408 Works

IS-mediated mutations both promote and constrain evolvability during a long-term experiment with bacteria

Jessika Consuegra, Joël Gaffé, Richard E. Lenski, Thomas Hindre, Jeffrey E. Barrick, Olivier Tenaillon & Dominique Schneider
The long-term dynamics of IS elements and their effects on bacteria are poorly understood, including whether they are primarily genomic parasites or important drivers of adaptation by natural selection. Here, we investigate the dynamics of IS elements and their contribution to genomic evolution and fitness during a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli. This data set includes the Rmd file to analyze the genomic and metagenomic data (Tenaillon et al. 2016 and Good et al. 2017)...

DogPopDy: ABM for ABC planning

Aniruddha Belsare
An agent-based model designed as a tool to assess and plan free-ranging dog population management programs that implement Animal Birth Control (ABC). The time, effort, financial resources and conditions needed to successfully control dog populations and achieve rabies control can be determined by performing virtual experiments using DogPopDy.

International Association of Hospitality Financial Management Educations (iAHFME) Academic Member 2018 Total Annual Earnings

Raymond S. Schmidgall
This study uses survey research to determine the 2018 annual earnings of hospitality financial man- agement educators. Forty-two percent of iAHFME members affiliated with educational institutions responded. Survey results show that for 2018, annual base salaries of iAHFME members ranged from $71,250 to $285,000. The lowest-paid member was an assistant professor and the highest-paid mem- ber, a full professor. Many respondents supplemented their base salaries by teaching during summer school or consulting or both. The...

Afrobarometer Survey South Africa 2008

Data from: Intra-organ growth coordination in Drosophila is mediated by systemic ecdysone signaling

Rewatee H. Gokhale, Takashi Hayashi, Christopher D. Mirque & Alexander W. Shingleton
Regulation of final organ size is a complex developmental process that involves the integration of systemic and organ-specific processes. Previously, we have shown that in developing Drosophila, perturbing the growth of one imaginal disc – the parts of a holometabolous larva that become the external adult organs – retards growth of other discs and delays development, resulting in tight inter-organ growth coordination and the generation of a correctly proportioned adult. Whether different parts of the...

Data from: Space use by 4 strains of laying hens to perch, wing flap, dust bathe, stand and lie down

Elizabeth R. Riddle, Ahmed B. A. Ali, Dana L. M. Campbell & Janice M. Siegford
The laying hen industry is implementing aviary systems intended to improve welfare by providing hens with more space and resources to perform species-specific behaviors. To date, limited research has examined spatial requirements of various strains of laying hens for performing key behaviors and none has been conducted within an alternative housing system. This study investigated the amount of space used by 4 strains of laying hens (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW],...

Data from: Lifetime selection on a hypoallometric trait in the spotted hyena

Eli M. Swanson, Ian Dworkin & Kay E. Holekamp
Size-related traits are common targets of natural selection, yet there is a relative paucity of data on selection among mammals, particularly from studies measuring lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We present the first phenotypic selection analysis using LRS on size-related traits in a large terrestrial carnivore, the spotted hyena, which displays a rare pattern of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Using path analysis, we investigate the operation of selection to address hypotheses proposed to explain SSD...

Data from: Bouncing Back: plant-associated soil microbes respond rapidly to prairie establishment

Randall D. Jackson, Anna J. Herzberger & David S. Duncan
It is well established that soil microbial communities change in response to altered land use and land cover, but less is known about the timing of these changes. Understanding temporal patterns in recovering microbial communities is an important part of improving how we assess and manage reconstructed ecosystems. We assessed patterns of community-level microbial diversity and abundance in corn and prairie plots 2 to 4 years after establishment in agricultural fields, using phospholipid fatty acid...

Data from: Evolution of reproductive isolation in stickleback fish

Alycia C. R. Lackey & Janette Wenrick Boughman
To understand how new species form and what causes their collapse, we examined how reproductive isolation evolves during the speciation process, considering species pairs with little to extensive divergence, including a recently collapsed pair. We estimated many reproductive barriers in each of five sets of stickleback fish species pairs using our own data and decades of previous work. We found that the types of barriers important early in the speciation process differ from those important...

Data from: Insights into the maize pan-genome and pan-transcriptome

Candice N. Hirsch, Jillian M. Foerster, James M. Johnson, Rajandeep S. Sekhon, German Muttoni, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Francisco Peñagaricano, Erika Lindquist, Mary Ann Pedraza, Kerrie Barry, Natalia De Leon, Shawn M. Kaeppler & C. Robin Buell
Genomes at the species level are dynamic, with genes present in every individual (core) and genes in a subset of individuals (dispensable) that collectively constitute the pan-genome. Using transcriptome sequencing of seedling RNA from 503 maize (Zea mays) inbred lines to characterize the maize pan-genome, we identified 8681 representative transcript assemblies (RTAs) with 16.4% expressed in all lines and 82.7% expressed in subsets of the lines. Interestingly, with linkage disequilibrium mapping, 76.7% of the RTAs...

Data from: Limited plasticity in the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix for male advertisement calls in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus

William R. Pitchers, Robert Brooks, Michael D. Jennions, Tom Tregenza, Ian Dworkin & John Hunt
Phenotypic integration and plasticity are central to our understanding of how complex phenotypic traits evolve. Evolutionary change in complex quantitative traits can be predicted using the multivariate breeders’ equation, but such predictions are only accurate if the matrices involved are stable over evolutionary time. Recent study, however, suggests that these matrices are temporally plastic, spatially variable and themselves evolvable. The data available on phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) stability are sparse, and largely focused on morphological...

Data from: Host coevolution alters the adaptive landscape of a virus

Alita R. Burmeister, Richard E. Lenski & Justin R. Meyer
The origin of new and complex structures and functions is fundamental for shaping the diversity of life. Such key innovations are rare because they require multiple interacting changes. We sought to understand how the adaptive landscape led to an innovation whereby bacteriophage λ evolved the new ability to exploit a receptor, OmpF, on Escherichia coli cells. Previous work showed that this ability evolved repeatedly, despite requiring four mutations in one virus gene. Here, we examine...

Data from: Ecological speciation of bacteriophage lambda in allopatry and sympatry

Justin R. Meyer, Devin T. Dobias, Sarah J. Medina, Lisa Servilio, Animesh Gupta & Richard E. Lenski
Understanding the conditions that allow speciation to occur is difficult because most research has focused on either long-lived organisms or asexual microorganisms. We propagated bacteriophage λ, a virus with rapid generations and frequent recombination, on two Escherichia coli host genotypes that expressed either the LamB or OmpF receptor. When supplied with either single host (allopatry), λ improved its binding to the available receptor while losing its ability to use the alternative. When evolving on both...

Data from: Coordination of wing and whole body development at developmental milestones ensures robustness against environmental and physiological perturbations

Marisa M. Oliveira, Alexander W. Shingleton & Christen K. Mirth
Development produces correctly patterned tissues under a wide range of conditions that alter the rate of development in the whole body. We propose two hypotheses through which tissue patterning could be coordinated with whole body development to generate this robustness. Our first hypothesis states that tissue patterning is tightly coordinated with whole body development over time. The second hypothesis is that tissue patterning aligns at developmental milestones. To distinguish between our two hypotheses, we developed...

Data from: Sequential mate choice and sexual isolation in threespine stickleback species

Genevieve M. Kozak, Megan L. Head, Alycia C. R. Lackey & Janette W. Boughman
Sequential mate choice strategies predict how females should alter their choosiness based on the availability of attractive males. While there are many studies on sequential mate choice within species, few have asked if females apply these strategies to interactions between species and how these strategies may affect hybridization. We tested how previous interactions with conspecific and heterospecific males affect mate preference and sexual isolation in two threespine stickleback species (benthics and limnetics: Gasterosteus spp.). Consistent...

Data from: Evaluating consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects on prey density using field times series data

, Scott D. Peacor, David B. Bunnell, Henry A. Vanderploeg, Steve A. Pothoven, Ashley K. Elgin, James R. Bence, Jing Jiao, Edward L. Ionides, D.B. Bunnell, J.A. Marino, E.L. Ionides, S.A. Pothoven, A.K. Elgin, H.A. Vanderploeg, S.D. Peacor & J.R. Bence
Determining the degree to which predation affects prey abundance in natural communities constitutes a key goal of ecological research. Predators can affect prey through both consumptive effects (CEs) and nonconsumptive effects (NCEs), although the contributions of each mechanism to the density of prey populations remain largely hypothetical in most systems. Common statistical methods applied to time series data cannot elucidate the mechanisms responsible for hypothesized predator effects on prey density (e.g., differentiate CEs from NCEs),...

Data from: Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: estimates of selection and QTL mapping

Jon Ågren, Christopher G. Oakley, Sverre Lundemo & Douglas W. Schemske
To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic tradeoffs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines derived from two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Italy, Sweden), and at each parental site examined selection on flowering time and mapped QTL. There was strong selection for...

Data from: Crop-associated virus infection in a native perennial grass: reduction in plant fitness and dynamic patterns of virus detection

Helen M. Alexander, Emily Bruns, Hayley Schebor & Carolyn M. Malmstrom
To understand the eco-evolutionary significance of plant viruses in nature, we must (i) quantify the effects of infection on plant fitness and (ii) recognize that native plants are increasingly exposed to crop-associated viruses. Studies of perennials are particularly needed: most of our knowledge of plant-virus interactions is from annuals, yet long-lived species dominate landscapes. Here we used aster models for life-history analysis and longitudinal measures of plant virus status to evaluate multi-year consequences of crop...

Data from: Necrobiome framework for bridging decomposition ecology of autotrophically and heterotrophically derived organic matter

Mark Eric Benbow, Philip S. Barton, Michael D. Ulyshen, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, Michael S. Strickland, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Heather R. Jordan & Jennifer L. Pechal
Decomposition contributes to global ecosystem function by contributing to nutrient recycling, energy flow and limiting biomass accumulation. The decomposer organisms influencing this process form diverse, complex, and highly dynamic communities that often specialize on different plant or animal resources. Despite performing the same net role, there is a need to conceptually synthesize information on the structure and function of decomposer communities across the spectrum of dead plant and animal resources. A lack of synthesis has...

Data from: Dispersal and establishment limitation slows plant community recovery in post-agricultural longleaf pine savannas

Nash E. Turley, John L. Orrock, Joseph A. Ledvina & Lars A. Brudvig
Abandoned agricultural lands often have distinct plant communities from areas with no history of agriculture because plant species fail to recolonize. This may be due to dispersal limitation from a lack of seeds, or establishment limitation because of unsuitable environmental conditions. However, few experiments have directly tested how restoration activities may overcome these limitations. We studied longleaf pine savannas in South Carolina abandoned from agriculture >60 years ago that were immediately adjacent to remnant habitats...

Data from: The evolution of floral signals in relation to range overlap in a clade of California Jewelflowers (Streptanthus s.l.)

Marjorie G. Weber, N. Ivalu Cacho, Martin J. Q. Phan, Caprice Disbrow, Santiago R. Ramirez & Sharon Y. Strauss
Because of their function as reproductive signals in plants, floral traits experience distinct selective pressures related to their role in speciation, reinforcement, and prolonged coexistence with close relatives. However, few studies have investigated whether population-level processes translate into detectable signatures at the macroevolutionary scale. Here, we ask whether patterns of floral trait evolution and range overlap across a clade of California Jewelflowers reflect processes hypothesized to shape floral signal differentiation at the population level. We...

Data from: Local interactions and self-organized spatial patterns stabilize microbial cross-feeding against cheaters

Simon Maccracken Stump, Evan Curtis Johnson & Christopher A. Klausmeier
Mutualisms are ubiquitous, but models predict they should be susceptible to cheating. Resolving this paradox has become relevant to synthetic ecology: cooperative cross-feeding, a nutrient exchange mutualism, has been proposed to stabilize microbial consortia. Previous attempts to understand how cross-feeders remain robust to non-producing cheaters have relied on complex behavior (e.g., cheater punishment) or group selection. Using a stochastic spatial model, we demonstrate two novel mechanisms that can allow cross-feeders to outcompete cheaters, rather than...

Data from: Early mechanistic events induced by low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mouse lung epithelial cells: a role for eicosanoid signaling

Katelyn J. Siegrist, Deedee Romo, Brad L. Upham, Michael Armstrong, Kevin Quinn, Lauren Vanderlinden, Ross S. Osgood, Kalpana Velmurugan, Marc Elie, Jonathan Manke, Dominik Reinhold, Nichole Reisedorph, Laura Saba & Alison K. Bauer
Low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (LMW PAHs; <206.3 g/mol) are under regulated environmental contaminants (e.g., secondhand smoke) that lead to gap junction dysregulation, p38 MAPK activation, and increased mRNA production of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and cyclooxygenase (COX2), in lung epithelial cells. However, the early mechanisms involving lipid signaling through the arachidonic acid pathway and subsequent eicosanoid production leading to these downstream events are not known. Common human exposures are to mixtures of...

Data from: Organic matter loading by hippopotami causes subsidy overload resulting in downstream hypoxia and fish kills

Christopher L. Dutton, Amanda L. Subalusky, Stephen K. Hamilton, Emma J. Rosi & David M. Post
Organic matter and nutrient loading into aquatic ecosystems affects ecosystem structure and function and can result in eutrophication and hypoxia. Hypoxia is usually attributed to anthropogenic pollution and is rarely documented in unpolluted systems, particularly in rivers. Here we show that organic matter loading from hippopotami causes the repeated occurrence of hypoxia in the Mara River, East Africa. We documented 49 high flow events over three years that caused dissolved oxygen decreases, including 13 events...

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