Infection

Yi-Ju Chen
Biological information storage and retrieval is a dynamic process that requires the genome to undergo dramatic structural rearrangements. Recent advances in single-molecule techniques have allowed precise quantification of the nano-mechanical properties of DNA [1, 2], and direct in vivo observation of molecules in action [3]. In this work, we will examine elasticity in protein-mediated DNA looping, whose structural rearrangement is essential for transcriptional regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We will look at hydrodynamics in...

Self-Healing Techniques for RF and mm-Wave Transmitters and Receivers

Kaushik Dasgupta
With continuing advances in CMOS technology, feature sizes of modern Silicon chip-sets have gone down drastically over the past decade. In addition to desktops and laptop processors, a vast majority of these chips are also being deployed in mobile communication devices like smart-phones and tablets, where multiple radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) must be integrated into one device to cater to a wide variety of applications such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, NFC, wireless charging, etc. While a...

Engineering and Characterization of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes for Nitrogen-Atom Transfer Reactions

Christopher C. Farwell
The creation of novel enzyme activity is a great challenge to protein engineers, but nature has done so repeatedly throughout the process of natural selection. I begin by outlining the multitude of distinct reactions catalyzed by a single enzyme class, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. I discuss the ability of cytochrome P450 to generate reactive intermediates capable of diverse reactivity, suggesting this enzyme can also be used to generate novel reactive intermediates in the form of metal-carbenoid...

Mitigating Scarring and Inflammation during Corneal Wound Healing using Nanofiber-Hydrogel Scaffolds

Amy Hau Yu Fu
Due to the universal lack of donor tissue, there has been emerging interest in engineering materials to stimulate living cells to restore the features and functions of injured organs. We are particularly interested in developing materials for corneal use, where the necessity to maintain the tissue’s transparency presents an additional challenge. Every year, there are 1.5 – 2 million new cases of monocular blindness due to irregular healing of corneal injuries, dwarfing the approximately 150,000...

Distributed Load Control in Multiphase Radial Networks

Lingwen Gan
The current power grid is on the cusp of modernization due to the emergence of distributed generation and controllable loads, as well as renewable energy. On one hand, distributed and renewable generation is volatile and difficult to dispatch. On the other hand, controllable loads provide significant potential for compensating for the uncertainties. In a future grid where there are thousands or millions of controllable loads and a large portion of the generation comes from volatile...

Strong Atom-Light Interactions Along Nanostructures: Transition from Free-space to Nanophotonic Interfaces

Akihisa Goban
An exciting frontier in quantum information science is the integration of otherwise "simple" quantum elements into complex quantum networks. The laboratory realization of even small quantum networks enables the exploration of physical systems that have not heretofore existed in the natural world. Within this context, there is active research to achieve nanoscale quantum optical circuits, for which atoms are trapped near nano-scopic dielectric structures and "wired" together by photons propagating through the circuit elements. Single...

The Molecular Basis of Lysine Acetylation: Addition, Removal, and Recognition

Andrew M. Davenport
Acetyltransferases and deacetylases catalyze the addition and removal, respectively, of acetyl groups to the epsilon-amino group of protein lysine residues. This modification can affect the function of a protein through several means, including the recruitment of specific binding partners called acetyl-lysine readers. Acetyltransferases, deacetylases, and acetyl-lysine readers have emerged as crucial regulators of biological processes and prominent targets for the treatment of human disease. This work describes a combination of structural, biochemical, biophysical, cell-biological, and...

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