273 Works

Data from: Evolution of camouflage drives rapid ecological change in an insect community

Timothy E. Farkas, Tommi Mononen, Aaron A. Comeault, Ilkka Hanski & Patrik Nosil
Evolutionary change in individual species has been hypothesized to have far-reaching consequences for entire ecological communities, and such coupling of ecological and evolutionary dynamics (“eco-evolutionary dynamics”) has been demonstrated for a variety systems. However, the relative importance of evolutionary dynamics for ecological dynamics remains unclear. Here, we investigate how spatial patterns of local adaptation in the stick insect Timema cristinae, driven by natural selection, gene flow and founder effects, structure metapopulations, communities, and multitrophic interactions....

Data from: Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle

Karl P. Phillips, Tove H. Jorgensen, Kevin G. Jolliffe, San-Marie Joliffe, Jock Henwood & David S. Richardson
Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses...

Data from: Heterozygosity–fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects

Geetha Annavi, Chris Newman, Christina D. Buesching, David W. Macdonald, Terry Burke, Hannah L. Dugdale & Christopher Newman
HFCs (heterozygosity–fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture–mark–recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers...

Data from: InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche diode for 1550 nm photons

Xiao Meng, Shiyu Xie, Xinxin Zhou, Niccolò Calandri, Mirko Sanzaro, Alberto Tosi, Chee Hing Tan & Jo Shien Ng
A single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with an InGaAs absorption region, and an InAlAs avalanche region was designed and demonstrated to detect 1550 nm wavelength photons. The characterization included leakage current, dark count rate and single photon detection efficiency as functions of temperature from 210 to 294 K. The SPAD exhibited good temperature stability, with breakdown voltage dependence of approximately 45 mV K−1. Operating at 210 K and in a gated mode, the SPAD achieved...

Data from: Widespread hybridization within mound-building wood ants in Southern Finland results in cytonuclear mismatches and potential for sex-specific hybrid breakdown

Jack Beresford, Marianne Elias, Lucy Pluckrose, Liselotte Sundström, Roger K. Butlin, Pekka Pamilo & Jonna Kulmuni
Hybridization and gene flow between diverging lineages is increasingly recognized as a common evolutionary process and its consequences can vary from hybrid breakdown to adaptive introgression. We have previously found a population of wood ant hybrids between Formica aquilonia and F. polyctena that shows antagonistic effects of hybridization: females with introgressed alleles show hybrid vigour, whereas males with the same alleles show hybrid breakdown. Here we investigate whether hybridization is a general phenomenon in this...

Data from: Selective logging in tropical forests decreases the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks to the loss of host tree species

Ainhoa Magrach, Rebecca A. Senior, Andrew Rogers, Deddy Nurdin, Suzan Benedick, William F. Laurance, Luis Santamaría & David P. Edwards
Selective logging is one of the major drivers of tropical forest degradation, causing important shifts in species composition. Whether such changes modify interactions between species and the networks in which they are embedded remain fundamental questions to assess the ‘health’ and ecosystem functionality of logged forests. We focus on interactions between lianas and their tree hosts within primary and selectively logged forests in the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo. We found that lianas were more...

Data from: Early reproductive investment, senescence and lifetime reproductive success in female Asian elephants

Adam D. Hayward, Khyne U. Mar, Mirkka Lahdenperä & Virpi Lummaa
The evolutionary theory of senescence posits that as the probability of extrinsic mortality increases with age, selection should favour early-life over late-life reproduction. Studies on natural vertebrate populations show early reproduction may impair later-life performance, but the consequences for lifetime fitness have rarely been determined, and little is known of whether similar patterns apply to mammals which typically live for several decades. We used a longitudinal dataset on Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to investigate associations...

Data from: Change and stability in a steep morph-frequency cline in the snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) over 43 years.

Robert A. D. Cameron, Laurence M. Cook & Jeremy J. D. Greenwood
Populations of the polymorphic land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) from Deepdale, Derbyshire, UK, sampled in 1965-67, showed a pattern of area effects, with steep clines among groups of populations differing in shell colour and banding morph frequencies. In 2010 most of these populations were resampled. In particular a continuous transect made in 1967 of 42 18.34m x 18.34m quadrats across a steep cline in several morph frequencies was completely resampled. In the dale as a...

Data from: Sibship effects on dispersal behaviour in a preindustrial human population

Aïda Nitsch, Virpi Lummaa, Charlotte Faurie, A. Nitsch, V. Lummaa & C. Faurie
Understanding dispersal behaviour and its determinants is critical for studies on life-history maximizing strategies. Although many studies have investigated the causes of dispersal, few have focused on the importance of sibship, despite that sibling interactions are predicted to lead to intrafamilial differences in dispersal patterns. Using a large demographic data set from pre-industrial Finland (n = 9000), we tested whether the sex-specific probability of dispersal depended on the presence of same-sex or opposite-sex elder siblings...

Data from: Fine-scale genetic structure reflects sex-specific dispersal strategies in a population of sociable weavers (Philetairus socius)

René E. Van Dijk, Rita Covas, Claire Doutrelant, Claire N. Spottiswoode & Ben J. Hatchwell
Dispersal is a critical driver of gene flow, with important consequences for population genetic structure, social interactions and other biological processes. Limited dispersal may result in kin-structured populations in which kin selection may operate, but it may also increase the risk of kin competition and inbreeding. Here, we use a combination of long-term field data and molecular genetics to examine dispersal patterns and their consequences for the population genetics of a highly social bird, the...

Data from: Fine-scale genetic structure and helping decisions in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amy E. Leedale, Stuart P. Sharp, Michelle Simeoni, Elva J.H. Robinson, Ben J. Hatchwell & Elva J. H. Robinson
In animal societies, characteristic demographic and dispersal patterns may lead to genetic structuring of populations, generating the potential for kin selection to operate. However, even in genetically structured populations, social interactions may still require kin discrimination for cooperative behaviour to be directed towards relatives. Here, we use molecular genetics and long-term field data to investigate genetic structure in an adult population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus, a cooperative breeder in which helping occurs within extended...

Data from: Multivariate selection and intersexual genetic constraints in a wild bird population

Jocelyn Poissant, Micheal B. Morrissey, Andrew G. Gosler, Jon Slate, Ben C. Sheldon, M. B. Morrissey, J. Poissant, J. Slate, A. G. Gosler & B. C. Sheldon
When traits are genetically correlated between the sexes, the response to selection in one sex can be altered by indirect selection in the other sex, a type of genetic constraint commonly referred to as intralocus sexual conflict (ISC). While potentially common, ISC has rarely been studied in wild populations. In this study, we applied a multivariate framework to quantify the microevolutionary impacts of ISC over a set of morphological traits (wing length, tarsus length, bill...

Data from: Effects of the demographic transition on the genetic variances and covariances of human life history traits

Elisabeth Bolund, Adam Hayward, Jenni E. Pettay & Virpi Lummaa
The recent demographic transitions to lower mortality and fertility rates in most human societies have led to changes and even quick reversals in phenotypic selection pressures. This can only result in evolutionary change if the affected traits are heritable, but changes in environmental conditions may also lead to subsequent changes in the genetic variance and covariance (the G matrix) of traits. It currently remains unclear if there have been concomitant changes in the G matrix...

Data from: Less favorable climates constrain demographic strategies in plants

Anna M. Csergo, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Olivier Broennimann, Shaun R. Coutts, Antoine Guisan, Amy L. Angert, Erik Welk, Iain Stott, Brian J. Enquist, Brian McGill, Jens-Christian Svenning, Cyrille Violle & Yvonne M. Buckley
Correlative species distribution models are based on the observed relationship between species’ occurrence and macroclimate or other environmental variables. In climates predicted less favourable populations are expected to decline, and in favourable climates they are expected to persist. However, little comparative empirical support exists for a relationship between predicted climate suitability and population performance. We found that the performance of 93 populations of 34 plant species worldwide – as measured by in situ population growth...

Data from: Shared and non-shared genomic divergence in parallel ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis at a local scale

Mark Ravinet, Anja Westram, Kerstin Johannesson, Roger Butlin, Carl André & Marina Panova
Parallel speciation occurs when selection drives repeated, independent adaptive divergence that reduces gene flow between ecotypes. Classical examples show parallel speciation originating from shared genomic variation, but this does not seem to be the case in the rough periwinkle (Littorina saxatilis) that has evolved considerable phenotypic diversity across Europe, including several distinct ecotypes. Small ‘wave’ ecotype snails inhabit exposed rocks and experience strong wave action, while thick-shelled, ‘crab’ ecotype snails are larger and experience crab...

Data from: Genomic dissection of variation in clutch size and egg mass in a wild great tit (Parus major) population

Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Jocelyn Poissant, Matthew R. Robinson, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Clutch size and egg mass are life history traits that have been extensively studied in wild bird populations, as life history theory predicts a negative trade-off between them, either at the phenotypic or genetic level. Here, we analyse the genomic architecture of these heritable traits in a wild great tit (Parus major) population, using three marker-based approaches - chromosome partitioning, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The variance explained by...

Data from: Detecting genes for variation in parasite burden and immunological traits in a wild population: testing the candidate gene approach

Emily A. Brown, Jill G. Pilkington, Dan H. Nussey, Kathryn A. Watt, Adam D. Hayward, Rachel Tucker, Andrea L. Graham, Steve Paterson, Dario Beraldi, Josephine M. Pemberton, Jon Slate, E. A. Brown, R. Tucker, J. Slate, J. G. Pilkington, D. Beraldi, J. M. Pemberton, A. L. Graham & S. Paterson
Identifying the genes underlying phenotypic variation in natural populations can provide novel insight into the evolutionary process. Here we test the candidate gene approach to identifying loci involved in variation in gastrointestinal parasite burden, in a wild population of Soay sheep. A comprehensive literature review, Gene Ontology databases, and comparative genomics resources were used to generate a list of candidate genes. In a pilot study these candidates, along with 50 random genes, were then sequenced...

Data from: A high density SNP chip for genotyping great tit (Parus major) populations and its application to studying the genetic architecture of exploration behaviour

Jun-Mo Kim, Anna W. Santure, Henry J. Barton, John L. Quinn, Eleanor F. Cole, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon, Martien A.M. Groenen, Kees Van Oers, Jon Slate, A. W. Santure, J.-M. Kim, H. J. Barton, J. Slate, M. E. Visser, K. Van Oers, J. L. Quinn, E. F. Cole & B. C. Sheldon
High density SNP microarrays (‘SNP chips’) are a rapid, accurate and efficient method for genotyping several hundred thousand polymorphisms in large numbers of individuals. While SNP chips are routinely used in human genetics and in animal and plant breeding, they are less widely used in evolutionary and ecological research. In this paper we describe the development and application of a high density Affymetrix Axiom chip with around 500 000 SNPs, designed to perform genomics studies...

Data from: Does 1,8-Diiodooctane affect the aggregation state of PC71BM in solution?

Gabriel Bernardo, Adam L. Washington, Yiwei Zhang, Stephen M. King, Daniel T. W. Toolan, Michael P. Weir, Alan D. F. Dunbar, Jonathan R. Howse, Rajeev Dattani, John Patrick A. Fairclough, Andrew J. Parnell, Daniel. T. W. Toolan & Adam. L. Washington
1,8-Diiodooctane (DIO) is an additive used in the processing of organic photovoltaics and has previously been reported, on the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, to deflocculate nano-aggregates of [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) in chlorobenzene. We have critically re-examined this finding in a series of scattering measurements using both X-rays and neutrons. With SAXS, we find that the form of the background solvent scattering is influenced by the presence of DIO, that there...

Data from: A diet rich in C3 plants reveals the sensitivity of an alpine mammal to climate change

Sabuj Bhattacharyya, Deborah A. Dawson, Helen Hipperson & Farah Ishtiaq
Plant-herbivore interactions provide critical insights into the mechanisms that govern the spatiotemporal distributions of organisms. These interactions are crucial to understanding the impacts of climate change, which are likely to have an effect on the population dynamics of alpine herbivores. The Royle’s pika (Ochotona roylei, hereafter pika) is a lagomorph found in the western Himalaya, and is dependent on alpine plants that are at risk from climate change. As the main prey of many carnivores...

Data from: A pantropical analysis of the impacts of forest degradation and conversion on local temperature

Rebecca A. Senior, Jane K. Hill, Pamela González Del Pliego, Laurel K. Goode & David P. Edwards
Temperature is a core component of a species’ fundamental niche. At the fine scale over which most organisms experience climate (mm to ha), temperature depends upon the amount of radiation reaching the Earth’s surface, which is principally governed by vegetation. Tropical regions have undergone widespread and extreme changes to vegetation, particularly through the degradation and conversion of rainforests. Since most terrestrial biodiversity is in the tropics, and many of these species possess narrow thermal limits,...

Data from: The evolution of novel host use is unlikely to be constrained by tradeoffs or a lack of genetic variation

Zachariah Gompert, Joshua P. Jahner, Cynthia F. Scholl, Joseph S. Wilson, Lauren K. Lucas, Victor Soria-Carrasco, James A. Fordyce, Chris C. Nice, C. Alex Buerkle & Matthew L. Forister
The genetic and ecological factors that shape the evolution of animal diets remain poorly understood. For herbivorous insects, the expectation has been that trade-offs exist, such that adaptation to one host plant reduces performance on other potential hosts. We investigated the genetic architecture of alternative host use by rearing individual Lycaeides melissa butterflies from two wild populations in a crossed design on two hosts (one native and one introduced) and analysing the genetic basis of...

Data from: Genetic hitchhiking and the dynamic buildup of genomic divergence during speciation with gene flow

Samuel Melvin Flaxman, Jeffrey L. Feder, Patrik Nosil, Samuel Melvin Flaxman, Jeffrey L. Feder, Patrik Nosil & Samuel M. Flaxman
A major issue in evolutionary biology is explaining patterns of differentiation observed in population genomic data, as divergence can be due to both direct selection on a locus and genetic hitchhiking. “Divergence hitchhiking” (DH) theory postulates that divergent selection on a locus reduces gene flow at physically linked sites, facilitating the formation of localized clusters of tightly linked, diverged loci. “Genome hitchhiking” (GH) theory emphasizes genome-wide effects of divergent selection. Past theoretical investigations of DH...

Data from: Theoretical models of the influence of genomic architecture on the dynamics of speciation

Samuel M. Flaxman, Aaron C. Wacholder, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
A long-standing problem in evolutionary biology has been determining whether and how gradual, incremental changes at the gene level can account for rapid speciation and bursts of adaptive radiation. Using genome-scale computer simulations, we extend previous theory showing how gradual adaptive change can generate nonlinear population transitions, resulting in the rapid formation of new, reproductively isolated species. We show that these transitions occur via a mechanism rooted in a basic property of biological heredity: the...

Data from: High bandwidth synaptic communication and frequency tracking in human neocortex

Guilherme Testa-Silva, Matthijs B. Verhoog, Daniele Linaro, Christiaan P. J. De Kock, Johannes C. Baayen, Rhiannon M. Meredith, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Michele Giugliano & Huibert D. Mansvelder
Neuronal firing, synaptic transmission, and its plasticity form the building blocks for processing and storage of information in the brain. It is unknown whether adult human synapses are more efficient in transferring information between neurons than rodent synapses. To test this, we recorded from connected pairs of pyramidal neurons in acute brain slices of adult human and mouse temporal cortex and probed the dynamical properties of use-dependent plasticity. We found that human synaptic connections were...

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  • University of Sheffield
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  • University of Exeter
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  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of East Anglia
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Cambridge
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • University of Sussex
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Zurich
  • University of York
  • University of Notre Dame