42 Works

Data from: Are extra-pair males different from cuckolded males? An empirical and meta-analytic examination

Yu-Hsun Hsu, Julia Schroeder, Isabel Winney, Terry Burke & Shinichi Nakagawa
Traditional models for female extra-pair matings assume that females benefit indirectly from extra-pair mating behaviour. Under these so-called adaptive models, extra-pair males are hypothesized to have more compatible genotypes, larger body size, exaggerated ornaments or to be older than cuckolded males. Alternatively, (‘nonadaptive’) models that consider female extra-pair matings to be a by-product posit that female extra-pair mating can be maintained even if there is no benefit to females. This could happen if, for example,...

Root and leaf phenology of Scandinavian subarctic plant communities, 2008-2009

V.L Sloan, B.J Fletcher & G.K Phoenix
This dataset consists of measurements of leaf and root growth, species abundance and soil temperature made in ten subarctic plant communities located at the Arctic Biosphere Atmosphere Coupling at Multiple Scales (ABACUS) project sites near to Abisko, Sweden, and Kevo, Finland. The data were collected during the summer growing seasons (May to September) in 2008 and 2009, and comprise field survey measurements, temperature logs and values derived from analyses of mini-rhizotron images.

Data from: The evolutionary legacy of size-selective harvesting extends from genes to populations

Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, Andrew R. Whiteley, Anna Kuparinen, Shuichi Matsumura, Paul A. Venturelli, Christian Wolter, Jon Slate, Craig R. Primmer, Thomas Meinelt, Shaun S. Killen, David Bierbach, Giovanni Polverino, Arne Ludwig & Robert Arlinghaus
Size-selective harvesting is assumed to alter life histories of exploited fish populations, thereby negatively affecting population productivity, recovery, and yield. However, demonstrating that fisheries-induced phenotypic changes in the wild are at least partly genetically determined has proved notoriously difficult. Moreover, the population-level consequences of fisheries-induced evolution are still being controversially discussed. Using an experimental approach, we found that five generations of size-selective harvesting altered the life histories and behavior, but not the metabolic rate, of...

Data from: A microsatellite-based linkage map for song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)

Pirmin Nietlisbach, Glauco Camenisch, Thomas Bucher, Jon Slate, Lukas F. Keller & Erik Postma
Although linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary biology, their availability for wild populations is limited. The population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on Mandarte Island, Canada, is among the more intensively studied wild animal populations. Its long-term pedigree data, together with extensive genetic sampling, have allowed the study of a range of questions in evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the availability of genetic markers has been limited. We here describe 191 new microsatellite loci,...

Data from: No evidence for MHC class I based disassortative mating in a wild population of great tits

Irem Sepil, Reinder Radersma, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Jon Slate, Ben C. Sheldon, A. W. Santure, I. De Cauwer, J. Slate, I. Sepil, R. Radersma & B. C. Sheldon
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are regarded as a potentially important target of mate choice due to the fitness benefits that may be conferred to the offspring. According to the complementary genes hypothesis, females mate with MHC dissimilar males to enhance the immunocompetence of their offspring or to avoid inbreeding depression. Here, we investigate whether selection favours a preference for maximally dissimilar or optimally dissimilar MHC class I types, based on MHC genotypes,...

Data from: Evolutionary novelty in a butterfly wing pattern through enhancer shuffling

Richard W. R. Wallbank, Simon W. Baxter, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Joseph J. Hanly, Simon H. Martin, James Mallet, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, Camilo Salazar, Mathieu Joron, Nicola Nadeau, W. Owen McMillan & Chris D. Jiggins
An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in...

Data from: Enhancing gardens as habitats for flower-visiting aerial insects (pollinators): should we plant native or exotic species?

Andrew Salisbury, James Armitage, Helen Bostock, Joe Perry, Mark Tatchell & Ken Thompson
1. Domestic gardens typically consist of a mixture of native and non-native plants which support biodiversity and provide valuable ecosystem services, particularly in urban environments. Many gardeners wish to encourage biodiversity by choosing appropriate plant taxa. The value of native and non-native plants in supporting animal biodiversity is, however, largely unknown. 2. The relative value of native and non-native garden plants to invertebrates was investigated in a replicated field experiment. Plots (deliberately akin to garden...

Data from: Genetic pollution of a threatened native crested newt species through hybridization with an invasive congener in the Netherlands

Willem R. M. Meilink, Jan W. Arntzen, Jeroen J. C. W. Van Delft, Ben Wielstra & Willem R.M. Meilink
Genetic pollution of a native species through hybridization with an invasive species poses an insidious conservation threat. To expose genetic pollution, molecular methods employing multilocus data are required. We present a case study of genetic pollution via hybridization of a native crested newt species, Triturus cristatus, by the invasive T. carnifex on the Veluwe in the Netherlands. We sequenced 50 nuclear markers by next generation sequencing and one mitochondrial marker by Sanger sequencing for four...

Data from: Exact Bayesian inference for animal movement in continuous time

Paul G. Blackwell, Mu Niu, Mark S. Lambert & Scott D. LaPoint
It is natural to regard most animal movement as a continuous-time process, generally observed at discrete times. Most existing statistical methods for movement data ignore this; the remainder mostly use discrete-time approximations, the statistical properties of which have not been widely studied, or are limited to special cases. We aim to facilitate wider use of continuous-time modelling for realistic problems. We develop novel methodology which allows exact Bayesian statistical analysis for a rich class of...

Data from: Polyspermy in birds: sperm numbers and embryo survival

Nicola Hemmings, Tim R. Birkhead, T. R. Birkhead & N. Hemmings
Polyspermy is a major puzzle in reproductive biology. In some taxa, multiple sperm enter the ovum as part of the normal fertilisation process, while in others, penetration of the ovum by more than one sperm is lethal. In birds, several sperm typically enter the germinal disc, yet only one fuses with the female pronucleus. It is unclear whether supernumerary sperm play an essential role in the avian fertilisation process and, if they do, how females...

Data from: Antagonistic effect of helpers on breeding male and female survival in a cooperatively breeding bird

Matthieu Paquet, Claire Doutrelant, Ben J. Hatchwell, Claire N. Spottiswoode & Rita Covas
1. Cooperatively breeding species are typically long lived and hence, according to theory, are expected to maximize their lifetime reproductive success through maximizing survival. Under these circumstances, the presence of helpers could be used to lighten the effort of current reproduction for parents to achieve higher survival. 2. In addition, individuals of different sexes and ages may follow different strategies, but whether male and female breeders and individuals of different ages benefit differently from the...

Data from: The alignment between phenotypic plasticity, the major axis of genetic variation and the response to selection

Martin I. Lind, Kylie Yarlett, Julia Reger, Mauricio J. Carter & Andrew P. Beckerman
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce more than one phenotype in order to match the environment. Recent theory proposes that the major axis of genetic variation in a phenotypically plastic population can align with the direction of selection. Therefore, theory predicts that plasticity directly aids adaptation by increasing genetic variation in the direction favoured by selection and reflected in plasticity. We evaluated this theory in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, facing...

Data from: Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

Patricia Brekke, John G. Ewen, Gemma Clucas & Anna W. Santure
Floating males are usually thought of as non-breeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders’ sex-ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used...

Data from: The influence of nonrandom extra-pair paternity on heritability estimates derived from wild pedigrees

Josh A. Firth, Jarrod D. Hadfield, Anna W. Santure, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Quantitative genetic analysis is often fundamental for understanding evolutionary processes in wild populations. Avian populations provide a model system due to the relative ease of inferring relatedness amongst individuals through observation. However, extra-pair paternity (EPP) creates erroneous links within the social pedigree. Previous work has suggested this causes minor underestimation of heritability if paternal misassignment is random and hence not influenced by the trait being studied. Nevertheless, much literature suggests numerous traits are associated with...

Data from: Opportunities and challenges of Integral Projection Models for modeling host-parasite dynamics

C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Andrea L. Graham, Micaela Martinez-Bakker & Dylan Z. Childs
Epidemiological dynamics are shaped by and may in turn shape host demography. These feedbacks can result in hard to predict patterns of disease incidence. Mathematical models that integrate infection and demography are consequently a key tool for informing expectations for disease burden and identifying effective measures for control. A major challenge is capturing the details of infection within individuals and quantifying their downstream impacts to understand population-scale outcomes. For example, parasite loads and antibody titres...

Data from: The genetic structure of Nautilus pompilius populations surrounding Australia and the Philippines

Rachel C. Williams, Benjamin C. Jackson, Ludovic Duvaux, Deborah A. Dawson, Terry Burke & William Sinclair
Understanding the distribution of genetic diversity in exploited species is fundamental to successful conservation. Genetic structure and the degree of gene flow among populations must be assessed to design appropriate strategies to prevent the loss of distinct populations. The cephalopod Nautilus pompilius is fished unsustainably in the Philippines for the ornamental shell trade and has limited legislative protection, despite the species' recent dramatic decline in the region. Here, we use 14 microsatellite markers to evaluate...

Data from: Managing Neotropical oil palm expansion to retain phylogenetic diversity

Graham W. Prescott, James J. Gilroy, Torbjørn Haugaasen, Claudia A. Medina Uribe, William A. Foster & David P. Edwards
The expansion of tropical agriculture is a major driver of the extinction crisis. A key question is whether biodiversity losses can be minimized by restricting future expansion to low-productivity farmland and retaining forest fragments, especially in rapidly changing Neotropical landscapes. We investigated these methods in the context of avian phylogenetic diversity, which summarizes the evolutionary history preserved within communities. Evidence suggests that phylogenetic diversity plays an important role in maintaining key ecosystem functions. We collected...

Data from: Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species

Kimberley J. Simpson, Brad S. Ripley, Pascal-Antione Christin, Claire M. Belcher, Caroline E. R. Lehmann, Gavin H. Thomas, Colin P. Osborne & Pascal-Antoine Christin
1. Tropical grasses fuel the majority of fires on Earth. In fire-prone landscapes, enhanced flammability may be adaptive for grasses via the maintenance of an open canopy and an increase in spatiotemporal opportunities for recruitment and regeneration. In addition, by burning intensely but briefly, high flammability may protect resprouting buds from lethal temperatures. Despite these potential benefits of high flammability to fire-prone grasses, variation in flammability among grass species, and how trait differences underpin this...

Data from: Experimental evidence for phonemic contrasts in a nonhuman vocal system

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon W. Townsend
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback...

Data from: Constraining the role of early land plants in Early Palaeozoic weathering and global cooling

Joe Quirk, Jonathan R. Leake, David A. Johnson, Lyla L. Taylor, Loredana Saccone & David J. Beerling
How the colonization of terrestrial environments by early land plants over 400 Ma influenced rock weathering, the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and phosphorus, and climate in the Palaeozoic is uncertain. Here we show experimentally that mineral weathering by liverworts—an extant lineage of early land plants—partnering arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, like those in 410 Ma-old early land plant fossils, amplified calcium weathering from basalt grains threefold to sevenfold, relative to plant-free controls. Phosphate weathering by mycorrhizal...

Data from: The bright incubate at night: sexual dichromatism and adaptive incubation division in an open-nesting shorebird

Kasun B. Ekanayake, Michael A. Weston, Dale G. Nimmo, Grainne S. Maguire, John A. Endler, Clemens Kupper, C. Kupper, K. B. Ekanayake, J. A. Endler, D. G. Nimmo & M. A. Weston
Ornamentation of parents poses a high risk for offspring because it reduces cryptic nest defence. Over a century ago, Wallace proposed that sexual dichromatism enhances crypsis of open-nesting females although subsequent studies found that dichromatism per se is not necessarily adaptive. We tested whether reduced female ornamentation in a sexually dichromatic species reduces the risk of clutch depredation and leads to adaptive parental roles in the red-capped plover Charadrius ruficapillus, a species with biparental incubation....

Data from: Range expansion and retraction along a moving contact zone has no effect on the genetic diversity of two passerine birds

Jan O. Engler, Jean Secondi, Deborah A. Dawson, Ortwin Elle & Axel Hochkirch
Disentangling the factors shaping species distributions remains a central goal in biogeography, ecology and evolutionary biology. The extrinsic pressures that may facilitate range shifts, such as climatic factors or biotic interactions are well known. However, in contrast, the possible intrinsic factors are manifold and hard to generalize across taxa. Recently, several theoretical studies have investigated the consequences of moving range borders on genetic diversity. However, empirical studies that support or refute these theoretical predictions are...

Data from: Localization of QTL for diapause and other photoperiodically regulated life-history traits important in adaptation to seasonally varying environments

Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Paris Veltsos, Jon Slate, Emma Gregson, Hannele Kauranen, Maaria Kankare, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K. Butlin & Anneli Hoikkala
Seasonally changing environments at high latitudes present great challenges for the reproduction and survival of insects, and photoperiodic cues play an important role in helping them to synchronize their life cycle with prevalent and forthcoming conditions. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the photoperiodic regulation of four life history traits, female reproductive diapause, cold tolerance, egg-to-eclosion development time and juvenile body weight in Drosophila montana strains from different latitudes in Canada and...

Data from: MHC class II assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles)

Yung Wa Sin, Geetha Annavi, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, Terry Burke, David W. Macdonald & Hannah L. Dugdale
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are predicted to choose mates with compatible MHC alleles, to increase the fitness of their offspring. Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild mammals are under-represented currently, and few investigate more...

Data from: The genetic architecture of hybrid incompatibilities and their effect on barriers to introgression in secondary contact

Dorothea Lindtke & C. Alex Buerkle
Genetic incompatibilities are an important component of reproductive isolation. Although theoretical studies have addressed their evolution, little is known about their maintenance when challenged by potentially high migration rates in secondary contact. Whereas theory predicts that recombination can erode barriers, many empirical systems have been found to retain species-specific differences despite substantial gene flow. By simulating whole genomes in individuals of hybridizing species, we find that the genetic architecture of two contrasting models of epistatic...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Auckland
  • University of Exeter
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • University of Zurich
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Uppsala University
  • University of Turku
  • University of Antwerp
  • Utah State University
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Groningen
  • University of Wyoming