92 Works

Inter- and intraspecific trait variation shape multidimensional trait overlap between two plant invaders and the invaded communities

Kenny Helsen, Elisa Van Cleemput, Leonardo Bassi, Bente Graae, Ben Somers, Benjamin Blonder & Olivier Honnay
Invader success and ecosystem impact are both expected to be largely driven by the functional trait distinctiveness of the resident species relative to the invaded communities. To understand the importance of trait distinctiveness for plant invasions, and the native community’s trait response to the invasion, it is key to measure multiple traits simultaneously, and to incorporate intraspecific trait variation. Here we explored multidimensional patterns of inter- and intraspecific trait variation during the invasion of two...

Volatiles of bacteria associated with parasitoid habitats elicit distinct olfactory responses in an aphid parasitoid and its hyperparasitoid

Tim Goelen, Islam S. Sobhy, Christophe Vanderaa, Jetske G. De Boer, Frank Delvigne, Frédéric Francis, Felix Wäckers, Hans Rediers, Kevin J. Verstrepen, Tom Wenseleers, Hans Jacquemyn & Bart Lievens
1. To locate mating partners and essential resources such as food, oviposition sites and shelter, insects rely to a large extent on chemical cues. While most research has focused on cues derived from plants and insects, there is mounting evidence that indicates that microorganisms emit volatile compounds that may play an important role in insect behaviour. 2. In this study, we assessed how volatile compounds emitted by phylogenetically diverse bacteria affected the olfactory response of...

Tree diversity is key for promoting the diversity and abundance of forest‐associated taxa in Europe

Eric Allan, Evy Ampoorter, Luc Barbaro, Hervé Jactel, Lander Baeten, Johanna Boberg, Monique Carnol, Bastien Castagneyrol, Yohan Charbonnier, Seid Muhie Dawud, Marc Deconchat, Pallieter De Smedt, Hans De Wandeler, Virginie Guyot, Stephan Hättenschwiler, François‐Xavier Joly, Julia Koricheva, Harriet Milligan, Bart Muys, Diem Nguyen, Sophia Ratcliffe, Karsten Raulund‐Rasmussen, Michael Scherer‐Lorenzen, Fons Plas, J. Van Keer … & Lars Vesterdal
Plant diversity is an important driver of diversity at other trophic levels, suggesting that cascading extinctions could reduce overall biodiversity. Most evidence for positive effects of plant diversity comes from grasslands. Despite the fact that forests are hotspots of biodiversity, the importance of tree diversity, in particular its relative importance compared to other management related factors, in affecting forest‐associated taxa is not well known. To address this, we used data from 183 plots, located in...

Relationship of total and calculated free 25-hydroxyvitamin D to biomarkers and metabolic indices in healthy children

Christine Simpson, Jane Zhang, Dirk Vanderschueren, Lei Fu, Teresita Pennestri, Roger Bouillon, David Cole & Thomas Carpenter
ABSTRACT Context: Vitamin D status is usually assessed by serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Whether free 25-hydroxyvitamin D measures better correlate with various clinical outcomes is unclear. Objective: To identify correlations between total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (t25-OHD), calculated and direct measures of free 25-OHD, and to identify associations of these measures with other outcomes in children, across the 6 common GC haplotypes. Design: Healthy urban-dwelling children underwent measurement of relevant variables. Setting: Academic medical center Participants: Healthy,...

Data from: High ecosystem service delivery potential of small woodlands in agricultural landscapes

Alicia Valdés, Jonathan Lenoir, Pieter De Frenne, Emilie Andrieu, Jorg Brunet, Olivier Chabrerie, Sara Cousins, Marc Deconchat, Pallieter De Smedt, Martin Diekmann, Steffen Ehrmann, Emilie Gallet-Moron, Stefanie Gaertner, Brice Giffard, Karin Hansen, Martin Hermy, Annette Kolb, Vincent Leroux, Jaan Liira, Jessica Lindgren, Ludmilla Martin, Tobias Naaf, Taavi Paal, Willem Proesmans, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen … & Guillaume Decocq
Global forest loss and fragmentation have strongly increased the frequency of forest patches smaller than a few hectares. Little is known about the biodiversity and ecosystem service supply potential of such small woodlands in comparison to larger forests. As it is widely recognized that high biodiversity levels increase ecosystem functionality and the delivery of multiple ecosystem services, small, isolated woodlands are expected to have a lower potential for ecosystem service delivery than large forests hosting...

Because You Had a Bad Day: General and Daily Relations between Reactive Temperament, Emotion Regulation, and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

Marie-Lotte Van Beveren, Sofie Kuppens, Benjamin Hankin & Caroline Braet
Negative emotionality (NE) and positive emotionality (PE) have repeatedly shown to act as vulnerability factors for youth depression. Less research examined the mechanisms through which these reactive temperament traits may differently confer vulnerability to depression. Based on recent integrated models of depression proposing emotion regulation as a key underlying mechanism, the current study aimed to clarify the general and day-to-day relations among temperament, emotion regulation strategies, and depressive symptoms in Dutch-speaking youth (35% boys; M_age...

Cross-activity of honeybee queen pheromones in bumblebees provides evidence for sensory exploitation

Sarah A. Princen, Annette Van Oystaeyen, Clément Petit, Jelle S. Van Zweden & Tom Wenseleers
The evolutionary origin of queen pheromones, which regulate reproductive division of labor in insect societies, has been explained by two evolutionary scenarios: the sender-precursor hypothesis and the sensory exploitation hypothesis. These scenarios differ in terms of whether the signaling system was built on preadaptations on the part of either the sender queens or the receiver workers. While some social insect queen pheromones – such as cuticular hydrocarbons – were likely derived from ancestral fertility cues...

A historical-genetic reconstruction of human extra-pair paternity

Maarten H.D. Larmuseau, Pieter Van Den Berg, Sofie Claerhout, Francesc Calafell, Alessio Boattini, Leen Gruyters, Michiel Vandenbosch, Kelly Nivelle, Ronny Decorte & Tom Wenseleers
Paternity testing using genetic markers has shown that extra-pair paternity (EPP) is common in many pair-bonded species. Evolutionary theory and empirical data show that extra-pair copulations can increase the fitness of males as well as females. This can carry a significant fitness cost for the social father, who then invests in rearing offspring that biologically are not his own. In human populations, the incidence and correlates of extra-pair paternity remain highly contentious. Here, we use...

Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism

Brock Bastian, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Steve Loughnan, Paul Bain, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Maja Becker, Michal Bilewicz, Emma Collier-Baker, Carla Crespo, Paul W. Eastwick, Ronald Fischer, Malte Friese, Ángel Gómez, Valeschka M. Guerra, Jose Luis Castellanos Guevara, Katja Hanke, Nic Hooper, Li-Li Huang, Shi Junqi, Minoru Karasawa, Peter Kuppens, Siri Leknes, Müjde Peker, Cesar Pelay, Afoditi Pina … & William B. Swann
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...

Data from: Single-cell selectivity and functional architecture of human lateral occipital complex

Thomas Decramer, Elsie Premereur, Mats Uytterhoeven, Wim Van Paesschen, Johannes Van Loon, Peter Janssen & Tom Theys
The human lateral occipital complex (LOC) is more strongly activated by images of objects compared to scrambled controls, but detailed information at the neuronal level is currently lacking. We recorded with microelectrode arrays in the LOC of two patients, and obtained highly selective single-unit, multi-unit and high-gamma responses to images of objects. Contrary to predictions derived from functional imaging studies, all neuronal properties indicated that the posterior subsector of LOC we recorded from occupies an...

Data from: In silico study of the role of cell growth factors in photosynthesis using a virtual leaf tissue generator coupled to a microscale photosynthesis gas exchange model

Moges Retta, Metadel Abera, Herman Berghuijs, Pieter V, Paul C Struik & Bart Nicolai
Computational tools that allow in silico analysis of the role of cell growth and division on photosynthesis are scarce. We present a freely available tool that combines a virtual leaf tissue generator and a two-dimensional microscale model of gas transport during C3 photosynthesis. A total of 270 mesophyll geometries were generated with varying degree of growth anisotropy, growth extent and extent of schizogenous airspace formation in the palisade mesophyll. The anatomical properties of the virtual...

Data from: Type Maastrichtian gastropod faunas evidencing rapid ecosystem recovery following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary

Johan Vellekoop, Kris Van Tilborgh, Paul Van Knippenberg, John Jagt, Peter Stassen, Stijn Goolaerts & Robert Speijer
The study of the global mass extinction event at the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K/Pg) boundary can aid in understanding patterns of selective extinction and survival, and dynamics of ecosystem recovery. Outcrops in the Maastrichtian type area (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium) comprise an exceptionally expanded K/Pg boundary succession that offers a unique opportunity to study marine ecosystem recovery within the first thousands of years following the mass extinction event. A quantitative analyses was performed on systematically sampled macrofossils...

Data from: Genetic variation and risks of introgression in the wild Coffea arabica gene pool in south-western Ethiopian montane rainforests

Raf Aerts, Gezahegn Berecha, Pieter Gijbels, Kitessa Hundera, Sabine Van Glabeke, Katrien Vandepitte, Bart Muys, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz & Olivier Honnay
The montane rainforests of SW Ethiopia are the primary centre of diversity of Coffea arabica and the origin of all Arabica coffee cultivated worldwide. This wild gene pool is potentially threatened by forest fragmentation and degradation, and by introgressive hybridization with locally improved coffee varieties. We genotyped 703 coffee shrubs from unmanaged and managed coffee populations, using 24 microsatellite loci. Additionally, we genotyped 90 individuals representing 23 Ethiopian cultivars resistant to coffee berry disease (CBD)....

Data from: Hidden founder effects: small-scale spatial genetic structure in recently established populations of the grassland specialist plant Anthyllis vulneraria

Kenny Helsen, Hans Jacquemyn & Olivier Honnay
The long-term establishment success of founder plant populations has been commonly assessed based on the measures of population genetic diversity and among population genetic differentiation, with founder populations expected to carry sufficient genetic diversity when population establishment is the result of many colonists from multiple source populations (the ‘migrant pool’ colonization model). Theory, however, predicts that, after initial colonization, rapid population expansion may result in a fast increase in the extent of spatial genetic structure...

Data from: Effective connectivity of depth-structure-selective patches in the lateral bank of the macaque intraparietal sulcus

Elsie Premereur, Ilse C. Van Dromme, Maria C. Romero, Wim Vanduffel & Peter Janssen
Extrastriate cortical areas are frequently composed of subpopulations of neurons encoding specific features or stimuli, such as color, disparity, or faces, and patches of neurons encoding similar stimulus properties are typically embedded in interconnected networks, such as the attention or face-processing network. The goal of the current study was to examine the effective connectivity of subsectors of neurons in the same cortical area with highly similar neuronal response properties. We first recorded single- and multi-unit...

Data from: Landscape genomics and a common garden trial reveal adaptive differentiation to temperature across Europe in the tree species Alnus glutinosa

Hanne De Kort, Katrien Vandepitte, Hans Henrik Bruun, Déborah Closset-Kopp, Olivier Honnay & Joachim Mergeay
The adaptive potential of tree species to cope with climate change has important ecological and economic implications. Many temperate tree species experience a wide range of environmental conditions, suggesting high adaptability to new environmental conditions. We investigated adaptation to regional climate in the drought-sensitive tree species Alnus glutinosa (Black alder), using a complementary approach that integrates genomic, phenotypic and landscape data. A total of 24 European populations were studied in a common garden and through...

Data from: The role of selection in driving landscape genomic structure of the waterflea Daphnia magna

Luisa Orsini, Joachim Mergeay, Joost Vanoverbeke & Luc De Meester
The combined analysis of neutral and adaptive genetic variation is crucial to reconstruct the processes driving population genetic structure of natural populations. However, such combined analysis is challenging because of the complex interaction among neutral and selective processes in the landscape. Overcoming this level of complexity requires an unbiased search for the evidence of selection in the genomes of populations sampled from their natural habitats and the identification of demographic processes that lead to present-day...

Data from: Rapid evolution in response to warming does not affect the toxicity of a pollutant: insights from experimental evolution in heated mesocosms

Chao Zhang, Mieke Jansen, Luc De Meester & Robby Stoks
While human-induced stressors such as warming and pollutants may co-occur and interact, evolutionary studies typically focus on single stressors. Rapid thermal evolution may help organisms better deal with warming, yet it remains an open question whether thermal evolution changes the toxicity of pollutants under warming. We investigated the effects of exposure to a novel pollutant (zinc oxide nanoparticles, nZnO) and 4°C warming (20°C vs 24°C) on key life history and physiological traits of the water...

Data from: Multiple factors behind early diversification of skull morphology in the continental radiation of New World monkeys

Leandro Aristide, Paul Bastide, Sergio F. Dos Reis, Thaís M. Pires Dos Santos, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes & Sergio Ivan Perez
Understanding the origin of diversity is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology. The null expectation for the evolutionary diversification is that all changes in biological diversity are the result of random processes. Adaptive radiations depart from this expectation as ecological factors and natural selection are supposed to play a central role in driving exceptional diversification. However, it is not well understood how large-scale continental radiations, given their characteristics, fit to these opposing theoretical models. Here,...

Data from: Climate change increases ecogeographic isolation between closely related plants

Karl J. Duffy & Hans Jacquemyn
1. Ecogeographic isolation is a fundamental prezygotic barrier to reproduction and a step toward diversification in flowering plants. However, whether ecogeographic isolation acts as a reproductive barrier between species and thus as a mechanism for species divergence is unclear and is expected to change as species distributions shift under climate change. 2. Using a Maxent framework, we quantified the extent of ecogeographic isolation of nine closely related species of the European plant genus Pulmonaria, which...

Data from: Integrated culturing, modeling and transcriptomics uncovers complex interactions and emergent behavior in a three-species synthetic gut community

Kevin D'hoe, Stefan Vet, Karoline Faust, Frédéric Moens, Gwen Falony, Didier Gonze, Verónica Lloréns-Rico, Lendert Gelens, Jan Danckaert, Luc De Vuyst & Jeroen Raes
Whereas the composition of the human gut microbiome is well resolved, predictive understanding is still lacking. Here, we followed a bottom-up strategy to explore human gut community dynamics: we established a synthetic community composed of three representative human gut isolates (Roseburia intestinalis L1-82, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 and Blautia hydrogenotrophica S5a33) and explored their interactions under well-controlled conditions in vitro. Systematic mono- and pair-wise fermentation experiments confirmed competition for fructose and cross-feeding of formate. We quantified...

Data from: Parallel evolution and adaptation to environmental factors in a marine flatfish: implications for fisheries and aquaculture management of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)

Fernanda Dotti Do Prado, Manuel Vera, Miguel Hermida, Carmen Bouza, Belén G. Pardo, Román Vilas, Andrés Blanco, Carlos Fernández, Francesco Maroso, Gregory E. Maes, Cemal Turan, Filip A.M. Volckaert, John B. Taggart, Adrian Carr, Rob Ogden, Einar E. Nielsen, The Aquatrace Consortium, Paulino Martínez, Filip A. M. Volckaert & Einar Eg Nielsen
Unraveling adaptive genetic variation represents, in addition to the estimate of population demographic parameters, a cornerstone for the management of aquatic natural living resources, which in turn, represent the raw material for breeding programs. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a marine flatfish of high commercial value living on the European continental shelf. While wild populations are declining, aquaculture is flourishing in Southern Europe. We evaluated the genetic structure of turbot throughout its natural distribution range...

Data from: Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi's iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events

Laurent A.F. Frantz, Anna Rudzinski, Abang Mansyursyah Surya Nugraha, Allowen Evin, James Burton, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Anna Linderholm, Ross Barnett, Rodrigo Vega, Evan K. Irving-Pease, James Haile, Richard Allen, Kristin Leus, Jill Shephard, Mia Hillyer, Sarah Gillemot, Jeroen Van Den Hurk, Sharron Ogle, Cristina Atofanei, Mark G. Thomas, Friederike Johansson, Abdul Haris Mustari, John Williams, Kusdiantoro Mohamad, Chandramaya Siska Damayanti … & Laurent A. F. Frantz
The high degree of endemism on Sulawesi has previously been suggested to have vicariant origins, dating back 40 Myr ago. Recent studies, however, suggest that much of Sulawesi’s fauna assembled over the last 15 Myr. Here, we test the hypothesis that more recent uplift of previously submerged portions of land on Sulawesi promoted diversification, and that much of its faunal assemblage is much younger than the island itself. To do so, we combined palaeogeographical reconstructions...

Data from: Specialized mutualisms may constrain the geographical distribution of flowering plants

Karl J. Duffy & Steven D. Johnson
It is commonly assumed that the geographical distributions of plants are governed mainly by abiotic variables. However, interactions with other organisms, such as pollinators, also have the potential to influence plant distributions. To investigate this, we developed niche models for 32 plant taxa that have specialized pollination systems and which are native to a biodiversity hotspot (South Africa). We found that the distributions of these taxa are best explained by a combination of biotic (pollinators)...

Data from: Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico

Ignacio Mena, Martha I. Nelson, Francisco Quezada-Monroy, Jayeeta Dutta, Refugio Cortes-Fernández, J. Horacio Lara-Puente, Felipa Castro-Peralta, Luis F. Cunha, Nídia Sequeira-Trovão, Bernardo Lozano-Dubernard, Andrew Rambaut, Harm Van Bakel & Adolfo García-Sastre
Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of...

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